Anatomy of a Cannabis Plant
By 2027, it’s projected that the legal cannabis market in the U.S. and Canada could hit $47.3 billion in size.
That will make it bigger than annual global sales for raw metals like nickel and silver put together. It would be a size that even exceeds the North American pork market.
But while almost everyone has a sense of the basic mechanics of mining or ranching, knowledge around the essentials of cannabis are understandably not as well ingrained in our culture.
Cannabis Plants 101
Today’s infographic comes to us from The Green Organic Dutchman, and it breaks down the anatomy of a cannabis plant, the differences between types of plants, and also the basics around cannabis cultivation.
Here are some of the more important things you need to know about the plant:
Commercial cannabis comes from the female species, which have long skinny stems and large, iconic fan leaves. The plant is trimmed down into buds, which come together in a cola at the top of the stem.
Trichomes are a blanket of crystal resin coating the cannabis plant, and they contain both terpenes and cannabinoids.
The two most well-known cannabinoids are THC and CBD, which also occur in the largest volume.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known to cause psychoactive effects or the “high” felt from cannabis.
Effects: pain relief, anti-nausea, sleep aid, appetite and mood stimulant.
Cannabidiol (CBD) lacks nearly any psychoactive effect, making it preferred as a medicine.
Effects: pain relief, anti-nausea, anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, seizure reduction.
Other cannabinoids such as cannabichromene (CBC), cannbigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN), have similar therapeutic properties. Research is also validating the plant’s efficacy in treating medical conditions such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, PTSD, and Alzheimer’s.
Terpenes are organic, aromatic compounds found in the oils of all flowers, including cannabis. Interestingly, these oils have their own independent medical potential that is waiting to be unlocked.
Cannabinoids and terpenes work in harmony, resulting in an “entourage effect” and enhances the medical properties of cannabis
Sativa, Indica, Hybrid
There are two common types of cannabis plants: sativa and indica.
Sativa plants have long and thin leaves that are lighter in color. Buds are long and wispy, and feature red or orange coloring. They tend to contain high THC and low CBD levels – optimal for daytime use, described as being energizing, stimulating, and creative.
Indica plants have leaves that are wide, broad, and deep in color. Buds are dense and tightly packed, featuring purple coloring. Indica usually contains medium levels of THC, and a higher amount of CBD. Its effects are often described as being relaxing and calming, which is more optimal for nighttime use.
It’s also worth noting that hybrid strains can often bring together the best qualities of both into one plant.
The Lifecycle of a Cannabis Plant
Every stage of growth of a cannabis plant needs different care:
1. Germination (Seed): 1-2 weeks
Seeds ready for germination are dark brown, hard, and dry. Encourage sprouting by watering seeds in a paper towel.
2. Seedling: 2-3 weeks
Move seeds into growing medium. Plants need the maximum light at this stage, and appropriate water levels. Cotyledon (seed leaves) and iconic fan leaves will grow.
Light: 18-24 hours
3. Vegetative: 2-8 weeks
Plants need flowing dry air, fresh warm water, and increased nutrients – especially nitrogen. It’s important at this stage to separate male and female plants before pollination to prevent female plants producing seeds instead of trichomes.
Light: 12 hours sunlight (18 hours fluorescent light)
4. Flowering: 6-8 weeks
Gradually reduce light exposure to produce medicinal qualities. Increase phosphorous levels and decrease nitrogen. Fertilizers can help stimulate bud formation.
Light: 12 hours
Temperature: 20-28 °C
Trim and dry the buds. The plant is ripe when buds turn from milky white to reddish orange. Harvest once 70-90% of pistils are browned for maximized taste and effect.
As the cannabis industry matures, consumers will demand the highest-quality products. Growing cannabis in a natural environment is increasingly vital to create a premium end-product.
In the next part of this series, we will dive into various growing methods and the benefits of organic methods on quality and effects of cannabis.
The Most Valuable Agricultural Commodity in Each State
Which agricultural commodity is the most important to each state’s economy? This infographic breaks it all down, based on data from the USDA.
The Most Valuable Agricultural Commodity in Each State
The United States has an incredible amount of geographic diversity.
From the fertile farmland of the Great Plains to the volcanic islands in the Hawaiian archipelago, each state has been dealt a unique geographical hand.
Each geographical setting can be the source of economic opportunities, such as tourism or the development of natural resources. It also partially dictates what kind of agricultural choices are available for farmers and local economies.
A Higher Level Look
Today’s infographic comes to us from HowMuch.net, and it color codes each state based on the most valuable agricultural commodity it produces, based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
At a big picture level, how does the country break down?
|Most Valuable Agricultural Commodity||Number of States|
|Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||16|
|Poultry and eggs||9|
|Cattle and calves||7|
|Milk from cows||7|
|Nursery, greenhouse, floriculture and sod||4|
|Fruit, tree nuts, and berries||3|
|Vegetables, melons, potatoes and sweet potatoes||2|
|Other crops and hay||1|
Broadly speaking, the category of “Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas” is the most valuable agricultural commodity in 16 states, while aquaculture was the most important in only one state, which is Alaska.
It’s interesting that there are niches that end up deriving massive amounts of value in only a few states. For example, the category of “Fruit, tree nuts, and berries” is the biggest in just three states, but California makes $17.6 billion from it every year – more than the size of the entire agricultural sector of some states.
