Every day, the public relies on a number of major institutions for services and safety. From banks and governments, to media and the military—these institutions play an important role in shaping life as we know it.
Yet, today’s interactive data visualization from Overflow Data shows that America’s confidence in institutions has drastically waned. The data relies on the General Social Survey (GSS) to provide a 40-year overview of how sentiment has changed with respect to 13 different institutions.
Select an institution from the drop-down menu below to see how confidence has changed over time
The Erosion of Confidence
Overall, confidence in most institutions has eroded. Americans find it especially hard to trust their government: the “great deal of confidence” metrics for Congress, the Supreme Court, and the Executive Branch were low to begin with, and have declined further since 1975.
That said, the biggest overall drop belongs to the press, which saw 50% of surveyed Americans saying they have “hardly any confidence” in it in 2016. This is nearly a three-fold increase from 1975, when that number was just 19%. Of course, with the rise of fake news in more recent years, the erosion of confidence in media doesn’t seem to be slowing down.
Here’s a look at the two extremes of sentiment regarding the studied institutions, showing how the opposite measures of “hardly any confidence” and a “great deal of confidence” have changed since 1975:
|🏦 Banks & Financial Institutions||Hardly any||10.9%||31.2%||+20.3 p.p.|
|Great deal||32.3%||14.1%||-18.2 p.p.|
|🗳️ Congress||Hardly any||26.2%||52.6%||+26.4 p.p.|
|Great deal||13.6%||5.9%||-7.7 p.p.|
|🏫 Education||Hardly any||13.0%||17.5%||+4.5 p.p.|
|Great deal||31.5%||25.6%||-5.9 p.p.|
|🏛️ Executive Branch||Hardly any||29.7%||42.4%||+12.7 p.p.|
|Great deal||13.4%||12.8%||-0.6 p.p.|
|🏬 Major Companies||Hardly any||22.9%||17.3%||-5.6 p.p.|
|Great deal||20.5%||18.3%||-2.2 p.p.|
|🏥 Medicine||Hardly any||17.8%||13.4%||-4.4 p.p.|
|Great deal||51.8%||50.6%||-1.2 p.p.|
|🎖️ Military||Hardly any||14.8%||7.6%||-7.2 p.p.|
|Great deal||36.3%||53.4%||+17.1 p.p.|
|💪 Organized Labor||Hardly any||31.5%||22.6%||-8.9 p.p.|
|Great deal||10.2%||13.9%||+3.7 p.p.|
|🙏 Religion||Hardly any||23.0%||26.4%||+3.4 p.p.|
|Great deal||25.8%||20.0%||-5.8 p.p.|
|📰 Press||Hardly any||19.0%||50.0%||+31 p.p.|
|Great deal||24.5%||7.6%||-16.9 p.p.|
|🥼 Scientific Community||Hardly any||7.4%||6.1%||-1.3 p.p.|
|Great deal||41.7%||42.1%||+0.4 p.p.|
|📺 Television||Hardly any||23.4%||43.1%||+19.7 p.p.|
|Great deal||18.4%||9.8%||-8.6 p.p.|
|⚖️ U.S. Supreme Court||Hardly any||19.2%||17.4%||-1.8 p.p.|
|Great deal||31.8%||26.3%||-5.5 p.p.|
Banks and financial institutions have also suffered a bad rep in the public eye. Their “great deal of confidence” metric has dropped sharply from 32.3% to 14.1% in four decades.
One major exception is the military, which emerges as the most trusted institution. Americans’ faith in the military has also shown the most improvement, with a 17.1 p.p increase in a “great deal of confidence” since 1975.
The Split Widens Further
While measuring public confidence in institutions can be subjective, it provides an understanding of where Americans want to see change and reform take place.
For more on how Americans perceive different institutions and the issues that affect them, see how the public is divided based on political affiliation.
All the S&P 500 Women CEOs in One Timeline (2000-2019)
Since the turn of the century, only a meager 5.6% of S&P 500-indexed companies have been led by women. Today’s interactive timeline highlights their tenures.
All the S&P 500 Women CEOs in One Timeline (2000-2019)
Gender equality has made significant strides since the days of Rosie the Riveter. The iconic wartime image continues to symbolize womens’ empowerment in the present—especially in politics and the workforce.
Yet, the higher and further women get in their careers, it’s clear that barriers still remain. Today’s interactive timeline comes to us from Alex Architektonidis of BoardEx, and it tracks all the women chief executive officers (CEOs) of companies listed in the S&P 500 index since the turn of the century.
