Visualizing Over A Century of World Fertility
In just 50 years, world fertility rates have been cut in half.
This sea change can be attributed to multiple factors, ranging from medical advances to greater gender equity. But generally speaking, as more women gain an education and enter the workforce, they’re delaying motherhood and often having fewer children in the process.
Today’s interactive data visualization was put together by Bo McCready, the Director of Analytics at KIPP Texas. Using numbers from Our World in Data, it depicts the changes in the world’s fertility rate—the average number of children per woman—spanning from the beginning of the 20th century to present day.
A Demographic Decline
The global fertility rate fell from 5.25 children per woman in 1900, to 2.44 children per woman in 2018. The steepest drop in this shift happened in a single decade, from 1970 to 1980.
In the interactive graphic, you’ll see graphs for 200 different countries and political entities showing their total fertility rate (FTR) over time. Here’s a quick summary of the countries with the highest and lowest FTRs, as of 2017:
|Top 10 Countries||Fertility rate||Bottom 10 Countries||Fertility Rate|
|🇳🇪 Niger||7.13||🇹🇼 Taiwan||1.22|
|🇸🇴 Somalia||6.08||🇲🇩 Moldova||1.23|
|🇨🇩 Democratic Republic of Congo||5.92||🇵🇹 Portugal||1.24|
|🇲🇱 Mali||5.88||🇸🇬 Singapore||1.26|
|🇹🇩 Chad||5.75||🇵🇱 Poland||1.29|
|🇦🇴 Angola||5.55||🇬🇷 Greece||1.3|
|🇧🇮 Burundi||5.53||🇰🇷 South Korea||1.33|
|🇺🇬 Uganda||5.41||🇭🇰 Hong Kong||1.34|
|🇳🇬 Nigeria||5.39||🇨🇾 Cyprus||1.34|
|🇬🇲 Gambia||5.29||🇲🇴 Macao||1.36|
At a glance, the countries with the highest fertility are all located in Africa, while several Asian countries end up in the lowest fertility list.
The notable decade of decline in average global fertility can be partially traced back to the actions of the demographic giants China and India. In the 1970s, China’s controversial “one child only” policy and India’s state-led sterilization campaigns caused sharp declines in births for both countries. Though they hold over a quarter of the world’s population today, the effects of these government decisions are still being felt.
Population Plateau, or Cliff?
The overall decline in fertility rates isn’t expected to end anytime soon, and it’s even expected to fall past 2.1 children per woman, which is known as the “replacement rate”. Any fertility below this rate signals fewer new babies than parents, leading to an eventual population decline.
Experts predict that world fertility will further drop from 2.5 to 1.9 children per woman by 2100. This means that global population growth will slow down or possibly even go negative.
Africa will continue to be the only region with significant growth—consistent with the generous fertility rates of Nigeria, the DRC, and Angola. In fact, the continent is expected to house 13 of the world’s largest megacities, as its population expands from 1.3 billion to 4.3 billion by 2100.
Innovation in Virology: Vaccines and Antivirals
Vaccine development has grown six-fold since 1995. Learn how virology, the study of viruses, is driving innovation in the healthcare industry.
Innovation in Virology: Vaccines and Antivirals
The COVID-19 pandemic affected millions of people worldwide and brought renewed focus to virology—the study of viruses.
However, impact made by viruses extends far beyond the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. There are 24 viruses that have each infected more than 80 million people globally, from hepatitis to influenza.
In this graphic from MSCI, we uncover innovation in vaccines and antivirals and the related market opportunities.
What is a Virus?
A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that replicates within living cells. It may cause disease in its host. New viruses can emerge at any time as a result of mutation, or when viruses transfer from animals to humans.
Through virology, scientists are continuously finding new ways to fight against infectious diseases. Two main types of anti-infectives are available: vaccines and antivirals.
Rapid Innovation in Vaccines
Vaccines are substances designed to prevent people from getting infected with a disease or experiencing serious symptoms.
The number of vaccines has increased dramatically over the last three decades. From 2020 to 2021 alone, the number of approved vaccines or clinical candidates jumped by 13%.
|Year||Vaccines Approved or in Development|
Data is a snapshot in time and reflects all vaccines ever approved (and not taken off the market) plus all vaccines in development as of the noted year (for which a trial has not been canceled).
Not only that, it’s possible to have shorter approval timelines. COVID-19 vaccines were approved within 11 months, much more quickly than the 2000-2020 average of 10 years.
In the time between an outbreak and vaccine development, antivirals can play a vital role.
Antivirals: The Second Line of Defense in Virology
Antivirals are drugs that slow or prevent the growth of a virus and treat disease symptoms. They are especially important tools for diseases that do not have an associated vaccine.
In 2021, there were nearly six times as many approved antivirals as there were in 1995. Not only that, antiviral uses have grown to include the potential prevention and treatment of HIV, COVID-19, and a number of other diseases.
in the U.S.
The potential prevention (prophylaxis) and treatment of the same virus are counted as separate uses. Data is cumulative and reflects all antivirals ever approved (and not taken off the market) and all reasons ever approved for using antivirals (that have not been rescinded).
Innovation in virology—and the potential for future developments—is leading to a growing industry.
Expanding Market Opportunities
With opportunities growing and approval times shortening, more companies are entering the market.
|Year||Companies Developing Vaccines/Antivirals|
Data is a snapshot in time and reflects all companies developing vaccines or antivirals as of the noted year. If a company stops being active in the space or ceases to exist, they are removed from the total.
As they work to develop new vaccines and antivirals, companies are conducting clinical trials for many diseases beyond COVID-19 such as respiratory infections and sepsis.
Virology is leading to a number of groundbreaking technologies and therapies, transforming healthcare along the way.
Explore the MSCI Virology Index now.
You may also like
Politics6 months ago
Timeline: Cannabis Legislation in the U.S.
At the federal level, cannabis is illegal, but state laws differ. This graphic looks at the timelines of cannabis legislation in the U.S.
Healthcare1 year ago
Visualizing the Relationship Between Cancer and Lifespan
New research links mutation rates and lifespan. We visualize the data supporting this new framework for understanding cancer.
COVID-192 years ago
Visualizing How COVID-19 Antiviral Pills and Vaccines Work at the Cellular Level
Despite tackling the same disease, vaccines and antiviral pills work differently to combat COVID-19. We visualize how they work in the body.
Wealth6 days ago
Mapped: The Migration of the World’s Millionaires in 2023
Maps2 weeks ago
Mapped: The Deadliest Earthquakes of the 21st Century
Energy4 days ago
Charted: The World’s Biggest Oil Producers
Inequality4 weeks ago
Visualizing the World’s Growing Millionaire Population (2012-2022)
Energy2 weeks ago
What Electricity Sources Power the World?
Technology2 days ago
Which Companies Own the Most Satellites?
United States4 weeks ago
Mapped: The Richest Billionaires in U.S. States
Markets2 weeks ago
The 25 Worst Stocks by Shareholder Wealth Losses (1926-2022)