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Basic Income Experiments Around the World




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Basic Income Experiments Around the World

What if everyone received monthly payments to make life easier and encourage greater economic activity? That’s the exact premise behind Universal Basic Income (UBI).

The idea of UBI as a means to both combat poverty and improve economic prospects has been around for decades. With the COVID-19 pandemic wreaking havoc on economies worldwide, momentum behind the idea has seen a resurgence among certain groups.

Of course, the money to fund basic income programs has to come from somewhere. UBI relies heavily on government budgets or direct funding to cover the regular payments.

As policymakers examine this trade-off between government spending and the potential benefits, there is a growing pool of data to draw inferences from. In fact, basic income has been piloted and experimented on all around the world—but with a mixed bag of results.

What Makes Basic Income Universal?

UBI operates by giving people the means to meet basic necessities with a regular stipend. In theory, this leaves them free to spend their money and resources on economic goods, or searching for better employment options.

Before examining the programs, it’s important to make a distinction between basic income and universal basic income.

attributes of ubi programs

With these parameters in mind, and thanks to data from the Stanford Basic Income Lab, we’ve mapped 48 basic income programs that demonstrate multiple features of UBI and are regularly cited in basic income policy.

Some mapped programs are past experiments used to evaluate basic income. Others are ongoing or new pilots, including recently launched programs in Germany and Spain.

Recently, Canada joined the list as countries considering UBI as a top policy priority in a post-COVID world. But as past experiments show, ideas around basic income can be implemented in many different ways.

Basic Income Programs Took Many Forms

Basic income pilots have seen many iterations across the globe. Many paid out in U.S. dollars, while others chose to stick with local currencies (marked by an asterisk for estimated USD value).

