Mapped: Countries by Alcohol Consumption Per Capita
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Mapped: Countries by Alcohol Consumption Per Capita

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Mapped: Countries by Alcohol Consumption Per Capita

Alcohol might be one of the oldest and most frequently used recreational substances in the world, but examining countries by alcohol consumption shows that usage is not equal.

Consumption levels, and types of alcohol consumed, vary widely based on location. Furthermore, the availability of fruits and grains used in alcohol production impacts which drinks are more commonly consumed, as does the predominant culture. Some cultures see alcohol consumption as a pleasurable experience, while others see intoxication as a sin.

There’s also the question of economics and availability. It’s strange, but in some regions of the world, industrially mass-produced alcohol can flood markets and become cheaper than other beverages, including water.

When we map alcohol consumption by capita, and by different types of alcohol, these local and cultural stories come to light. The above maps use recorded consumption data from WHO for 2019, in liters of pure alcohol.

Europe Leads in Per Capita Alcohol Consumption

The top 10 countries by alcohol consumption highlight the prominence of alcoholic beverages in European culture.

Eight of the 10 countries with the top alcohol consumption per capita were in Europe. Primarily, they were Eastern and Central European countries, including #2 Latvia, #3 Czech Republic, #4 Lithuania, and #5 Austria.

But the crown of alcohol consumption per capita goes to the Cook Islands, which leads the world with an annual per capita consumption of 13L (3.4 gallons) of alcohol.

Location2019 Alcohol consumption/capita (L)
Cook Islands12.97
Latvia12.90
Czech Republic12.73
Lithuania11.93
Austria11.90
Antigua and Barbuda11.88
Estonia11.65
France11.44
Bulgaria11.18
Slovenia11.05
Luxembourg11.00
Andorra10.99
Romania10.96
Poland10.96
Ireland10.91
Hungary10.79
Spain10.72
Belarus10.57
Germany10.56
Portugal10.37
Slovakia10.30
Barbados9.94
Montenegro9.91
UK9.80
Cyprus9.64
Croatia9.64
Australia9.51
Seychelles9.48
Bahamas9.48
Switzerland9.41
Saint Lucia9.30
New Zealand9.17
Denmark9.16
Belgium9.15
U.S.8.93
Saint Kitts and Nevis8.84
Grenada8.62
Niue8.50
Japan8.36
Netherlands8.23
Finland8.23
Lao People's Democratic Republic8.15
Malta8.07
Canada8.00
Argentina7.95
United Republic of Tanzania7.81
Chile7.80
South Korea7.74
Iceland7.72
Eswatini7.68
Italy7.65
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines7.48
Serbia7.45
Republic of Moldova7.45
Georgia7.45
Russian Federation7.29
Burkina Faso7.28
South Africa7.21
Sweden7.10
Thailand6.86
Uganda6.82
Suriname6.60
Panama6.54
Gabon6.47
Rwanda6.35
Greece6.33
Dominica6.32
Brazil6.12
Equatorial Guinea6.11
Norway6.05
Botswana5.98
Belize5.93
Angola5.84
Trinidad and Tobago5.81
Peru5.74
Congo5.74
Ukraine5.69
Dominican Republic5.56
Paraguay5.47
Mongolia5.46
Bosnia and Herzegovina5.46
Uruguay5.42
Guyana5.11
Philippines4.85
Cuba4.70
Cabo Verde4.70
Cambodia4.56
Nigeria4.49
China4.48
Albania4.40
Mexico4.25
Sao Tome and Principe4.23
Colombia4.09
Cameroon4.09
Burundi4.07
Kyrgyzstan4.02
Macedonia3.90
Zambia3.82
Armenia3.77
Kazakhstan3.73
Nicaragua3.69
North Korea3.61
Lesotho3.56
Jamaica3.46
Viet Nam3.41
Mauritius3.39
Sierra Leone3.22
Guinea-Bissau3.21
Liberia3.12
Zimbabwe3.11
India3.09
Israel3.07
Costa Rica3.07
Ecuador3.05
Bolivia2.98
El Salvador2.94
Turkmenistan2.88
Haiti2.85
Honduras2.73
Fiji2.71
Gambia2.67
Sri Lanka2.58
Venezuela2.51
Uzbekistan2.45
Nauru2.44
Namibia2.38
Samoa2.18
Myanmar2.06
Malawi2.04
United Arab Emirates2.03
Singapore1.81
Côte d’Ivoire1.70
Kenya1.68
Guatemala1.63
Vanuatu1.60
Micronesia1.59
Ghana1.59
Tunisia1.51
Mozambique1.46
Togo1.40
Maldives1.38
Azerbaijan1.38
Papua New Guinea1.26
Benin1.25
Solomon Islands1.19
Turkey1.18
Bahrain1.18
Ethiopia1.16
Lebanon1.14
Qatar0.96
Central African Republic0.94
Tuvalu0.93
Eritrea0.93
Madagascar0.89
Tajikistan0.85
Brunei Darussalam0.69
Malaysia0.64
Mali0.60
Algeria0.59
Democratic Republic of the Congo0.56
Chad0.55
Morocco0.51
Oman0.47
Kiribati0.43
Timor-Leste0.41
Nepal0.36
Guinea0.33
Tonga0.31
Senegal0.25
Jordan0.25
Djibouti0.21
Comoros0.18
Iraq0.16
Egypt0.14
Syrian Arab Republic0.13
Niger0.11
Indonesia0.08
Bhutan0.07
Pakistan0.04
Yemen0.02
Iran0.02
Libya0.01
Afghanistan0.01
Somalia0
Saudi Arabia0
Mauritania0
Kuwait0
Bangladesh0

At the bottom of the consumption charts? Not surprisingly, it’s Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Muslim countries where intoxication is religiously prohibited.

