Animated Map: The Most Populous Cities in the World
In Africa Alone, 13 Cities Will Pass NYC in Size
The Chart of the Week is a weekly Visual Capitalist feature on Fridays.
If you look at a modern map of the world’s most populous cities, you’ll notice that they are quite evenly distributed around the globe.
Metropolises like Moscow, New York, Tokyo, Cairo, or Rio de Janeiro are spread apart with very different geographic and cultural settings, and practically every continent today can claim at least one of the world’s 20 most populous cities.
In the future, things will be very different, according to projections from the Global Cities Institute. In fact, over the next 80 years or so, some cities will literally 10x or 20x in size – turning into giant megacities that have comparable populations to entire countries like modern-day Germany, France, or the United Kingdom.
The most interesting part? None of these cities will be in the Americas, Europe, China, or Australia.
The Top Four Megacities of the Future
According to predictions from the Global Cities Institute, these will be the biggest cities in the world in 2100:
Lagos is already one of the biggest metropolises in Africa, and we previously noted that it was one of the fastest growing cities in the world.
In fact, it’s growing so fast, that no one knows how big it actually is. The U.N estimated it had 11.2 million people in 2011, and the year after The New York Times said it had at least 21 million inhabitants. In any case, this Nigerian metropolis is growing like a weed, and the Global Cities Institute estimates that the city’s population will hit the 88.3 million mark by 2100 to make it the biggest city in the world.
The city is already a center of West African trade and finance – but Lagos has ambitious plans to up the ante even further. Right now, the city is building Eko Atlantic, a massive new residential and commercial development that is being pitched as the “Manhattan of Nigeria”. It’s just off of Victoria Island, and it is being built on reclaimed land with special measures in place to prevent flooding from global warming.
When people think of the DRC, sprawling metropolises generally aren’t the first things that come to mind.
But Kinshasa, once the site of humble fishing villages, has already likely passed Paris as the largest French-speaking city in the world. And it’s getting bigger – by 2100, it’s projected to be the world’s second largest city overall.
How Kinshasa develops will certainly be interesting. As it stands, approximately 60% of the 17 million people living there by 2025 will be younger than 18 years old. How the city deals with education will be paramount to the city’s future progression.
Have you heard of Dar Es Salaam, the Tanzanian megacity that will hold 73.7 million inhabitants in 2100?
It’s not on a lot of people’s radars, but its population will explode 1,588% to become the third largest city in Africa, and in the world.
Interestingly, East Africa will be home to many of the world’s biggest cities in the future – and many will be seemingly popping up out of nowhere. Consider Blantyre City, Lilongwe, and Lusaka, for example. Most Westerners will not likely have heard of these places, but these centers in Malawi and Zambia will each hold over 35 million people.
Finally, the last city to round out the top four is Mumbai, which is already one of the world’s biggest megacities with over 20 million people.
As the entertainment capital of India, it will be interesting to see how Mumbai evolves – and how it ends up comparing to other Indian megacities like Delhi and Kolkata, which each will hold over 50 million residents themselves.
Mapping the World’s Busiest Air Routes
Flying can get you almost anywhere, but often people are journeying between two popular destinations. Here we map the busiest air routes globally.
Mapping the World’s Busiest Air Routes
Modern air travel gives us almost unlimited possibilities for getting around.
Whether you are acting on your wanderlust to explore new and exotic destinations, hopping to a familiar island for a well-deserved vacation, or jetsetting to London in the comfort of business class, the modern airline industry can get you almost anywhere you need to go.
But while flying allows us to have unique experiences, it’s often the case that we are all coming and going from many of the same popular destinations. As a result, the world’s busiest air routes have hundreds of flights per day connecting important city pairs together.
Ranking City Pairs
Today’s chart pulls data from OAG, which has compiled a detailed report ranking the busiest domestic and international air routes from around the globe.
It’s worth noting that the data is over the period of March 2018 to February 2019, and it excludes carriers that operate fewer than 500 routes per year.
Let’s dive in to see which city pairs have the most air travel between them.
Domestic routes are far more popular than international routes globally. According to the report, there are 15 domestic routes that have more operating flights per year than any international route anywhere.
Here’s a look at the top 10 domestic routes:
|Rank||Country||City Pair||Flights (Annually)||Carriers|
|#1||🇰🇷||Jeju ↔️ Seoul||79,460||7|
|#2||🇦🇺||Melbourne ↔️ Sydney||54,102||4|
|#3||🇮🇳||Mumbai ↔️ Delhi||45,188||6|
|#4||🇧🇷||São Paulo ↔️ Rio de Janeiro||39,747||3|
|#5||🇯🇵||Fukuoka ↔️ Toyko||39,406||4|
|#6||🇻🇳||Hanoi ↔️ Ho Chi Minh City||39,291||3|
|#7||🇯🇵||Hokkaido ↔️ Tokyo||39,271||4|
|#8||🇮🇩||Jakarta ↔️ Surabaya City||37,762||6|
|#9||🇺🇸||Los Angeles ↔️ San Francisco||35,365||5|
|#10||🇸🇦||Jeddah ↔️ Riyadh||35,149||5|
The busiest domestic route might be a surprise, unless you are familiar with Asian geography.
