The Top Trading Partner of Every U.S. State
The U.S. is highly dependent—perhaps unsurprisingly—on Canada and Mexico for trade. The country’s top trading partner is Mexico, making up 14.8% of total trade.
However, the country’s neighbors to the north and south are not the only trade partners that U.S. states rely heavily upon. This map from HowMuch.net uses flags to show which country each U.S. state is importing the most from. Below, there is an additional graphic showing where each state is exporting the highest amount of goods and services to.
Who are the States Importing From?
The U.S. has a few natural and obvious trading partners, whether due to geographical closeness or strong economic ties.
The obvious candidates for top trading partners have already been mentioned, Canada and Mexico—and these two do show up at the state level as well. For example, Michigan gets 40.9% of its imports from Mexico, and Montana receives a whopping 87% of its imports from Canada.
Some other interesting trade partnerships stand out, like the Carolinas and Germany. Trade ties between Hawaii and Japan also make sense for historic reasons.
|State||Top Country||Total State Import (Millions USD)||Share of Total State Imports|
|Alaska||🇰🇷 South Korea||$836||35.0%|
|District of Columbia||🇨🇦 Canada||$74||13.7%|
|New Hampshire||🇨🇦 Canada||$1,394||20.1%|
|New Jersey||🇨🇳 China||$14,302||12.4%|
|New Mexico||🇨🇳 China||$1,493||32.6%|
|New York||🇨🇭 Switzerland||$33,126||21.5%|
|North Carolina||🇩🇪 Germany||$9,208||15.1%|
|North Dakota||🇨🇦 Canada||$1,781||62.3%|
|Puerto Rico||🇮🇪 Ireland||$9,062||42.7%|
|Rhode Island||🇩🇪 Germany||$1,525||17.3%|
|South Carolina||🇩🇪 Germany||$6,220||15.5%|
|South Dakota||🇨🇦 Canada||$428||33.9%|
|Virgin Islands||🇵🇹 Portugal||$174||27.7%|
|West Virginia||🇨🇦 Canada||$1,025||35.2%|
However, one country in particular stands out on this map—China.
While the USMCA trade agreement has created an easy gateway for necessary goods and services to flow across North America, no country—not even the U.S.—can escape the need for mass imports from the world’s top exporter.
China and the U.S. have an imbalanced trade relationship, with China buying much fewer goods from the U.S. than the U.S. buys from them. In fact, China’s monthly trade surplus with the country sat at $31.8 billion as of May 2021.
Who are the States Exporting to?
After looking at the top import partners by state, let’s dive in to where the U.S. states are exporting the most.
One thing that is noticeable is that China shows up much less on this map, further exemplifying the trade imbalance. In other words, while many states’ top import partner is China, they are not reciprocating as the country’s top export partner.
The only states that export their largest shares to China are:
- Oregon – 38.1%
- Alaska – 25.5%
- Washington – 22.1%
- Alabama – 18.1%
- Louisiana – 18.1%
The majority are exporting to their North American neighbors. For example, North Dakota sends 84.6% of its exports just across the northern border.
|State||Top Country||Total State Export (Millions USD)||Share of total State Exports|
|New Hampshire||🇩🇪 Germany||$751||13.8%|
|New Jersey||🇨🇦 Canada||$7,229||19.0%|
|New Mexico||🇲🇽 Mexico||$2,197||59.5%|
|New York||🇨🇦 Canada||$13,773||22.3%|
|North Carolina||🇨🇦 Canada||$5,881||20.7%|
|North Dakota||🇨🇦 Canada||$4,388||84.6%|
|Puerto Rico||🇳🇱 Netherlands||$2,889||17.2%|
|Rhode Island||🇨🇦 Canada||$410||17.1%|
|South Carolina||🇩🇪 Germany||$4,082||13.5%|
|South Dakota||🇨🇦 Canada||$524||38.0%|
|Utah||🇬🇧 United Kingdom||$8,906||50.3%|
|Virgin Islands||🇳🇱 Netherlands||$90||15.2%|
|West Virginia||🇨🇦 Canada||$1,283||28.1%|
Trade Going Forward
The trade war that started during the tenure of former U.S. president Donald Trump is still ongoing and tariffs set by the U.S. are not expected to be lifted by president Joe Biden, as tensions have expanded beyond just trade issues.
These tariffs, however, have not helped to rectify the significant trade imbalance between the two countries. The states are still extremely reliant on imports from China, and it is not a reciprocal relationship.
Which Countries are the Most Polarized?
This chart plots polarization for various countries based on the Edelman Trust Institute’s annual survey of 32,000+ people.
Which Countries are the Most Polarized?
How do you measure something that’s made headlines for half a decade but is still difficult to quantify? We’re talking about polarization.
How Do You Quantify Polarization?
Edelman’s data on which countries are the most polarized comes from survey results asking respondents two very simple questions:
- How divided is their country?
- How entrenched is the divide?
The questions help bring to light the social issues a particular country is facing and the lack of consensus on those issues.
Plotted against each other, a chart emerges. A country in the top–right corner of the chart is “severely polarized.” Countries located closer to the lower–left are considered less polarized.
In the report, Edelman identifies four metrics to watch for and measure which help quantify polarization.
|Economic Anxieties||Will my family be better off in five years?|
|Institutional Imbalance||Government is viewed as unethical and incompetent.|
|Class Divide||People with higher incomes have a higher trust in institutions.|
|Battle for Truth||Echo chambers, and a low trust in media.|
Following Edelman’s metrics, countries with economic uncertainty and inequality as well as institutional distrust are more likely to be polarized. Below, we look at key highlights from the chart.
Severely Polarized Countries
Despite being one of the largest economies in Latin America, Argentina is the most polarized country surveyed by a large margin. Foreign loan defaults, a high fiscal deficit, and now surging inflation have created a perfect storm in the country.
43% of the Argentinian respondents said they will be better off in five years, down 17 percentage points from last year.
Along with fiscal upheaval, Argentinians are also dealing with enduring corruption in the public sector and abrupt policy reversals between governments. Only 20% of those surveyed in Argentina said they trusted the government—the least of all surveyed countries.
Here are all six of the countries considered to be severely polarized:
🇺🇸 United States
🇿🇦 South Africa
In the U.S., heightened political upheaval between Democrats and Republicans over the last few years has led to strengthening ideological stances and to an abundance of headlines about polarization. Only 42% of respondents in the country trust the government.
And in South Africa, persistent inequality and falling trust in the African National Congress also check off Edelman’s metrics. It’s also second after Argentina with the least trust in government (22%) per the survey.
Moderately Polarized Countries
The biggest cluster of 15 countries are in moderately polarized section of the chart, with all continents represented.
🇰🇷 South Korea
🇬🇧 United Kingdom
Some are on the cusp of being severely polarized, including economic heavyweights like Japan, the UK, France, and Germany. On the other hand, smaller economies like Thailand, Kenya, and Nigeria, are doing comparatively better on the polarization chart.
Less Polarized Countries
Countries with fair economic outlook and high trust in institutions including China, Singapore, and India are in the bottom left sector of the chart.
🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia
It’s interesting to note that of the seven countries in that sector, three are not democracies. That said, there are also more developing countries on this list as well, which could also be a factor.
Edelman notes that polarization is both “cause and consequence of distrust,” creating a self-fulfilling cycle. Aside from the four metrics stated above, concerns about the erosion of civility and weakening social fabric also lead to polarization.
As global events unfold in 2023—including looming worries of a recession—it will be fascinating to see how countries might switch positions in the year to come.
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