Connect with us

Maps

Mapped: Immigration by Country, as a Percentage of the Population

Published

on

Immigration by Country, as a Percentage of the Population

Many people move countries for work, study, or family. However, they may also be displaced by climate change, conflict, or economic instability.

There were 272 million immigrants in 2020, amounting to 3.5% of the global population. Where do they end up?

This interactive map from Our World in Data highlights immigration by country, as a percentage of the total population, using data from the United Nations (UN) Populations Division.

What Is an Immigrant?

The UN defines an immigrant as someone who has been living in a country other than their country of birth for one year or longer. In addition to new citizens or residents, a variety of people fit under this definition:

  • Foreign workers
  • International students
  • Refugees

The UN also includes estimates of unauthorized immigrants living in various countries. On the flip side, tourists, temporary workers, and overseas military personnel are typically not included.

Immigration by Country Over Time

With this definition in mind, here’s a breakdown of immigration by country as a percentage of the nation’s population.

Country19902020Absolute ChangeRelative Change
Afghanistan0.47%0.37%-0.10 p.p.-20%
Albania2.01%1.70%-0.31 p.p.-16%
Algeria1.06%0.57%-0.49 p.p.-46%
American Samoa45.18%30.35%²-14.83 p.p.-33%
Andorra71.35%58.98%-12.37 p.p.-17%
Angola0.28%2.00%1.71 p.p.606%
Anguilla30.59%33.24%²2.66 p.p.9%
Antigua and Barbuda19.24%30.01%10.77 p.p.56%
Argentina5.06%5.05%>-0.01 p.p.>-1%
Armenia18.62%6.42%-12.20 p.p.-65%
Aruba22.84%34.52%²11.67 p.p.51%
Australia23.32%30.14%6.82 p.p.29%
Austria10.27%19.30%9.03 p.p.88%
Azerbaijan4.98%2.49%-2.49 p.p.-50%
Bahamas10.48%16.17%5.69 p.p.54%
Bahrain34.93%55.01%20.09 p.p.58%
Bangladesh0.85%1.28%0.43 p.p.50%
Barbados9.21%12.13%2.93 p.p.32%
Belarus12.30%11.29%-1.01 p.p.-8%
Belgium12.80%17.30%4.51 p.p.35%
Belize16.21%15.60%-0.61 p.p.-4%
Benin1.54%3.25%1.71 p.p.111%
Bhutan4.49%6.95%2.46 p.p.55%
Bolivia1.07%1.41%0.33 p.p.31%
Bosnia and Herzegovina1.25%1.10%-0.16 p.p.-12%
Botswana2.14%4.69%2.55 p.p.119%
Brazil0.54%0.51%-0.03 p.p.-5%
Brunei28.29%25.59%-2.70 p.p.-10%
Bulgaria0.24%2.65%2.41 p.p.992%
Burkina Faso3.97%3.46%-0.50 p.p.-13%
Burundi6.13%2.90%-3.23 p.p.-53%
Cambodia0.43%0.47%0.05 p.p.11%
Cameroon2.26%2.18%-0.08 p.p.-3%
Canada15.73%21.33%5.59 p.p.36%
Cape Verde2.64%2.84%0.20 p.p.7%
Central African Republic2.40%1.83%-0.56 p.p.-23%
Chad1.25%3.33%2.09 p.p.167%
Chile0.81%8.61%7.79 p.p.962%
China0.03%0.07%0.04 p.p.125%
Colombia0.32%3.75%3.43 p.p.1089%
Comoros3.42%1.44%-1.98 p.p.-58%
Congo5.49%7.02%1.53 p.p.28%
Costa Rica13.39%10.22%-3.17 p.p.-24%
Cote d'Ivoire15.23%9.72%-5.51 p.p.-36%