ProgramLocationRecipientsPayment FrequencyAmount ($US/yr)Dates
Abundant Birth ProjectSan Francisco, U.S.100Monthly$12,000-$18,000TBD
Alaska Permanent Fund DividendAlaska, U.S.667,047Annually$1,000-$2,0001982-Present
B-MINCOMEBarcelona, Spain1,000Monthly$1,392-$23,324*2017-2019
Baby's First YearsNew York, U.S.1,000Monthly$240-$3,9962017-2022
Baby's First YearsNew Orleans, U.S.1,000Monthly$240-$3,9962017-2022
Baby's First YearsOmaha, U.S.1,000Monthly$240-$3,9962017-2022
Baby's First YearsTwin Cities, U.S.1,000Monthly$240-$3,9962017-2022
Basic Income for FarmersGyeonggi Province, South Korea430,000Annually$509*TBD
Basic Income Grant (BIG) PilotOmitara, Namibia930Monthly$163*2008-2009
Basic Income ProjectNot Disclosed3,000Monthly$600-$12,0002019-Present
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Casino Revenue FundJackson County and area, NC, U.S.15,414Biannually$7,000-$12,0001996-Present
Eight Pilot ProjectBusibi, Uganda150Monthly$110-$219*2017-2019
Evaluation of the Citizens' Basic Income ProgramMaricá, Brazil42,000Monthly$360*2019-Present
Finland Basic Income ExperimentFinland2,000Monthly$7,793*2017-2018
Gary Income Maintenance ExperimentsGary, U.S.1,782Monthly$3,300-$4,3001971-1974
Give DirectlyWestern Kenya20,847Monthly or Lump Sum$2742017-2030
Give DirectlySaiya County, Kenya10,500Lump Sum$3332014-2017
Give DirectlyRarieda District, Kenya503Monthly or Lump Sum$405-$1,5252011-2013
Human Development FundMongolia2,700,000Monthly$1872010-2012
Ingreso Mí­nimo VitalSpain850,000Monthly$6,535-$14,358*2020-Present
Iran Cash Transfer ProgrammeIran75,000,000Monthly$482010-Present
Madhya Pradesh Unconditional Cash Transfers ProjectMadhya Pradesh, India5,547Monthly$26-$77*2011-2012
Magnolia Mother's TrustJackson, MS, U.S.80Monthly$12,0002019-Present
Manitoba Basic Annual Income ExperimentWinnipeg, Canada1,677Monthly$3,842-$5,864*1975-1978
Manitoba Basic Annual Income ExperimentDauphin, Canada586Monthly$3,842-$5,864*1975-1978
My Basic IncomeGermany120Monthly$17,160*2020-2023
New Jersey Income Maintenance ExperimentJersey City, U.S.1,357BiweeklyVaried1968-1972
New Jersey Income Maintenance ExperimentPaterson, NJ, U.S.1,357BiweeklyVaried1968-1972
New Jersey Income Maintenance ExperimentPassaic, NJ, U.S.1,357BiweeklyVaried1968-1972
New Jersey Income Maintenance ExperimentTrenton, NJ, U.S.1,357BiweeklyVaried1968-1972
New Jersey Income Maintenance ExperimentScranton, PA, U.S.1,357BiweeklyVaried1968-1972
Ontario Basic Income PilotHamilton and area, Canada2,748Monthly$13,112-$18,930* (-50% income)2017-2018
Ontario Basic Income PilotThunder Bay and area, Canada1,908Monthly$13,112-$18,930* (-50% income)2017-2018
Ontario Basic Income PilotLindsay, Canada1,844Monthly$13,112-$18,930* (-50% income)2017-2018