The kicker? Across the 500 large-cap companies in the index, only 70 women have ever held the position of CEO or similar titles—and only 28 women currently have this status.
Which Industries Have the Most Women CEOs?
The S&P 500 covers approximately 80% of the U.S. equity market by capitalization. Since the index is fluid and regularly updated, women CEOs were selected based on whether their company was listed in the index during their tenure.
Out of all the sectors represented on the timeline, the top categories are retail with 14 women CEOs, engineering and tech with 10 women CEOs, and finance with 9 women CEOs. Food & beverage and utilities are tied with 7 women CEOs each.
Women Leading in the Corporate World
Topping the list is Marion Osher Sandler, the first and longest-serving woman CEO in the United States. She held the title for nearly 27 years at Golden West Financial Corp (from 1980 to 2006), a company she co-founded and grew to $125 billion in assets.
The next person in line for the longest female-led CEO term is Debra A Cafaro, from the healthcare-focused real estate investment trust Ventas Inc. Cafaro has been CEO of Ventas for 20 years, and generated a cumulative total return of 2,559% since 1999—the S&P average for returns over the same time period was only 215%.
Only two women CEOs show up more than twice on the timeline. The first is Meg Cushing Whitman, who served as President/CEO of Ebay from 1998–2008, Chairman/President/CEO of HP Inc. from 2011–2015, and finally as the CEO of Hewlett Packard from 2015 to 2018. In total, Whitman has spent over 16 years as CEO of these S&P 500 companies.
However, Carol Ann Bartz also has an impressive CV, with nearly 17 years as a CEO under her belt. Bartz was the Chairman/President/CEO of the software corporation Autodesk from 1992–2006, and later on at Yahoo from 2009 to 2011.
The most recent addition to this list is Julie Spellman Sweet, who became the CEO of Accenture on September 1st. She was previously the CEO of Accenture’s North American division, and has been crowned on Fortune’s “Most Powerful Women” list from 2016–2018 consecutively. Sweet’s appointment aligns well with Accenture’s corporate diversity targets—the company is aiming for 25% women in managing director roles globally by 2020.
There’s More Work To Be Done
There’s a growing body of evidence that corporate diversity improves a company’s financial bottom line. A recent CNBC analysis shows that in 2019, over half of female CEOs led their company’s stocks to outperform the S&P 500 index, with some even showing quadruple-digit percentage returns (as previously mentioned with Ventas).
Despite womens’ contributions to nearly half the labor force and consistent success as CEOs, they are disproportionately represented higher up the ladder. Women CEOs still lead a meager 5.6% of S&P 500 companies overall—in fact, women CEO appointments are actually slowing down, averaging less than 6% since 2015.
Such stunted growth is setting back equality at the C-suite level drastically. A joint report between the non-profit Lean In and the consulting firm McKinsey & Co. offers some insight into the reasons underlying this disparity:
Since 2015… corporate America has made almost no progress in improving women’s representation. From the outset, fewer women than men are hired at the entry level. And at every subsequent step, the representation of women further declines.
Ranking the Top 100 Websites in the World
The top 100 websites ranking reveals how people around the world search for information, which services they use, and how they spend time online.
As a greater portion of the world begins to live more of their life online, the world’s top 100 websites continue to see explosive growth in their traffic numbers.
To claim even the 100th spot in this ranking, your website would need around 350 million visits in a single month. Using data from SimilarWeb, we’ve visually mapped out the top 100 biggest websites on the internet. Examining the ranking reveals a lot about how people around the world search for information, which services they use, and how they spend time online.
Note: This is a ranking of biggest websites, specifically. Brands that extend across platforms or serve the majority of their users through an app will not necessarily rank well on this list. As a result, you’ll notice the absence of companies like WeChat and Snapchat.