Croatia9.95%12.86%2.91 p.p.29%
Cuba0.33%0.03%-0.30 p.p.-92%
Cyprus5.71%15.77%10.05 p.p.176%
Czechia1.07%5.05%3.98 p.p.373%
Democratic Republic of Congo2.18%1.06%-1.11 p.p.-51%
Denmark4.58%12.39%7.81 p.p.171%
Djibouti20.70%12.12%-8.58 p.p.-41%
Dominica3.58%11.51%7.93 p.p.222%
Dominican Republic4.08%5.57%1.48 p.p.36%
Ecuador0.77%4.45%3.68 p.p.478%
Egypt0.31%0.53%0.22 p.p.72%
El Salvador0.90%0.66%-0.24 p.p.-27%
Equatorial Guinea0.65%16.44%15.78 p.p.2413%
Eritrea0.53%0.39%-0.13 p.p.-25%
Estonia24.41%15.02%-9.38 p.p.-38%
Eswatini9.12%2.83%-6.29 p.p.-69%
Ethiopia2.41%0.94%-1.47 p.p.-61%
Faeroe Islands9.01%10.96%²1.95 p.p.22%
Falkland Islands42.69%50.53%²7.84 p.p.18%
Fiji1.82%1.57%-0.25 p.p.-14%
Finland1.27%6.97%5.70 p.p.450%
France10.41%13.06%2.65 p.p.25%
French Guiana54.35%41.09%²-13.26 p.p.-24%
Gabon13.50%18.72%5.22 p.p.39%
Gambia12.36%8.92%-3.44 p.p.-28%
Georgia5.63%1.99%-3.64 p.p.-65%
Germany7.51%18.81%11.30 p.p.151%
Ghana1.12%1.53%0.42 p.p.37%
Greece6.04%12.86%6.81 p.p.113%
Greenland16.71%10.52%²-6.19 p.p.-37%
Grenada4.43%6.41%1.98 p.p.45%
Guadeloupe18.72%21.13%²2.41 p.p.13%
Guatemala2.85%0.47%-2.38 p.p.-83%
Guinea6.35%0.93%-5.43 p.p.-85%
Guinea-Bissau1.58%0.91%-0.66 p.p.-42%
Guyana0.55%3.96%3.41 p.p.619%
Haiti0.27%0.17%-0.11 p.p.-39%
Honduras5.46%0.40%-5.06 p.p.-93%
Hong Kong38.73%39.52%0.78 p.p.2%
Hungary3.35%6.05%2.70 p.p.81%
Iceland3.76%19.17%15.41 p.p.410%
India0.87%0.35%-0.52 p.p.-59%
Indonesia0.26%0.13%-0.13 p.p.-49%
Iran7.61%3.33%-4.28 p.p.-56%
Iraq0.48%0.91%0.43 p.p.89%
Ireland6.49%17.64%11.15 p.p.172%
Israel36.70%22.57%-14.13 p.p.-39%
Italy2.50%10.56%8.06 p.p.322%
Jamaica0.85%0.80%-0.05 p.p.-6%
Japan0.86%2.19%1.33 p.p.154%
Jordan32.15%33.89%1.74 p.p.5%
Kazakhstan22.09%19.88%-2.21 p.p.-10%
Kenya1.26%1.95%0.70 p.p.55%
Kiribati2.99%2.62%-0.37 p.p.-12%
Kuwait51.27%72.83%21.55 p.p.42%
Kyrgyzstan14.25%3.05%-11.20 p.p.-79%
Laos0.54%0.67%0.13 p.p.25%
Latvia24.25%12.69%-11.55 p.p.-48%
Lebanon18.68%25.09%6.41 p.p.34%
Lesotho0.48%0.56%0.08 p.p.16%
Liberia4.58%1.74%-2.84 p.p.-62%
Libya10.30%12.03%1.73 p.p.17%
Liechtenstein37.88%67.85%29.97 p.p.79%
Lithuania9.45%5.33%-4.12 p.p.-44%
Luxembourg29.81%47.62%17.81 p.p.60%
Madagascar0.21%0.13%-0.08 p.p.-38%
Malawi11.99%1.00%-10.99 p.p.-92%
Malaysia3.86%10.74%6.88 p.p.178%
Maldives3.89%12.96%9.07 p.p.233%
Mali1.90%2.40%0.50 p.p.26%
Malta4.17%25.99%21.83 p.p.524%
Marshall Islands2.45%5.57%3.12 p.p.127%
Martinique10.77%16.75%²5.98 p.p.55%
Mauritania5.49%3.92%-1.57 p.p.-29%
Mauritius0.34%2.27%1.93 p.p.564%
Mexico0.83%0.93%0.10 p.p.12%
Moldova12.46%2.59%-9.88 p.p.-79%
Monaco69.17%67.78%-1.39 p.p.-2%
Mongolia0.31%0.65%0.34 p.p.111%
Montenegro12.58%¹11.30%-1.27 p.p.-10%
Montserrat18.76%21.79%²3.03 p.p.16%
Morocco0.22%0.28%0.06 p.p.25%
Mozambique0.94%1.08%0.14 p.p.15%
Myanmar0.32%0.14%-0.18 p.p.-56%