Preserving Our DiversitySanta Monica, U.S.250Monthly$7,836-$8,9642017-Present
Quatinga VelhoQuatinga, Mogi das Cruces, Brazil67Monthly$197*2008-2014
Rural Income Maintenance ExperimentDuplin County, NC, U.S.810MonthlyVaried (NIT)1970-1972
Rural Income Maintenance ExperimentIowa, U.S.810MonthlyVaried (NIT)1970-1972
Scheme $6,000Hong Kong, China4,000,000Annually$771*2011-2012
Seattle-Denver Income Maintenance ExperimentSeattle, U.S.2,042Monthly$3,800-$5,6001971-1982
Seattle-Denver Income Maintenance ExperimentDenver, U.S.2,758Monthly$3,800-$5,6001971-1982
Stockton Economic Empowerment DemonstrationStockton, U.S.125Monthly$6,0002019-Present
Transition-Age Youth Basic Income Pilot ProgramSanta Clara, CA, U.S.72Monthly$12,0002020-2021
Wealth Partaking SchemeMacau, China700,600Annually$750-$1,1502008-Present
Youth Basic Income ProgramGyeonggi Province, South Korea125,000Quarterly$848*2018-Present
Citizen's Basic Income PilotScotlandTBDMonthlyTBDTBD
People's Prosperity Guaranteed Income Demonstration PilotSt. Paul, U.S.150Monthly$6,0002020-2022

Many of the programs meet the classical requirements of UBI. Of the 48 basic income programs tallied above, 75% paid out monthly, and 60% were paid out to individuals.

However, for various reasons, not all of these programs follow UBI requirements. For example, 38% of the basic income programs were paid out to households instead of individuals, and many programs have paid out in lump sums or over varying time frames.

Interestingly, the need for better understanding of basic income has resulted in many divergences between programs. Some programs were only targeted at specific groups like South Korea’s Basic Income for Farmers program, while others like the Baby’s First Years program in the U.S. have been experimenting with different dollar amounts in order to evaluate efficiency.

Other experiments based payments made off of the total income of recipients. For example, in the U.S., the Rural Income and New Jersey Income Maintenance Experiments paid out using a negative income tax (return) on earnings, while recipients of Canada’s Ontario Basic Income Pilot received fixed amounts minus 50% of their earned income.

Varying Programs with Varied Results

So is basic income the real deal or a pipe dream? The results are still unclear.

Some, like the initial pilots for Uganda’s Eight program, were found to result in significant multipliers on economic activity and well-being. Other programs, however, returned mixed results that made further experimentation difficult. Finland’s highly-touted pilot program decreased stress levels of recipients across the board, but didn’t positively impact work activity.