With almost 80,000 annual flights, the 300-mile hop between Seoul and Jeju Island in South Korea is the busiest air route in the world by a large margin. Overall, there are seven carriers competing on it each day, with over 200 daily flights available between them.
What makes Jeju so popular?
Known as the “Hawaii of South Korea”, this volcanic island is an extremely popular vacation destination within the country, and it hosts roughly 15 million guests per year.
On an international basis, the busiest route has almost 50,000 fewer flights per year than the Jeju-Seoul city pair listed above. Not surprisingly, this route – and many other top international routes – are also located in the Asia Pacific region.
|Rank||Countries||City Pair||Flights (Annually)||Carriers|
|#1||🇲🇾🇸🇬||Kuala Lumpur ↔️ Singapore||30,187||8|
|#2||🇭🇰🇹🇼||Hong Kong ↔️ Taipei||28,447||5|
|#3||🇮🇩🇸🇬||Jakarta ↔️ Singapore||27,046||7|
|#4||🇭🇰🇨🇳||Hong Kong ↔️ Shanghai||20,678||5|
|#5||🇮🇩🇲🇾||Jakarta ↔️ Kuala Lumpur||19,741||8|
|#6||🇰🇷🇯🇵||Seoul ↔️ Osaka||19,711||8|
|#7||🇺🇸🇨🇦||New York (LGA) ↔️ Toronto||17,038||3|
|#8||🇭🇰🇰🇷||Hong Kong ↔️ Seoul||15,770||9|
|#9||🇹🇭🇸🇬||Bangkok ↔️ Singapore||14,698||5|
|#10||🇦🇪🇰🇼||Dubai ↔️ Kuwait||14,581||4|
The short hop between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur takes only one hour, and it connects two major Southeast Asian commercial hubs. The route has 41 flights per day between eight airlines, making it one of the most competitive routes globally.
The busiest international route outside of the Asia Pacific is between Toronto and New York (LaGuardia) with 17,038 annual flights. Interestingly, it only has three competing carriers – the lowest of any of the top 10 routes.
Visualizing Africa’s Free Trade Ambitions
The Gambia recently became the latest country to ratify the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), helping the landmark agreement reach critical mass to move forward.
Visualizing Africa’s Free Trade Ambitions
A united African continent working towards common goals would be a major force on the global economic stage.
To this end, nations in the region have been working towards an ambitious plan to create the world’s largest trade area. The Gambia recently became the latest country to ratify the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), helping the agreement reach critical mass to move forward.
Today’s graphic helps put the region – and the status of AfCFTA – into perspective.
The Patchwork Problem
One key to unlocking the region’s economic potential is making it easier for Africa’s 55 countries to trade with one another.
Currently, Africa is a patchwork of regulations and tariffs, and trade between countries has suffered as a result. For example, only 10% of Nigeria’s annual trade activity is with other African countries. This is a surprising given the country’s dominant economic standing and location firmly in the center of the continent.
As a whole, Africa’s intra-continental trade level hovers at just around 20%, while nations in Europe and Asia are at 69% and 59%, respectively. Clearly, there is a lot of room for growth.
What is AfCFTA?
AfCFTA is the biggest free trade agreement since the establishment of the World Trade Organization.
The objective of the agreement is to create a single continental market for goods and services, with free movement of business people and investments.
Last year, 44 African leaders signed an agreement to ratify AfCFTA, with half that number needed to move the agreement forward. Earlier this week, The Gambia was the 22nd country to announce that its government has ratified the agreement, meeting the threshold to officially put the wheels in motion.
We have witnessed a historic moment for the African Continent. AfCFTA is now set to become operational within
the month, creating a single continental market for goods
– Mark-Anthony Johnson, CEO, JIC Holdings
The good news for the agreement is that many of Africa’s largest economies – including Egypt and South Africa – are already on board. There is, however, one significant holdout.
The Elephant in the Room
Even though the threshold for pushing AfCFTA forward has been reached, Nigeria’s lack of commitment is still a major blow to the strength and credibility of the agreement.
Nigeria’s situation is complicated. The country’s economic prospects are bright, and Lagos is on a trajectory to become the world’s largest city over the next few decades. On the other hand, there is fierce opposition from labor unions, and the country is home to largest concentration of people living in extreme poverty in the world.
[AfCFTA is] an extremely dangerous and radioactive
neo-liberal policy initiative.
– Ayuba Wabba, President of NLC, Nigeria’s largest labor union
While the majority of African nations appear to be on board with the plan to enact AfCFTA, it remains to be seen whether Nigeria comes along for the ride or decides to go it alone.
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