Namibia8.42%4.30%-4.11 p.p.-49%
Nauru29.61%20.32%-9.30 p.p.-31%
Nepal2.27%1.67%-0.60 p.p.-26%
Netherlands7.90%13.76%5.86 p.p.74%
New Caledonia22.20%25.45%²3.25 p.p.15%
New Zealand15.24%28.65%13.41 p.p.88%
Nicaragua0.99%0.64%-0.35 p.p.-36%
Niger1.44%1.44%>-0.01 p.p.>-1%
Nigeria0.48%0.64%0.16 p.p.32%
North Korea0.17%0.19%0.02 p.p.14%
North Macedonia4.77%6.30%1.54 p.p.32%
Norway4.53%15.72%11.19 p.p.247%
Oman16.78%46.47%29.69 p.p.177%
Pakistan5.77%1.48%-4.28 p.p.-74%
Palau18.59%28.12%9.53 p.p.51%
Palestine13.72%5.35%-8.37 p.p.-61%
Panama2.54%7.26%4.72 p.p.186%
Papua New Guinea0.73%0.35%-0.38 p.p.-52%
Paraguay4.64%2.38%-2.26 p.p.-49%
Peru0.26%3.71%3.46 p.p.1345%
Philip.p.ines0.25%0.21%-0.04 p.p.-17%
Poland2.97%2.16%-0.81 p.p.-27%
Portugal4.40%9.83%5.42 p.p.123%
Puerto Rico9.12%7.59%²-1.53 p.p.-17%
Qatar65.04%77.27%12.23 p.p.19%
Reunion9.47%14.39%²4.91 p.p.52%
Romania0.58%3.67%3.09 p.p.534%
Russia7.81%7.97%0.16 p.p.2%
Rwanda2.19%3.97%1.77 p.p.81%
Saint Kitts and Nevis7.97%14.52%6.55 p.p.82%
Saint Lucia3.84%4.54%0.70 p.p.18%
Saint Pierre and Miquelon19.69%19.14%²-0.55 p.p.-3%
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines3.69%4.27%0.58 p.p.16%
Samoa2.06%2.03%-0.03 p.p.-2%
San Marino13.72%16.33%2.61 p.p.19%
Sao Tome and Principe4.68%0.98%-3.71 p.p.-79%
Saudi Arabia30.79%38.65%7.86 p.p.26%
Senegal3.59%1.64%-1.95 p.p.-54%
Serbia1.04%9.42%8.38 p.p.803%
Seychelles5.27%13.27%8.00 p.p.152%
Sierra Leone5.14%0.67%-4.47 p.p.-87%
Singapore24.14%43.14%19.00 p.p.79%
Slovakia0.78%3.61%2.83 p.p.362%
Slovenia8.88%13.37%4.50 p.p.51%
Solomon Islands1.35%0.37%-0.99 p.p.-73%
Somalia6.62%0.37%-6.25 p.p.-94%
South Africa3.16%4.82%1.66 p.p.52%
South Korea0.10%3.37%3.27 p.p.3238%
South Sudan2.43%¹7.88%5.46 p.p.225%
Spain2.10%14.63%12.54 p.p.598%
Sri Lanka0.24%0.19%-0.05 p.p.-22%
Sudan6.96%3.15%-3.82 p.p.-55%
Suriname4.46%8.15%3.68 p.p.83%
Sweden9.21%19.84%10.63 p.p.116%
Switzerland20.93%28.79%7.86 p.p.38%
Syria5.74%4.96%-0.77 p.p.-13%
Tajikistan8.12%2.89%-5.22 p.p.-64%
Tanzania2.28%0.71%-1.56 p.p.-69%
Thailand0.94%5.20%4.27 p.p.457%
Togo2.25%3.38%1.13 p.p.50%
Tonga3.06%3.54%0.48 p.p.16%
Trinidad and Tobago4.15%5.63%1.49 p.p.36%
Tunisia0.46%0.51%0.05 p.p.10%
Turkey2.16%7.18%5.02 p.p.233%
Turkmenistan8.32%3.23%-5.09 p.p.-61%
Tuvalu3.57%2.03%-1.54 p.p.-43%
Uganda3.14%3.76%0.63 p.p.20%
Ukraine13.39%11.43%-1.97 p.p.-15%
United Arab Emirates71.46%88.13%16.67 p.p.23%
United Kingdom6.39%13.79%7.40 p.p.116%
United States9.22%15.30%6.08 p.p.66%
Uruguay3.15%3.12%-0.04 p.p.-1%
Uzbekistan8.10%3.47%-4.63 p.p.-57%
Vanuatu1.57%1.06%-0.51 p.p.-33%
Venezuela5.22%4.66%-0.56 p.p.-11%
Vietnam0.04%0.08%0.04 p.p.93%
Western Sahara0.97%0.83%²-0.14 p.p.-15%
World2.87%3.60%0.73 p.p.25%
Yemen1.01%1.30%0.28 p.p.28%
Zambia3.48%1.02%-2.46 p.p.-71%
Zimbabwe6.08%2.80%-3.28 p.p.-54%


