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Visualizing How COVID-19 Has Impacted Global Wages



Visualizing How COVID-19 Impacted Global Wages

In the years leading up to the pandemic, annual global wage growth was fluctuating stably between 1.6%–2.2%. Now, income, working hours, and employment have all been impacted by COVID-19—but for those who have held onto their jobs, how have wages been affected?

This interactive chart from the International Labour Organization (ILO) reveals how the global pandemic has affected both nominal and real wages, as well as unemployment rates.

The date of data collection varies on a country-by-country basis, using the most recent available data. The most recent measurement of wage indices is from September 2020 in some countries and the least recent available data comes from Q2’2020. In select countries the date of unemployment rates and wage indices are different. As a point of reference, the average wage index in 2019 was 100.

Note: the ILO uses national statistics databases and only the select countries had enough recent, available data for all three elements: nominal wages, real wages, and unemployment.

Where Average Wages are Falling

Average wages in many countries either plateaued or decreased significantly during the global pandemic. Sharp declines happened across a number of European countries, as well as in South Africa and Japan, for example.

CountryUnemployment RateReal Wage IndexNominal Wage Index
🇻🇳 Vietnam (as of Q2'2020)2.7%92.494.4
🇪🇸 Spain (as of Q2'2020)15.3%92.592.3
🇲🇽 Mexico (as of August 2020)5%94.498
🇿🇦 South Africa (as of Q2'2020)23.3%95.297.4
🇰🇷 South Korea (as of August 2020)3.1%96.296.8
🇷🇺 Russia (as of August 2020)6.4%96.9100.5
🇨🇿 Czech Republic (as of Q2'2020)6.6%97.899.6
🇸🇰 Slovakia (as of Q2'2020)6.6%97.899.6
🇯🇵 Japan (as of August 2020)3%98.698.7
🇫🇮 Finland (as of August 2020)7.9%99.6100.1
🇩🇪 Germany (as of Q2'2020)4.4%99.6100.5
ℹ️ Nominal wages are the actual wages/money that a worker receives. Real wages represent the relative purchasing power of nominal wages.

Falling wages, however, do not necessarily mean that people are receiving less money, as many subsidies have been put in place to help cushion income or job loss.

In many cases where wage indices declined, employment did not. This is because different job retention schemes were put in place, wherein workers were furloughed, but were given a portion of their wages from the national government. This allowed unemployment rates to remain steady while wages tapered off.

In Europe, where wages have dropped considerably in many countries, wage subsidies have compensated for nearly 40% of wage bill loss in select countries. But while high income countries can afford to inject stimulus into their economies, most lower income countries cannot. This has come to be described as the fiscal stimulus gap.

Where Average Wages are Rising

While perhaps counterintuitive, rising average wages are in no way an inherent sign of a recovering economy or labor market. Regardless, when compared to 2019, wages have actually increased in the majority of countries, such as Brazil, Canada, United States, Italy, and the UK.

CountryUnemployment RateReal Wage IndexNominal Wage Index
🇨🇦 Canada (as of August 2020)10.6%107.6108.4
🇲🇰 North Macedonia (Unemployment: Jun '20; wage data: Aug '20) 16.7%107.6109.7
🇧🇷 Brazil (as of Q2'2020)13.3%107.3109.6
🇧🇬 Bulgaria (as of June 2020)5.9%106.9107.8
🇭🇺 Hungary (as of August 2020)4.4%106.3106.5
🇮🇹 Italy (as of Q2'2020)8.3%106.2106.2
🇫🇷 France (as of Q2'2020)7.1%105.4105.9
🇷🇸 Serbia (Unemployment: Jun '20; wage data: Aug '20)7.7%104.7106.7
🇳🇴 Norway (as of Q2'2020)4.6%104.5105.6
🇺🇸 U.S. (as of September 2020)7.9%104.3106.2
🇵🇹 Portugal (as of June 2020)7.3%103.2104.2
🇹🇭 Thailand (as of Q2'2020)2%103100.6
🇷🇴 Romania (as of August 2020)5.3%102.5105.2
🇳🇱 Netherlands (as of September 2020)4.4%102103.6
🇬🇧 UK (as of September 2020)4.8%101.5102.4
🇩🇰 Denmark (as of Q2'2020)5.3%101.4101.5
🇸🇪 Sweden (as of August 2020)8.8%100.8101.6
🇨🇱 Chile (as of August 2020)12.3%100.6103.4
🇲🇾 Malaysia (as of June 2020)4.7%100.299
ℹ️ Nominal wages are the actual wages/money that a worker receives. Real wages represent the relative purchasing power of nominal wages.

One reason for higher average wages is something called the compositional effect. The compositional effect is what occurs when wages are not actually increasing, but the makeup of employment changes. For example, the loss and subsequent absence of many lower paying jobs from the labor market due to COVID-19 can skew the average wage upwards.

Brazil is a prime example of the compositional effect. As both nominal and real wages increase, so does unemployment. Brazil’s current unemployment rate is 13.3%, while wages have skyrocketed to a real wage index of 107.3 during the first half of 2020.

The loss of these lower paying jobs has been extremely widespread, most negatively impacting informal workers, self-employed vendors, and migrant workers. Some policymakers have seen this as an opportunity to call for universal basic income. Even with job retention schemes to keep unemployment steady, many people are earning far less income and may never return to normal working hours in their current positions.

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Mapped: Renewable Energy and Battery Installations in the U.S. in 2023

This graphic describes new U.S. renewable energy installations by state along with nameplate capacity, planned to come online in 2023.



Renewable and Battery Installations in the U.S. in 2023

This was originally posted on Elements. Sign up to the free mailing list to get beautiful visualizations on real assets and resource megatrends each week.

Renewable energy, in particular solar power, is set to shine in 2023. This year, the U.S. plans to get over 80% of its new energy installations from sources like battery, solar, and wind.

The above map uses data from EIA to highlight planned U.S. renewable energy and battery storage installations by state for 2023.

Total U.S. renewable energy and battery installations, broken down by share

Texas and California Leading in Renewable Energy

Nearly every state in the U.S. has plans to produce new clean energy in 2023, but it’s not a surprise to see the two most populous states in the lead of the pack.

Even though the majority of its power comes from natural gas, Texas currently leads the U.S. in planned renewable energy installations. The state also has plans to power nearly 900,000 homes using new wind energy.

California is second, which could be partially attributable to the passing of Title 24, an energy code that makes it compulsory for new buildings to have the equipment necessary to allow the easy installation of solar panels, battery storage, and EV charging.

New solar power in the U.S. isn’t just coming from places like Texas and California. In 2023, Ohio will add 1,917 MW of new nameplate solar capacity, with Nevada and Colorado not far behind.

Top 10 StatesBattery (MW)Solar (MW)Wind (MW)Total (MW)
New York585095591,125

The state of New York is also looking to become one of the nation’s leading renewable energy providers. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) is making real strides towards this objective with 11% of the nation’s new wind power projects expected to come online in 2023.

According to the data, New Hampshire is the only state in the U.S. that has no new utility-scale renewable energy installations planned for 2023. However, the state does have plans for a massive hydroelectric plant that should come online in 2024.

Decarbonizing Energy

Renewable energy is considered essential to reduce global warming and CO2 emissions.

In line with the efforts by each state to build new renewable installations, the Biden administration has set a goal of achieving a carbon pollution-free power sector by 2035 and a net zero emissions economy by no later than 2050.

The EIA forecasts the share of U.S. electricity generation from renewable sources rising from 22% in 2022 to 23% in 2023 and to 26% in 2024.

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