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Mapped: Breaking Down the $3 Trillion African Economy by Country

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See this visualization first on the Voronoi app.


A map of the $3 trillion African Economy labelled by each country's economic output, excluding Eritrea, Burundi, Lesotho, Guinea-Bissau, and São Tomé and Príncipe.

Breaking Down the $3 Trillion African Economy by Country

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Home to 1.4 billion people, the nations of the African continent are widely diverse; not just in culture and language, but also in economic output.

We visualize the 2024 gross domestic product (GDP) projections for African countries from International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates, last updated in October 2023. The data is in current USD, and does not include projections for Eritrea.

Furthermore, data for Lesotho, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Burundi has been left off the map due to a lack of space but has been included in the article’s table.

Ranked: Africa’s Economies by GDP

At first place, South Africa is Africa’s biggest economy in nominal terms, with an estimated GDP of nearly $400 billion.

The country’s mining industry is a major contributor to the economy, accounting for nearly 60% of total exports in the first half of 2023. South Africa is one of the world’s biggest producers of gold, diamonds, platinum, manganese, and other minerals.

However, concerns regarding the sustainability of South Africa’s mining industry have grown since the pandemic. According to a report by PwC, the country’s gold industry may have less than 30 years left without renewed investment.

RankCountryGDP
1🇿🇦 South Africa$401B
2🇳🇬 Nigeria$395B
3🇪🇬 Egypt$358B
4🇩🇿 Algeria$239B
5🇪🇹 Ethiopia$192B
6🇲🇦 Morocco$157B
7🇰🇪 Kenya$115B
8🇦🇴 Angola$93B
9🇨🇮 Côte d'Ivoire$87B
10🇹🇿 Tanzania$86B
11🇬🇭 Ghana$76B
12🇨🇩 DRC$73B
13🇺🇬 Uganda$58B
14🇹🇳 Tunisia$53B
15🇨🇲 Cameroon$53B
16🇿🇼 Zimbabwe$47B
17🇱🇾 Libya$44B
18🇸🇳 Senegal$35B
19🇿🇲 Zambia$31B
20🇸🇩 Sudan$26B
21🇬🇳 Guinea$25B
22🇲🇿 Mozambique$24B
23🇲🇱 Mali$23B
24🇧🇫 Burkina Faso$23B
25🇧🇼 Botswana$22B
26🇧🇯 Benin$22B
27🇬🇦 Gabon$20B
28🇳🇪 Niger$20B
29🇲🇬 Madagascar$17B
30🇲🇺 Mauritius$16B
31🇨🇬 Congo$15B
32🇷🇼 Rwanda$14B
33🇳🇦 Namibia$14B
34🇹🇩 Chad$13B
35🇸🇴 Somalia$12B
36🇲🇼 Malawi$11B
37🇲🇷 Mauritania$11B
38🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea$10B
39🇹🇬 Togo$10B
40🇸🇸 South Sudan$7B
41🇸🇿 Eswatini$5B
42🇱🇷 Liberia$5B
43🇩🇯 Djibouti$4B
44🇸🇱 Sierra Leone$4B
45🇧🇮 Burundi$3B
46🇨🇫 Central African Republic$3B
47🇨🇻 Cabo Verde$3B
48🇬🇲 Gambia, The$3B
49🇱🇸 Lesotho$3B
50🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau$2B
51🇸🇨 Seychelles$2B
52🇰🇲 Comoros$1B
53🇸🇹 São Tomé and Príncipe$1B
Total$2,987B

Note: Figures are rounded.

Close behind South Africa, Nigeria’s economic output in 2024 is estimated at $395 billion. Declining oil production—the country’s main export—along with foreign exchange woes, have made for a broader economic crisis, sparking protests. Inflation is also running rampant in the economy as well: expected to peak at 33% by mid-2024.

Africa’s third-largest economy, Egypt, is also suffering from extremely high inflation since the beginning of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. This is largely due to the country’s reliance on food imports from those nations. According to the IMF, core inflation in Egypt hit nearly 40% in 2023, while food inflation briefly surpassed 70%.

Oil plays a huge role in fourth-ranked Algeria as well, contributing nearly 25% to the country’s $239 billion economic output.

However, in fifth-ranked Ethiopia, agriculture accounts for more than 40% of the country’s $192 billion GDP and coffee is its biggest export. Gold and gemstone mining are seen as an important areas of diversification for the country’s economy.

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