¹Data as of 2010 due to data availability
²Data as of 2015 due to data availability

Higher immigration levels are generally correlated with higher standards of living and advanced economies. For instance, North America, Europe, and Oceania all have a relatively high proportion of immigrants.

The United States is home to the largest number of immigrants—over 50 million—which now make up 15% of the country’s population. Since 1990, the proportion of immigrants in the country has continued to rise. As with most advanced economies, immigration has helped to counter a decline in fertility rates.

Over the last 30 years, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has had the highest immigration by country, with 88% of its population being defined as immigrants in 2020. The country has the highest GDP per capita of any of its neighboring countries, and draws many migrant workers.

Meanwhile, South Korea has seen the largest relative increase in immigrants over the last three decades. Faced with the lowest fertility rate in the world and an aging population, the country has enacted policy reforms to encourage immigration, including a formal guest worker program and local voting rights for permanent foreign residents.

Integration or Separation?

Immigrants can help fill labor gaps and drive economic innovation in their new country of residence. Depending on their destination, they may benefit from things like higher pay, access to better education, and a more stable political climate.

Notably, countries respond to immigration in different ways. In one study measuring what governments are doing to integrate migrants, Sweden ranked at the top. The country offers non-EU citizens equal access to education, labor market rights and its social safety net, and it also has strong anti-discrimination laws.

On the flip side, immigrants may face challenges integrating into other countries. For instance, the UAE’s kafala (sponsorship) system is structured so that employment visas are granted by local individuals or companies rather than the state. This gives employers enhanced power over their workers, and in the past it has resulted in alleged human rights abuses.

green check mark icon

This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

Click for Comments

Maps

Map: Where Are America’s Largest Landfills?

According to the EPA, the U.S. produced 292 million tons of solid waste in 2018, of which 150 million headed to some of the largest landfills in the country.

Published

on

Map: Where Are America’s Largest Landfills?

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on Apple or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

We map out America’s largest landfills, based on their total capacity (measured in millions of tons) for solid waste. Data for this graphic is sourced from Statista and is current up to 2023.

According to the EPA, the U.S. produced 292 million tons of solid waste in 2018. Of that, about 150 million tons headed to the country’s landfills. It would take more than 600 of the largest cargo ships (by dead weight tonnage) to move this much material at once.

Ranked: America’s Largest Landfills

Opened in 1993 and located 25 minutes from Las Vegas, Apex Landfill is believed to be one of the world’s largest landfills by both area and volume.

It spans 1,900 acres, or roughly the size of 1,400 football fields. Given its vast capacity, the landfill is expected to be able to accept waste for over 250 years.

Here are the top 10 largest landfills in the country.

RankU.S. LandfillStateCapacity (Million Tons)
1Apex RegionalNevada995
2ECDC EnvironmentalUtah482
3Denver Arapahoe Disposal SiteColorado396
4Columbia RidgeOregon393
5Lockwood RegionalNevada346
6OkeechobeeFlorida242
7Butterfield StationArizona226
8Roosevelt Regional MSWWashington219
9Wasatch RegionalUtah203
10Hillsborough CountyFlorida203

In a 2021 PBS interview, a spokesperson for Apex Landfill reported that the facility captured and treated enough landfill gas to power nearly 11,000 homes in Southern Nevada.

In fact, landfills can create electricity through a process called landfill gas (LFG) recovery. When organic waste decomposes, it produces methane gas which can be captured and purified to create fuel for generators.

As it happens, methane gas from landfills is the third-largest source of human-related carbon emissions, equivalent to 24 million gas passenger vehicles driven for one year. Its capture and treatment is a significant opportunity to combat emissions.

Continue Reading
Voronoi, the app by Visual Capitalist. Where data tells the story. Download on App Store or Google Play

Subscribe

Popular