State by State Data
Finally, here’s a look at the data for each state in a sortable table:
|#1||California||Fruit, tree nuts, and berries||$17,638,972,000|
|#2||Iowa||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$17,146,679,000|
|#3||Illinois||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$13,589,230,000|
|#4||Texas||Cattle and calves||$13,013,127,000|
|#5||Minnesota||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$12,304,415,000|
|#6||Nebraska||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$10,698,861,000|
|#7||Kansas||Cattle and calves||$10,153,087,000|
|#8||North Dakota||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$8,813,348,000|
|#9||Indiana||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$7,217,854,000|
|#10||Ohio||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$5,834,600,000|
|#11||South Dakota||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$5,809,792,000|
|#12||Wisconsin||Milk from cows||$4,952,039,000|
|#13||North Carolina||Poultry and eggs||$4,837,026,000|
|#14||Georgia||Poultry and eggs||$4,773,837,000|
|#15||Colorado||Cattle and calves||$4,321,308,000|
|#16||Arkansas||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$4,214,355,000|
|#17||Missouri||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$3,922,873,000|
|#18||Alabama||Poultry and eggs||$3,624,852,000|
|#19||Michigan||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$3,613,250,000|
|#20||Oklahoma||Cattle and calves||$3,402,919,000|
|#21||Washington||Fruit, tree nuts, and berries||$2,931,370,000|
|#22||Mississippi||Poultry and eggs||$2,744,048,000|
|#23||New York||Milk from cows||$2,417,398,000|
|#24||Idaho||Milk from cows||$2,333,364,000|
|#25||Pennsylvania||Milk from cows||$1,966,892,000|
|#26||Florida||Fruit, tree nuts, and berries||$1,847,805,000|
|#27||Louisiana||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$1,832,208,000|
|#28||Montana||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$1,787,162,000|
|#29||Kentucky||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$1,656,983,000|
|#30||South Carolina||Poultry and eggs||$1,476,817,000|
|#31||Tennessee||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$1,301,303,000|
|#32||New Mexico||Milk from cows||$1,251,065,000|
|#33||Virginia||Poultry and eggs||$1,161,564,000|
|#34||Wyoming||Cattle and calves||$1,101,195,000|
|#35||Maryland||Poultry and eggs||$922,999,000|
|#36||Oregon||Cattle and calves||$894,485,000|
|#37||Delaware||Poultry and eggs||$811,301,000|
|#38||Arizona||Vegetables, melons, potatoes and sweet potatoes||$764,062,000|
|#39||Vermont||Milk from cows||$504,884,000|
|#40||New Jersey||Nursery, greenhouse, floriculture and sod||$405,247,000|
|#41||West Virginia||Poultry and eggs||$401,439,000|
|#42||Utah||Cattle and calves||$364,214,000|
|#43||Nevada||Other crops and hay||$280,554,000|
|#44||Connecticut||Nursery, greenhouse, floriculture and sod||$252,923,000|
|#45||Maine||Vegetables, melons, potatoes and sweet potatoes||$207,254,000|
|#46||Hawaii||Grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas||$152,930,000|
|#47||Massachusetts||Nursery, greenhouse, floriculture and sod||$144,188,000|
|#48||New Hampshire||Milk from cows||$54,798,000|
|#49||Rhode Island||Nursery, greenhouse, floriculture and sod||$32,831,000|
As the legal cannabis industry continues to take off, it’ll be interesting to see if the USDA incorporates that crop into its rankings in future years.
Balancing the Environmental Costs of Cannabis
Legal cannabis cultivation emits as much CO2 as 92,660 cars annually. Growing cannabis sustainably can reduce this massive environmental footprint.
Balancing the Environmental Costs of Cannabis
Economic development comes with a massive environmental cost.
Since 1980, heavy industrial activity has caused the doubling of CO2 emissions. As scientists warn of the lasting negative impacts this will have on the planet, nearly every industry is committing to sustainable practices to try to counteract this effect.
Today’s infographic comes from The Green Organic Dutchman, and it demonstrates that while the business of cannabis isn’t always eco-friendly, there are several tried-and-tested ways to reduce its massive footprint.
A HEFTY PRICE TO PAY
Energy is the second-highest cost driver in cannabis cultivation after labor.
There are two main culprits – lighting and HVAC systems (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). Combined, they make up a whopping 89% of energy use in cannabis cultivation operations.
Last year, legal cannabis cultivation was responsible for consuming 1.1 million MWh of electricity, and producing 472,000 tons of CO2 emissions. That’s enough to power 92,500 homes, and produce the same emissions as 92,660 cars per year. As legal cannabis production scales, this will only escalate.
Much of this data can be attributed to how the plant is grown.
|Growing method||Power consumption (kWh/g)||Carbon intensity (lbs CO2e/g)|
Indoor cultivation is roughly 18 times more energy-intensive than outdoor cultivation, and produces 25 times the carbon emissions. On the other hand, outdoor production produces lower overall yield per square foot. Since it’s difficult to control the environment, impurities can also end up in the final product.
That’s why many companies opt for a hybrid approach instead – balancing the benefits of precise control, with the use of natural light to lower production costs.
A GAME PLAN FOR SUSTAINABILITY
Many licensed producers are adopting a suite of strategies to relieve this environmental footprint.
- Renewable energy
Diversifying the energy sources for cannabis cultivation can reduce carbon emissions. Solar and wind are top choices among cultivators.
- LED lighting
LED light bulbs are more than 60% more efficient than other types. They also produce barely any heat, lowering ventilation requirements.
- Water efficiency
A single cannabis plant can use up to 23 liters of water per day. Water can be recycled and re-used through innovative techniques such as reverse osmosis.
The plastic packaging often associated with cannabis products is a considerable contributor of waste. There are several alternatives, such as paper, glass, and tin. Each of these have their own benefits and drawbacks, depending on what they are used for.
Maximizing energy-efficiency has a domino effect not only on the planet, but on reduced operating costs. These savings can then be passed on to the buyer, which could prove to be a strong competitive advantage as the cannabis industry matures.
Stay tuned for part 6 of this series, where we’ll delve into the scientific evidence for medical cannabis compounds.
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