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Visualizing the Declining Birth Rate in Japan



See this visualization first on the Voronoi app.

Bar chart visualizing the declining birth rate in Japan.

Visualizing the Declining Birth Rate in Japan

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Japan’s birth rate has been declining over the last three decades. While Japan’s population was 123.3 million in 2023, it is expected to decrease by approximately 29.4% to 87.0 million by 2070.

In this graphic, we use data from Kyodo News, Statista, and to illustrate the number of live births each year in Japan, compared to the number of annual deaths. Figures were rounded.

Population Shrunk by Largest Margin Ever in 2023

Declining births and increasing deaths resulted in Japan’s total population falling by 831,872 people in 2023.


The National Institute of Population and Social Security Research once estimated that births would decline to below 760,000 in 2035.

With births in 2023 recorded at 758,631, this forecast was off by over 10 years.

Meanwhile, the number of deaths has increased over the last 10 years, surpassing 1.5 million in 2023, equivalent to 1.22% of the population.

Many younger Japanese hesitate to marry or start families due to bleak job prospects, corporate cultures unsupportive of working parents—especially women—and a lack of public tolerance for small children, as reported by the Associated Press. Rising costs also contribute to couples’ reluctance to have children.

The average number of children a woman gives birth to in her lifetime in Japan hit 1.26 in 2022. The fertility rate is far below the replacement rate of 2.1 considered necessary to maintain a population without immigration.

One of the biggest concerns is that a shrinking and aging population can have significant implications for the economy and national security.

As a result, Japan’s government is taking steps to cope with the declining birthrate, such as expanding childcare and promoting wage hikes for younger workers.

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The Smallest Gender Wage Gaps in OECD Countries

Which OECD countries have the smallest gender wage gaps? We look at the 10 countries with gaps lower than the average.



Chart showing the OECD countries with the 10 smallest gender pay gaps

The Smallest Gender Pay Gaps in OECD Countries

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Among the 38 member countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), several have made significant strides in addressing income inequality between men and women.

In this graphic we’ve ranked the OECD countries with the 10 smallest gender pay gaps, using the latest data from the OECD for 2022.

The gender pay gap is calculated as the difference between median full-time earnings for men and women divided by the median full-time earnings of men.

Which Countries Have the Smallest Gender Pay Gaps?

Luxembourg’s gender pay gap is the lowest among OECD members at only 0.4%—well below the OECD average of 11.6%.

RankCountryPercentage Difference in Men's & Women's Full-time Earnings
1🇱🇺 Luxembourg0.4%
2🇧🇪 Belgium1.1%
3🇨🇷 Costa Rica1.4%
4🇨🇴 Colombia1.9%
5🇮🇪 Ireland2.0%
6🇭🇷 Croatia3.2%
7🇮🇹 Italy3.3%
8🇳🇴 Norway4.5%
9🇩🇰 Denmark5.8%
10🇵🇹 Portugal6.1%
OECD Average11.6%

Notably, eight of the top 10 countries with the smallest gender pay gaps are located in Europe, as labor equality laws designed to target gender differences have begun to pay off.

The two other countries that made the list were Costa Rica (1.4%) and Colombia (1.9%), which came in third and fourth place, respectively.

How Did Luxembourg (Nearly) Eliminate its Gender Wage Gap?

Luxembourg’s virtually-non-existent gender wage gap in 2020 can be traced back to its diligent efforts to prioritize equal pay. Since 2016, firms that have not complied with the Labor Code’s equal pay laws have been subjected to penalizing fines ranging from €251 to €25,000.

Higher female education rates also contribute to the diminishing pay gap, with Luxembourg tied for first in the educational attainment rankings of the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index Report for 2023.

See More Graphics about Demographics and Money

While these 10 countries are well below the OECD’s average gender pay gap of 11.6%, many OECD member countries including the U.S. are significantly above the average. To see the full list of the top 10 OECD countries with the largest gender pay gaps, check out this visualization.

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