The Science Behind the Medical Cannabis Industry
There’s nothing quite like cannabis in the plant kingdom. Beneath its humble surface, over 750 unique compounds exist within – all of which have helped propel the cannabis industry into the multi-billion dollar market it is today.
Today’s infographic from The Green Organic Dutchman takes a deep dive into the cannabis components which contribute to its therapeutic potential, how it interacts with the human body, and the ways it can be consumed.
The Chemical Effects of Cannabis
While many people would be familiar with THC and CBD as the two major cannabinoids, there are a few lesser-known cannabinoids which also play important roles: Cannabichromene (CBC), Cannabigerol (CBG), Cannabinol (CBN), Tetrahydrocannbivarin (THCv), and Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa).
In different combinations, they work together with terpenes – aromatic oils that are present in most plants – to provide relief for a variety of ailments.
|Pain/ Sleep||CBD, THC||Cramps, Migraine|
|CBC, CBD, CBN, THC||Insomnia|
|CBC, CBD, CBN, THC, THCv||Pain|
|CBC, CBD, CBDa, CBG, CBN, THC, THCa||Arthritis, Inflammation|
|CBD, THC, THCa||Crohn’s disease|
|Mood/ Behavior||CBD, CBG||Anxiety|
|CBD, THC||ADD/ADHD, Stress|
|CBD, CBG, THC||Bipolar disorder, OCD, PTSD|
|CBC, CBD, CBG, CBN, THC||Depression|
|Neurological||CBC, CBD, CBG, CBN, THC, THCa||Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)|
|CBC, CBD, CBG, THC, THCa||Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s|
|CBD, CBN, THC, THCa||Multiple Sclerosis|
|CBD, CBN, THCa, THCv||Epilepsy, Seizures|
|Other||CBC, CBD, CBDa, CBG, THC, THCa||Cancer|
When cannabinoids and terpenes interact, the human endocannabinoid system is already equipped to deal with the entourage effects that are created.
Modern-Day Medical Cannabis
It’s clear that many cultures embraced cannabis long before scientific research came into play. Its therapeutic properties were widely recorded and extolled around the world.
After decades of restricted access and stigma, the tide is turning back towards what our ancestors discovered long ago. Millions of patients rely on medical cannabis today, with Canada and Israel paving the way in cannabis research.
Medical cannabis has been legal nationwide since 2001, aiding scientists in studying its effects.
Funding: CAD$1.4 million (US$1.05 million) invested by the government towards research projects.
Since the 1990s, medical cannabis has been legal for patients of cancer, chronic pain, and PTSD.
Funding: 8 million shekels (US$2.16 million) annual government funding to support innovation.
Back in the day, typically only dried cannabis flower was used. However, consumption methods have evolved into three broad categories today: ingestion, inhalation, and application.
The dosage of cannabis consumed is easy to control using edibles or beverages, tinctures or sprays, and capsules.
The effects of cannabis are quickly felt through smoking, vaporizing, and/or dabbing concentrates.
Transdermal patches and topicals like balms offer localized relief through a controlled dose.
Each of these methods have their own pros and cons, but in the end, they all offer the medical cannabis patient with a wide variety to choose from. Some of these forms, such as topicals and edibles, even lend themselves to the rapidly growing consumer cannabis segment.
In the seventh part of this series, we’ll delve into the rise of retail that’s set to disrupt the cannabis industry.
The Biggest Ammonium Nitrate Explosions Since 2000
Ammonium nitrate is dangerous, and every few years, there’s a new explosion that causes widespread damage. These are some of the biggest ones.
The Biggest Ammonium Nitrate Explosions since 2000
This week, a massive explosion involving ammonium nitrate rocked the city of Beirut, sending shock waves through the media.
This recent tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it’s not the first time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage.
Today’s graphic outlines the biggest accidental ammonium nitrate explosions over the last 20 years.
A Brief Explanation of Ammonium Nitrate
Before getting into the details, first thing’s first—what is ammonium nitrate?
Ammonium nitrate is formed when ammonia gas is combined with liquid nitric acid. The chemical compound is widely used in agriculture as a fertilizer, but it’s also used in mining explosives. It’s highly combustible when combined with oils and other fuels, but not flammable on its own unless exposed to extremely high temperatures.
It’s actually relatively tough for a fire to cause an ammonium nitrate explosion—but that hasn’t stopped it from happening numerous times in the last few decades.
The Death Toll
Some explosions involving ammonium nitrate have been deadlier than others. Here’s a breakdown of the death toll from each blast:
*Note: death count in Beirut as of Aug 6, 2020. Casualty count expected to increase as more information comes available.
One of the deadliest explosions happened in Tianjin, China in 2015. A factory was storing flammable chemicals with ammonium nitrate, and because they weren’t being stored properly, one of the chemicals got too dry and caught fire. The blast killed 165 people and caused $1.1 billion dollars in damage.
In 2001, 14 years before the explosion in Tianjin, a factory exploded in Toulouse, France. The accident killed 30 people and injured 2,500. The power of the blast was equivalent to 20 to 40 tons of TNT, meaning that 40 to 80 tons of ammonium nitrate would have ignited.
