Enacted in 1979 by China’s Communist Party, the controversial “One Child Policy” was primarily meant to slow the country’s rapid population growth, while capping the growing drain on China’s limited resources.
Even though the government’s primary objectives were arguably achieved through these extreme measures, it has been at an extraordinary human cost. The draconian enforcement of these policies, combined with the unintended consequences on families and the cultural preference for male children, will have an everlasting impact on the country’s future.
Fast forward to today, and the policy is still in place, but to a lesser effect. Since early 2016, families have been allowed to have two children – but even with this change in place, China still has a self-inflicted demographic disaster on its hands.
In the below population pyramids created by Aron Strandberg, the very different trajectories of China and India are compared directly. China is not only skewing older and more male – it is also losing its strong base of younger workers that could potentially support the rest of the population.
China’s “population pyramid” is not really a pyramid at all – in the coming decades, it’ll look more like a single pillar stuck propping up a burgeoning elderly demographic of people born before 1979.
And over time, the unintended and ongoing effects of population control will be extremely impactful on China’s future. As one example of the emerging challenges, a recent estimate published in Scientific American pegged China’s shortage of women at 62 million, creating a situation where there’ll be millions of men who are unable to marry.
This gender imbalance exacerbates an already existing shortfall at the younger end of China’s population spectrum – and the end result will be a rapidly falling ratio of workers to retirees in the Chinese economy:
Today, the ratio is roughly seven workers per retiree – and by 2050, when China’s population is 100 million people fewer than it is today, there will be just two workers per retiree.
A New Population Paradigm
As China struggles with a declining population and a lack of young people, India is expected to takes its place as the most populous country in the world by roughly 2027.
This new paradigm will be an incredibly interesting one to watch.
By the year 2100, China won’t be home to a single one of the world’s 20 most populous cities.
Instead, these massive metropolises will almost exclusively be located in places like India and Africa – and some of them, like Mumbai, will hold 60 million or more inhabitants.
China’s New Hope
While this shift in global demographics is going to be extremely difficult to deal with for China, there is optimism that increasing levels of automation and the emergence of artificial intelligence will help make up for any shortfalls.
The AI market alone is expected to drive $7 trillion in GDP growth by 2030, and China’s investments in robotics and automation are sure to keep the country a center of manufacturing in the future – even if those factories are being staffed with robots instead of workers.
Map: Cities With the Most Ultra-Rich Residents
What cities are the world’s ultra-rich flocking to? This map looks at ultra high net worth individual (UHNWI) growth rates in cities around the world.
Mapped: The Cities With the Most Ultra-Rich Residents
As of 2018, there is a grand total of 198,342 ultra high net worth individuals (UHNWIs) globally with assets over US$30 million, according to the most recent edition of Knight Frank’s Wealth Report.
Although these millionaires and billionaires can be found all over the globe, the reality is that most of the world’s ultra-rich population tends to congregate in world-class cities.
Generally speaking, UHNWIs are looking to live in places that are conducive to safeguarding and growing their wealth, but that also give them access to top-end amenities that allow them to live comfortably and luxuriously.
Top 10 Cities for the Ultra-Rich
To start, we’ll look at a list of global cities, organized by expected number of UHNWIs in 2023:
|Rank||City||UHNWIs (2018)||UHNWIs (2023e)||Change (%)|
|#4||🇺🇸 New York City||3,378||3,891||15.2%|
London continues to top the list, with a roster of 4,944 ultra-rich residents today and the projected growth over the coming years to eclipse the 6,000 mark by 2023.
Tokyo has the second highest amount of UHNWIs today, but the city is adding them at a slower rate than other rival cities. As a result, Singapore will move into the #2 spot overall by 2023, with an expected total of 4,393 high net worth residents.
Finally, it’s worth noting that only two cities on the top 10 list are expected to see growth above a 30% clip over this five-year period. Shanghai and Beijing could be cities to watch for decades to come, as they add millionaires and billionaires at a faster rate than any of the other heavyweights.
Fastest Growing Cities
Where are the billionaire meccas of the future?
Here are the 10 cities that are expected to add UHNWIs the fastest between 2018-2023:
|Rank||City||UHNWIs (2018)||UHNWIs (2023e)||Change (%)|
|#9||🇲🇾 Kuala Lumpur||376||496||31.9%|
Not surprisingly, all 10 of these cities are located in Asia.
Two Indian cities (Delhi and Mumbai) top the list, and are likely to add nearly 40% to their ultra-rich populations over the next five years. China also has a strong showing here.
Interestingly, just missing the above top 10 were a few non-Asian cities: Auckland (#11), Madrid (#12), Munich (#13), and Nairobi (#14) are all expected to grow their UHNWI populations by roughly 25% by 2023.
Unlocking the Power of Women in Investing
Women are better at saving money, but invest less of it – this infographic looks at the specific needs of women in investing and how to better serve them.
Unlocking the Power of Women in Investing
The financial services industry is undergoing a dramatic shift.
The next generation of investors will be younger and much more diverse, with women taking an increasingly prominent role in building and growing family and personal wealth.
Today’s infographic comes to us from New York Life Investments, and it showcases how this new paradigm will shape the future of products and services on offer in the industry, as well as how wealth managers can cater to these changing needs.
Growing Economic Might
Women are underrepresented in the investing world, but this is changing fast. While various cultural and societal reasons are contributors to this, there is also a more simple driver: rising economic might.
- Women-controlled wealth in the U.S. will increase from $14 trillion to $22 trillion between 2015-2020
- Women control 51% of all personal wealth in the United States today
- Women are set to inherit $28.7 trillion in intergenerational wealth over the next 40 years
Women are becoming more important drivers of income and wealth for their families, as well:
- Women are now the primary breadwinners in 40% of U.S. households – a 4x increase from 1960.
- Women own 30% of all private businesses in the U.S.
- Women now hold the majority of management, professional, and related positions (52%)
Finally, women now make up the majority of recipients of Associate’s degrees (61%), Bachelor’s degrees (57%), Master’s degrees (60%), and Doctoral degrees (52%) in the United States.
The Wealth Management Gap
As women increase raise their level of economic influence to new levels, how will they manage this wealth?
Interestingly, studies show that women think about money and wealth differently than men – and differently from precedents already set in the financial services industry:
|The Good News||The Bad News|
|Women are better savers, saving 9.0% of their salary in comparison to men (8.6% of salary)||Women consistently tend to score lower on financial literacy tests|
|Some research points to women generating better returns (+0.4%) off of investments||Some research points to women investing up to 40% less than men|
Data from a recent survey by New York Life Investments sheds light on why women may be underserved by the financial services industry.
Reasons why women switch financial advisors:
- 33% poor performance
- 29% lack of personal connection
- 27% poor customer services
In other words, women don’t switch investment advisors simply because of poor performance – there are other, more complex factors involved. Part of this is likely because 62% of women say they have unique investment needs and challenges:
Perceptions of women and investing:
- Financial professionals treat women differently – 40%
- Women feel patronized by financial advisors – 36%
- Financial advisors are less likely to listen to investing ideas from a woman – 30%
- Financial advisors push women out of financial conversations – 28%
- Women have less access to financial education – 26%
- Financial professionals find it hard to relate to women – 26%
- Financial advising is a man’s world – 24%
A Deeper Dive
It is crucial for advisors to understand that women are not one large, homogeneous group.
In fact, research shows that there are four unique segments of women that each approach investing differently – and they all have different sets of needs.
Stay tuned for Part 2 of this infographic series, which will detail the differences between these segments.
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