Regional Disparities in Alcohol Consumption

Per capita consumption of alcohol also highlights clear regional preferences in amount and type, or a lack of interest.

The biggest consumers of alcohol are countries in Central Europe, the South Pacific, and parts of the Caribbean. In Europe, beer and wine are kings, with most of the top consumers also being top producers such as France and Germany.

Spirits like rum, meanwhile, are dominant in the Cook Islands and much of the Caribbean, which has four of the 12 top spirit consumers. The others are mainly in Eastern Europe and Russia, which get most of their alcohol consumption from vodka.

Top Consuming Country by AlcoholTypeConsumption/Capita
Czech RepublicBeer6.77L
FranceWine6.44L
Cook IslandsSpirits7.07L
TanzaniaOthers6.60L

The importance of local crops couldn’t be overstated. Regions like Africa and Asia that struggle with the right conditions for grapes or hops saw higher consumption of “other” distilled drinks.

These include rice alcohol in South Korea and Japan, and drinks made from sugarcane, molasses, and even bananas in African countries like Tanzania.

Unlike goods like coffee or tea, alcohol can be produced from many different grains, fruits, or sources of sugar that can be fermented—so it’s natural that regional differences in types, amounts, and even cultural importance would arise.

But as one of the world’s most widely used recreational drugs, it’s played a storied role throughout history that is certain to continue evolving.

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Charted: Tesla’s Unrivaled Profit Margins

This infographic compares Tesla’s impressive profit margins to various Western and Chinese competitors.

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Chart: Tesla’s Unrivaled Profit Margins

In January this year, Tesla made the surprising announcement that it would be cutting prices on its vehicles by as much as 20%.

While price cuts are not new in the automotive world, they are for Tesla. The company, which historically has been unable to keep up with demand, has seen its order backlog shrink from 476,000 units in July 2022, to 74,000 in December 2022.

This has been attributed to Tesla’s robust production growth, which saw 2022 production increase 41% over 2021 (from 930,422 to 1,313,851 units).

With the days of “endless” demand seemingly over, Tesla is going on the offensive by reducing its prices—a move that puts pressure on competitors, but has also angered existing owners.

Cranking up the Heat

Tesla’s price cuts are an attempt to protect its market share, but they’re not exactly the desperation move some media outlets have claimed them to be.

Recent data compiled by Reuters shows that Tesla’s margins are significantly higher than those of its rivals, both in terms of gross and net profit. Our graphic only illustrates the net figures, but gross profits are also included in the table below.

CompanyGross profit per carNet profit per car
🇺🇸 Tesla$15,653$9,574
🇺🇸 GM$3,818$2,150
🇨🇳 BYD$5,456$1,550
🇯🇵 Toyota$3,925$1,197
🇩🇪 VW$6,034$973
🇰🇷 Hyundai$5,362$927
🇺🇸 Ford$3,115-$762
🇨🇳 Xpeng$4,565-$11,735
🇨🇳 Nio$8,036-$19,141

Data from Q3 2022

Price cutting has its drawbacks, but one could argue that the benefits for Tesla are worth it based on this data—especially in a critical market like China.

Tesla has taken the nuclear option to bully the weaker, thin margin players off the table.
– Bill Russo, Automobility

In the case of Chinese EV startups Xpeng and Nio, net profits are non-existent, meaning it’s unlikely they’ll be able to match Tesla’s reductions in price. Both firms have reported year-on-year sales declines in January.

As for Tesla, Chinese media outlets have claimed that the firm received 30,000 orders within three days of its price cut announcement. Note that this hasn’t been officially confirmed by anyone within the company.

Tit for Tat

Ford made headlines recently for announcing its own price cuts on the Mustang Mach-E electric SUV. The model is a direct competitor to Tesla’s best-selling Model Y.

Chevrolet and Hyundai have also adjusted some of their EV prices in recent months, as listed in the following table.

ModelOld PriceNew PriceDiscount
Tesla Model Y Long Range$65,990$53,49018.9%
Chevrolet Bolt EUV 2023$33,500$27,20018.8%
Tesla Model Y Performance$69,990$56,99018.6%
Chevrolet Bolt 2023$31,600$26,50016.1%
Tesla Model 3 Performance$62,990$53,99014.3%
Hyundai Kona Electric 2022$37,390$34,0009.1%
Ford Mustang Mach-E GT Extended Range$69,900$64,0008.4%
Tesla Model 3 Long Range$46,990$43,9906.4%
Ford Mustang Mach-E Premium AWD$57,675$53,9956.4%
Ford Mustang Mach-E RWD Standard Range$46,900$46,0001.9%

Source: Observer (Feb 2023)

Volkswagen is a noteworthy player missing from this table. The company has been gaining ground on Tesla, especially in the European market.

We have a clear pricing strategy and are focusing on reliability. We trust in the strength of our products and brands.
– Oliver Blume, CEO, VW Group

This decision could hamper Volkswagen’s goal of becoming a dominant player in EVs, especially if more automakers join Tesla in cutting prices. For now, Tesla still holds a strong grip on the US market.

tesla US market share

Thanks, Elon

Recent Tesla buyers became outraged when the company announced it would be slashing prices on its cars. In China, buyers even staged protests at Tesla stores and delivery centers.

Recent buyers not only missed out on a better price, but their cars have effectively depreciated by the amount of the cut. This is a bitter turn of events, given Musk’s 2019 claims that a Tesla would be an appreciating asset.

I think the most profound thing is that if you buy a Tesla today, I believe you are buying an appreciating asset – not a depreciating asset.
– Elon Musk, CEO, Tesla

These comments were made in reference to Tesla’s full self-driving (FSD) capabilities, which Elon claimed would enable owners to turn their cars into robotaxis.

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