The Top 100 Websites
The 100 biggest websites generated a staggering 206 billion visits in June 2019. Google, YouTube, and Facebook took the top spots, followed by Baidu and Wikipedia. Below is the full ranking:
|Global Rank||Domain||Monthly visits (billions)||Parent||Country|
|1||Google.com||60.49||Alphabet Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|2||Youtube.com||24.31||Alphabet Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|3||Facebook.com||19.98||Facebook, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|4||Baidu.com||9.77||Baidu, Inc||🇨🇳 China|
|5||Wikipedia.org||4.69||Wikimedia Foundation||🇺🇸 United States|
|6||Twitter.com||3.92||Twitter, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|7||Yahoo.com||3.74||Verizon Comm. Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|9||Instagram.com||3.21||Facebook, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|10||xvideos.com||3.19||WGCZ Holding||🇨🇿 Czech Republic|
|12||ampproject.org||2.76||N/A||🇺🇸 United States|
|13||xnxx.com||2.47||WGCZ Holding||🇨🇿 Czech Republic|
|14||amazon.com||2.41||Amazon.com, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|15||live.com||2.25||Microsoft Corporation||🇺🇸 United States|
|16||vk.com||2.16||Mail.ru Group||🇷🇺 Russia|
|17||netflix.com||1.81||Netflix, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|19||whatsapp.com||1.76||Facebook, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|20||mail.ru||1.64||Mail.ru Group||🇷🇺 Russia|
|21||Reddit.com||1.55||Advance Publications||🇺🇸 United States|
|22||yahoo.co.jp||1.5||Verizon Comm. Inc||🇯🇵 Japan|
|23||google.com.br||1.38||Alphabet Inc||🇧🇷 Brazil|
|24||bing.com||1.32||Microsoft Corporation||🇺🇸 United States|
|25||ok.ru||1.08||Mail.ru Group||🇷🇺 Russia|
|26||xhamster.com||1.06||Hammy Media Ltd||🇨🇾 Cyprus|
|27||sogou.com||1||Tencent, Sohu Inc||🇨🇳 China|
|28||ebay.com||0.95||eBay Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|29||bit.ly||0.95||Spectrum Equity||🇺🇸 United States|
|30||twitch.tv||0.91||Amazon.com, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|31||linkedin.com||0.91||Microsoft Corporation||🇺🇸 United States|
|32||samsung.com||0.89||Samsung Group||🇰🇷 South Korea|
|33||sm.cn||0.81||Alibaba Group||🇨🇳 China|
|34||msn.com||0.8||Microsoft Corporation||🇺🇸 United States|
|35||office.com||0.79||Microsoft Corporation||🇺🇸 United States|
|36||globo.com||0.74||Grupo Globo||🇧🇷 Brazil|
|37||taobao.com||0.74||Alibaba Group||🇨🇳 China|
|38||pinterest.com||0.74||Pinterest, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|39||google.de||0.73||Alphabet Inc||🇩🇪 Germany|
|40||Microsoft.com||0.72||Microsoft Corporation||🇺🇸 United States|
|41||accuweather.com||0.71||AccuWeather Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|42||naver.com||0.64||Naver Corporation||🇰🇷 South Korea|
|43||aliexpress.com||0.64||Alibaba Group||🇨🇳 China|
|44||fandom.com||0.61||Wikia Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|45||quora.com||0.58||Quora Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|46||github.com||0.57||Microsoft Corporation||🇺🇸 United States|
|47||imdb.com||0.57||Amazon.com, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|48||uol.com.br||0.56||Grupo Folha||🇧🇷 Brazil|
|49||docomo.ne.jp||0.56||Tata Teleservices||🇯🇵 Japan|
|51||bbc.co.uk||0.55||Public owned||🇬🇧 United Kingdom|
|53||paypal.com||0.53||Paypal||🇺🇸 United States|
|54||google.fr||0.53||Alphabet Inc||🇫🇷 France|
|55||yidianzixun.com||0.51||Particle Inc||🇨🇳 China|
|56||wordpress.com||0.51||Automattic||🇺🇸 United States|
|57||news.google.com||0.51||Alphabet Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|59||duckduckgo.com||0.51||Duck Duck Go, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|60||google.co.uk||0.51||Alphabet Inc||🇬🇧 United Kingdom|
|61||10086.cn||0.5||China Mobile||🇨🇳 China|
|62||iqiyi.com||0.5||Baidu, Inc||🇨🇳 China|
|63||booking.com||0.5||Booking Holdings||🇺🇸 United States|
|64||amazon.co.jp||0.49||Amazon.com, Inc||🇯🇵 Japan|
|65||cricbuzz.com||0.49||Times Internet||🇮🇳 India|
|66||taboola.com||0.48||Taboola Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|67||amazon.de||0.48||Amazon.com, Inc||🇩🇪 Germany|
|68||cnn.com||0.47||Turner Broadcasting||🇺🇸 United States|
|69||jd.com||0.47||Various (Tencent 20%)||🇨🇳 China|
|70||apple.com||0.47||Apple Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|71||google.it||0.45||Alphabet Inc||🇮🇹 Italy|
|72||bilibili.com||0.44||Bilibili Inc||🇨🇳 China|
|73||google.co.jp||0.44||Alphabet Inc||🇯🇵 Japan|
|74||livejasmin.com||0.44||Docler Group||🇱🇺 Luxembourg|
|75||tmall.com||0.44||Alibaba Group||🇨🇳 China|
|76||news.yahoo.co.jp||0.44||Verizon Comm. Inc||🇯🇵 Japan|
|77||youtu.be||0.44||Alphabet Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|78||tribunnews.com||0.43||Kompas Gramedia Group||🇮🇩 Indonesia|