The biggest difficulty has been in keeping programs going and securing funding. Ontario’s three-year projects were prematurely cancelled in 2018 before they could be completed and assessed, and the next stages of Finland’s program are in limbo.

Likewise in the U.S., start-up incubator Y Combinator has been planning a $60M basic income study program, but can’t proceed until funding is secured.

A Post-COVID Future for UBI?

In light of COVID-19, basic income has once again taken center stage.

Many countries have already implemented payment schemes or boosted unemployment benefits in reaction to the pandemic. Others like Spain have used that momentum to launch fully-fledged basic income pilots.

It’s still too early to tell if UBI will live up to expectations or if the idea will fizzle out, but as new experiments and policy programs take shape, a growing amount of data will become available for policymakers to evaluate.

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Where People Borrow Money From, by Country Income Level

These graphics shed light on which people borrow money from financial institutions, and which rely on friends and family for monetary help.



Shareable borrow money

When making the decision to borrow money, do you turn to friends and family for financial help, or do you go to a financial institution like a bank or credit card company?

On a country-to-country basis, this choice often depends on a mix of various factors, including the availability of financial services, financial literacy, and the cultural approach to the very concept of lending itself.

In these graphics, Richie Lionell sheds some light on where people borrow money from, using the 2021 Global Findex Database published by the World Bank.

Borrowing From Financial Institutions

To compare borrowing practices across both location and income level, the dataset features survey results from respondents aged 15+ and groups countries by region except for high-income countries, which are grouped together.

borrow money from financial institutions

In 2021, most individuals in high income economies borrowed money from formal financial institutions.

CountryRegionBorrowed from a financial institution
CanadaHigh income81.01%
IsraelHigh income79.52%
IcelandHigh income73.36%
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaHigh income70.01%
Korea, Rep.High income68.64%
NorwayHigh income66.82%
United StatesHigh income66.21%
Taiwan, ChinaHigh income61.95%
SwitzerlandHigh income61.40%
JapanHigh income61.19%
New ZealandHigh income60.38%
AustraliaHigh income57.29%
AustriaHigh income56.52%
ItalyHigh income55.01%
United KingdomHigh income54.98%
GermanyHigh income54.68%
IrelandHigh income54.11%
DenmarkHigh income53.16%
FinlandHigh income52.98%
SpainHigh income51.92%
SwedenHigh income48.69%
BelgiumHigh income47.98%
FranceHigh income44.37%
SingaporeHigh income42.82%
SloveniaHigh income42.36%
UruguayHigh income42.01%
BrazilLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)40.75%
ChinaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)39.19%
MaltaHigh income38.95%
TürkiyeEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)37.84%
NetherlandsHigh income34.45%
Slovak RepublicHigh income34.41%
MongoliaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)34.39%
UkraineEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)34.13%
EstoniaHigh income33.64%
CroatiaHigh income33.03%
Saudi ArabiaHigh income32.38%
PolandHigh income31.92%
Czech RepublicHigh income31.33%
CyprusHigh income31.25%
CambodiaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)30.89%
ArgentinaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)30.81%
PortugalHigh income30.44%
KazakhstanEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)29.76%
Russian FederationEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)29.75%
ThailandEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)28.26%
BulgariaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)26.36%
ArmeniaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)26.17%
Iran, Islamic Rep.Middle East & North Africa (excluding high income)25.11%
ChileHigh income24.20%
GeorgiaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)23.89%
EcuadorLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)23.23%
LatviaHigh income22.74%
United Arab EmiratesHigh income22.46%
KenyaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)22.18%
North MacedoniaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)22.10%
PeruLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)21.95%
Dominican RepublicLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)21.65%
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)21.30%
Sri LankaSouth Asia21.29%
NamibiaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)20.97%
SerbiaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)20.65%
GreeceHigh income20.11%
MauritiusSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)20.09%
BoliviaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)19.30%
RomaniaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)19.14%
HungaryHigh income18.93%
UgandaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)18.62%
South AfricaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)18.22%
ColombiaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)18.10%
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)17.73%
KosovoEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)17.61%
Costa RicaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)17.46%
PhilippinesEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)17.45%
LiberiaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)15.42%
BangladeshSouth Asia14.22%
NepalSouth Asia14.11%
MalaysiaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)13.48%
AlbaniaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)13.39%
MoldovaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)13.18%
IndonesiaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)12.86%
TajikistanEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)12.43%
ParaguayLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)12.39%
NicaraguaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)12.19%
JamaicaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)12.04%
LithuaniaHigh income11.95%
IndiaSouth Asia11.79%
MaliSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)10.99%
El SalvadorLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)10.56%
PanamaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)10.39%
HondurasLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)10.32%
MozambiqueSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)10.27%
SenegalSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)9.98%
TunisiaMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)9.89%
JordanMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)9.86%
Lao PDREast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)9.15%
Venezuela, RBLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)8.83%
BeninSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)8.21%
MalawiSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)7.99%
UzbekistanEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)7.50%
TogoSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)7.42%
GhanaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)7.40%
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North Africa (excluding high income)7.30%
MyanmarEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)7.06%
CameroonSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)6.99%
ZambiaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)6.76%
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)6.66%
NigeriaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)6.40%
Congo, Rep.Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)6.19%
GuineaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)6.11%
GabonSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)5.48%
MoroccoMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)4.99%
West Bank and GazaMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)4.94%
TanzaniaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)4.45%
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)4.29%
Cote d'IvoireSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)4.10%
AlgeriaMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)3.80%
IraqMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)3.64%
PakistanSouth Asia3.51%
LebanonMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)3.31%
ZimbabweSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)2.89%
South SudanSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)2.48%
AfghanistanSouth Asia2.05%