In addition to factory explosions, there have been several transportation accidents involving ammonium nitrate. In 2007, a truck in Mexico blew up and killed over 57 people. Filled with explosives, the truck crashed into a pickup, caught fire, and detonated. The blast left a 60-foot long crater in its wake.
While there have been several ammonium nitrate accidents throughout history, the recent tragedy in Beirut is one of the largest accidental explosions ever recorded, with 157 deaths and 5,000 injuries and counting.
In terms of TNT equivalent, a measure used to gauge the impact of an explosion, it ranks in the top 10 of the largest accidental explosions in history:
Topping the list is yet another ammonium nitrate explosion, this time back in 1947.
Known to history as the Texas City Disaster, the port accident was one of the biggest non-nuclear explosions to occur in history. The explosion killed over 500 people and injured thousands. The impact from the blast was so intense, it created a 15-foot wave that crashed along the docks and caused flooding in the area.
A Resource With Trade-Offs
Despite being dangerous, ammonium nitrate is still a valuable resource. There’s been an increased demand for the chemical from North America’s agricultural sector, and because of this, ammonium nitrate’s market size is expected to see an increase of more than 3% by 2026.
Because of its increasing market size, it’s more important than ever for trade industries to enforce proper safety measures when storing and transporting ammonium nitrate. When safety regulations aren’t followed, accidents can happen—and as we saw this week, the aftermath can be devastating.
Visualizing the Power and Frequency of Earthquakes
Our planet is in a constant state of creation and destruction as the plates of the earth collide. This visualization looks at earthquake magnitude.
Visualizing the Power and Frequency of Earthquakes
The surface of our planet is in a constant state of creation and destruction as the plates of the Earth collide. It is this movement of the Earth’s crust that causes earthquakes, sending tremors throughout the world.
Today’s graphic is inspired by a classic USGS diagram that tracks the scale and frequency of earthquakes.
Earthquakes occur because the crust of the Earth is made up of several plates. The boundaries of these plates create faults that can run into one another.
Earthquakes describe both the mechanism that causes a sudden stress release along plate boundaries and also the ensuing ground shaking.
They occur when stress builds up along a tectonic fault. This stress causes the two surfaces of the fault, which had previously been stuck together due to friction, to suddenly move, or slide, releasing energy in the form of seismic waves.
Measuring an Earthquake’s Impact
There are three factors to assess the impact of Earthquakes – magnitude, energy, and intensity.
Magnitude is a number most commonly associated with the Richter scale, describing the size of an Earthquake on a scale from 0 to 10 – the latter of which is the maximum motion recorded by a seismograph. Each increase by one on the scale represents a tenfold increase in the amplitude. There are over a million tremors around the planet each year, but it’s not until an earthquake reaches a magnitude of 4 that humans can typically feel it.
Another way to measure the size of an earthquake is by how much energy it releases. The amount of energy radiated by an earthquake is a measure of the potential for damage to man-made structures.
An earthquake releases energy at various frequencies, and in order to calculate accurately, you have to include all frequencies of shaking for the entire event. Some research suggests technology could harness this energy for power generation.
Intensity describes the severity of an earthquake with a qualitative evaluation of its effects on the Earth’s surface and on the built environment. An earthquake may have a high magnitude but if a city or landscape experiences little damage, it can be said that the intensity is low. The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale measures this intensity.
The World’s Largest Earthquakes by Magnitude
Prior to the development and use of seismographs, around 1900, scientists could only estimate magnitudes, based on historical reports of the extent and severity of damage.
|May 22, 1960||Valdivia, Chile||9.4-9.6|
|March 27, 1964||Prince William Sound, Alaska||9.2|
|Dec. 26, 2004||Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia||9.1|
|March 11, 2011||Pacific Ocean, Tohoku Region, Japan||9.1|
|July 8, 1730||Valparaiso, Chile||9.1-9.3 (est.)|
|Nov. 4, 1952||Kamchatka, Russia||9|
|Aug. 13, 1868||Arica, Chile||8.5-9.0 (est.)|
|January 26, 1700||Pacific Coast, Modern Day British Columbia||8.7-9.2 (est.)|
|April 2, 1762||Chittagong, Bangladesh||8.8 (est.)|
|Nov. 25, 1833||Sumatra Indonesia||8.8 (est.)|
Earthquakes are a fact of life on Earth and mark distinct moments in history. One would think given our knowledge of earthquakes, that humans would avoid these locations – however, the very faults of the Earth also create its greatest advantages.
Living with Your Faults
It’s extremely common to find human settlements along the fault lines where earthquakes occur most frequently. Some could say that this is because these decisions were made before a complete understanding of science enabled us to know the potential risks involved.
However, a recent scientific study reveals that there may be more to the pattern than previously thought. Tectonically active plates may have produced greater biodiversity, more food, and water for our human predecessors.
Certain landscape features formed by tectonic processes such as cliffs, river gorges, and sedimentary valleys create environments that support access to drinking water, shelter, and an abundant food supply.
This inherent problem reveals that humans are more connected to their environments than previously thought. It comes down to a question of how well humans can adapt their lifestyle and built environments to a dynamic planet.
Now let’s worry about the asteroids…
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