|79||amazon.co.uk||0.43||Amazon.com, Inc||🇬🇧 United Kingdom|
|80||chaturbate.com||0.43||Multi Media LLC||🇺🇸 United States|
|81||google.co.in||0.41||Alphabet Inc||🇮🇳 India|
|82||craigslist.org||0.41||Craigslist||🇺🇸 United States|
|83||imgur.com||0.41||Imgur Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|84||bbc.com||0.41||Public owned||🇬🇧 United Kingdom|
|85||fc2.com||0.39||FC2, Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|88||tumblr.com||0.37||Verizon||🇺🇸 United States|
|89||foxnews.com||0.36||Fox Corporation||🇺🇸 United States|
|90||rakuten.co.jp||0.36||Rakuten Inc||🇯🇵 Japan|
|91||google.es||0.36||Alphabet Inc||🇪🇸 Spain|
|92||outbrain.com||0.36||Outbrain Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
|93||discordapp.com||0.36||Various||🇺🇸 United States|
|94||amazon.in||0.35||Amazon.com, Inc||🇮🇳 India|
|96||weather.com||0.34||Landmark Media Enterprises, LLC||🇺🇸 United States|
|98||youku.com||0.34||Alibaba Group||🇨🇳 China|
|99||adobe.com||0.34||Adobe Inc||🇺🇸 United States|
Search Reigns Supreme
Search engines provide the connective tissue that binds the internet together, and they accounted for the majority of website traffic in the top 100 ranking.
Google is the undisputed top website in nearly every country in the world. In fact, Alphabet’s 11 domains in the top 100 ranking – including YouTube and a number of international versions of Google – racked up an impressive 90 billion visits in a single month.
Exceptions to Google’s dominance can be found in China (Baidu) and Russia (Yandex), where homegrown search engines have managed to capture the domestic market.
One scrappy competitor, DuckDuckGo, is slowly gaining prominence as an alternative to Google. The search engine’s focus on user privacy appears to be resonating with internet users as the site’s traffic has surpassed 500 million visits per month.
Full Stream Ahead
Video streaming and sharing is another major driver of global internet traffic.
Thanks to high-powered phones and bigger data plans, video is now a prominent portion of internet content consumption. This can take a few forms, from binge watching TV shows on Netflix to short-form video uploads on platforms like Douyin and Instagram.
Live streaming is increasingly a bigger part of the mix. Twitch, which is focused on gaming, is now ranked 30th in the world in web traffic. The Amazon-owned platform is now so popular that on any given night, its viewership surpasses many of the major U.S. cable networks.
Of course, this category also includes adult content, which is well represented in this ranking. XNXX, XVideos, and PornHub all made the top 20, and the three websites combined for over nine billion visits in the most recent month of data available.
Old Dogs, New Tricks
Classic web portals such as MSN and Yahoo are still putting up impressive traffic numbers, but major players are increasingly staying relevant by acquiring rising internet stars.
In the case of Microsoft, acquiring Github and Linkedin helped the company target new markets and grow their overall presence online. Amazon’s acquisition of Twitch proved to be a good bet, and Instagram continues to breathe new life into Facebook, which has seen a backlash focused on its original namesake social network.
The project is not without controversy though.
Critics point out that cached AMP pages – which are hosted by Google – essentially cut out content creators, and that non-compliant pages may lose their ranking on mobile search results. As the project moves towards becoming a foundation, it remains to be seen how AMP will evolve and how much involvement Google will have in the future.
The Geography of the Top 100 Websites
The internet may be a global network, but many of the gatekeepers are still located in the United States. If international domain suffixes of companies like Amazon and Google are counted, 60 of the 100 websites in the ranking are American.
Below is a breakdown of the Top 100 by country.
China is a strong runner-up, with 15 websites in the Top 100. While most of these Chinese companies are focused on the sizable domestic market, some are also making global inroads through investment. Tencent has partially backed the fast-growing chat platform, Discord, and it also has double-digit stakes in Snapchat and Spotify.
With the exception of Baidu, all of the biggest websites in the world have swelled in size by serving a global audience. As the tech market continues to mature in China, it remains to be seen whether Chinese companies can successfully move beyond the firewall to become the next Facebook or Google.
Correction: Bilibili, a website run by a Chinese company, was incorrectly identified as a Japanese company.
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