With 81% of respondents borrowing from financial institutions, Canada tops this list. Meanwhile, Israel (80%), Iceland (73%), Hong Kong (70%), and South Korea (69%) are not far behind.

This is not surprising for richer nations, as financial services in these countries are more available and accessible. This, coupled with higher financial literacy, including a general understanding of interest rates and credit-building opportunities, contribute to the popularity of financial institutions.

Also, it’s worth noting that some countries have cultural practices that factor in. For example, 61% of respondents in Japan used formal financial institutions, which are a more socially acceptable option than asking to borrow money from friends and family (just 6% of people in Japan).

Borrowing from Friends and Family

In contrast, more individuals in lower income economies approached family and friends in order to borrow money.

Countries leading in borrowing money from family and friends

Afghanistan tops this list with 60% of respondents relying on friends and family, compared to only 2% borrowing money from formal financial institutions.

CountryRegionBorrowed from family or friends
AfghanistanSouth Asia60.18%
UgandaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)57.45%
KenyaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)54.40%
NamibiaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)50.25%
MoroccoMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)48.73%
NigeriaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)44.71%
South AfricaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)44.54%
IraqMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)44.10%
CameroonSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)43.49%
ZambiaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)43.08%
ZimbabweSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)42.34%
GuineaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)42.04%
NepalSouth Asia41.79%
JordanMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)41.76%
GabonSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)41.41%
LiberiaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)41.37%
TunisiaMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)41.05%
PhilippinesEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)40.82%
TürkiyeEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)40.80%
Iran, Islamic Rep.Middle East & North Africa (excluding high income)39.80%
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)39.02%
GhanaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)38.58%
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North Africa (excluding high income)37.75%
Saudi ArabiaHigh income35.76%
BangladeshSouth Asia35.49%
MaliSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)35.15%
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)35.14%
CambodiaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)34.85%
Venezuela, RBLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)34.81%
TogoSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)33.99%
West Bank and GazaMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)33.93%
ThailandEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)32.83%
Lao PDREast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)32.36%
MoldovaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)32.18%
UkraineEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)32.17%
SenegalSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)31.30%
ArmeniaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)31.29%
IndiaSouth Asia31.02%
BoliviaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)30.69%
AlgeriaMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)30.52%
Cote d'IvoireSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)30.20%
AlbaniaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)30.00%
BulgariaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)29.99%
BeninSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)29.33%
MozambiqueSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)29.33%
TanzaniaSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)29.24%
ColombiaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)29.08%
IndonesiaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)28.85%
South SudanSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)28.84%
EcuadorLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)28.79%
SerbiaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)28.49%
Russian FederationEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)28.40%
MongoliaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)27.01%
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)27.01%
ChinaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)26.43%
HondurasLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)26.07%
GreeceHigh income25.94%
KosovoEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)25.86%
ArgentinaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)25.72%
KazakhstanEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)25.64%
RomaniaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)25.58%
MalawiSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)25.24%
North MacedoniaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)25.14%
Dominican RepublicLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)24.70%
BrazilLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)24.66%
Congo, Rep.Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)24.40%
LebanonMiddle East & North Africa (excluding high income)24.26%
NicaraguaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)23.75%
IcelandHigh income23.63%
PeruLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)23.34%
United Arab EmiratesHigh income23.04%
MyanmarEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)23.03%
Sri LankaSouth Asia22.53%
ParaguayLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)22.20%
PakistanSouth Asia21.87%
UzbekistanEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)21.53%
CyprusHigh income20.95%
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)20.94%
ChileHigh income20.72%
GeorgiaEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)20.61%
MauritiusSub-Saharan Africa (excluding high income)20.48%
Costa RicaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)20.29%
JamaicaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)20.02%
TajikistanEurope & Central Asia (excluding high income)19.86%
PolandHigh income19.34%
NorwayHigh income19.29%
United StatesHigh income18.09%
UruguayHigh income17.60%
PanamaLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)17.54%
DenmarkHigh income17.51%
CroatiaHigh income17.09%
El SalvadorLatin America & Caribbean (excluding high income)16.78%
SloveniaHigh income16.77%
LatviaHigh income16.57%
AustraliaHigh income16.44%
EstoniaHigh income15.74%
MalaysiaEast Asia & Pacific (excluding high income)15.44%
IsraelHigh income15.43%
New ZealandHigh income15.19%
Slovak RepublicHigh income15.02%
GermanyHigh income15.01%
AustriaHigh income14.41%
CanadaHigh income14.00%
FinlandHigh income13.43%
Czech RepublicHigh income13.41%
Korea, Rep.High income13.16%
MaltaHigh income12.99%
BelgiumHigh income12.13%
SwedenHigh income11.79%
HungaryHigh income11.15%
LithuaniaHigh income10.65%
SpainHigh income10.44%
FranceHigh income10.42%
NetherlandsHigh income10.24%
IrelandHigh income9.84%
Taiwan, ChinaHigh income9.70%
PortugalHigh income8.22%
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaHigh income7.59%
JapanHigh income6.43%
SwitzerlandHigh income6.10%
United KingdomHigh income5.24%
ItalyHigh income5.06%
SingaporeHigh income1.89%

Many individuals in African countries including Uganda (57%), Kenya (54%), Namibia (50%), and Morocco (49%) also are choosing to borrow money from friends and family over financial institutions.

These preferences can be attributed to various factors including a lack of trust in banking and financial institutions, lacking access to such services, or the lack of information about such services if they are available.

And in some societies, borrowing from friends and family can be seen as a cultural norm, especially in places where mutual support and solidarity play a strong role.

What’s Next?

As viewed by the World Bank, financial inclusion is an important foundation of any nation’s development, and it’s also one of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. Increasing levels of financial inclusion helps give people access to services like savings plans, credit avenues, and online payments and transactions.

And thanks to commitments from countries and financial systems, global ownership of banking accounts has increased significantly (and been further spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic). According to the Global Findex Database, bank account ownership has risen to 76% in 2021, up from just 51% a decade prior.

However, access to these services is still rife with gaps when it comes to low income nations, low income individuals, and unequal access based on gender. The future of borrowing now relies on how nations deal with these challenges.

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