Immigration by Country, as a Percentage of the Population
Connect with us

Maps

Mapped: Immigration by Country, as a Percentage of the Population

Published

on

Immigration by Country, as a Percentage of the Population

Many people move countries for work, study, or family. However, they may also be displaced by climate change, conflict, or economic instability.

There were 272 million immigrants in 2020, amounting to 3.5% of the global population. Where do they end up?

This interactive map from Our World in Data highlights immigration by country, as a percentage of the total population, using data from the United Nations (UN) Populations Division.

What Is an Immigrant?

The UN defines an immigrant as someone who has been living in a country other than their country of birth for one year or longer. In addition to new citizens or residents, a variety of people fit under this definition:

  • Foreign workers
  • International students
  • Refugees

The UN also includes estimates of unauthorized immigrants living in various countries. On the flip side, tourists, temporary workers, and overseas military personnel are typically not included.

Immigration by Country Over Time

With this definition in mind, here’s a breakdown of immigration by country as a percentage of the nation’s population.

Country19902020Absolute ChangeRelative Change
Afghanistan0.47%0.37%-0.10 p.p.-20%
Albania2.01%1.70%-0.31 p.p.-16%
Algeria1.06%0.57%-0.49 p.p.-46%
American Samoa45.18%30.35%²-14.83 p.p.-33%
Andorra71.35%58.98%-12.37 p.p.-17%
Angola0.28%2.00%1.71 p.p.606%
Anguilla30.59%33.24%²2.66 p.p.9%
Antigua and Barbuda19.24%30.01%10.77 p.p.56%
Argentina5.06%5.05%>-0.01 p.p.>-1%
Armenia18.62%6.42%-12.20 p.p.-65%
Aruba22.84%34.52%²11.67 p.p.51%
Australia23.32%30.14%6.82 p.p.29%
Austria10.27%19.30%9.03 p.p.88%
Azerbaijan4.98%2.49%-2.49 p.p.-50%
Bahamas10.48%16.17%5.69 p.p.54%
Bahrain34.93%55.01%20.09 p.p.58%
Bangladesh0.85%1.28%0.43 p.p.50%
Barbados9.21%12.13%2.93 p.p.32%
Belarus12.30%11.29%-1.01 p.p.-8%
Belgium12.80%17.30%4.51 p.p.35%
Belize16.21%15.60%-0.61 p.p.-4%
Benin1.54%3.25%1.71 p.p.111%
Bhutan4.49%6.95%2.46 p.p.55%
Bolivia1.07%1.41%0.33 p.p.31%
Bosnia and Herzegovina1.25%1.10%-0.16 p.p.-12%
Botswana2.14%4.69%2.55 p.p.119%
Brazil0.54%0.51%-0.03 p.p.-5%
Brunei28.29%25.59%-2.70 p.p.-10%
Bulgaria0.24%2.65%2.41 p.p.992%
Burkina Faso3.97%3.46%-0.50 p.p.-13%
Burundi6.13%2.90%-3.23 p.p.-53%
Cambodia0.43%0.47%0.05 p.p.11%
Cameroon2.26%2.18%-0.08 p.p.-3%
Canada15.73%21.33%5.59 p.p.36%
Cape Verde2.64%2.84%0.20 p.p.7%
Central African Republic2.40%1.83%-0.56 p.p.-23%
Chad1.25%3.33%2.09 p.p.167%
Chile0.81%8.61%7.79 p.p.962%
China0.03%0.07%0.04 p.p.125%
Colombia0.32%3.75%3.43 p.p.1089%
Comoros3.42%1.44%-1.98 p.p.-58%
Congo5.49%7.02%1.53 p.p.28%
Costa Rica13.39%10.22%-3.17 p.p.-24%
Cote d'Ivoire15.23%9.72%-5.51 p.p.-36%
Croatia9.95%12.86%2.91 p.p.29%
Cuba0.33%0.03%-0.30 p.p.-92%
Cyprus5.71%15.77%10.05 p.p.176%
Czechia1.07%5.05%3.98 p.p.373%
Democratic Republic of Congo2.18%1.06%-1.11 p.p.-51%
Denmark4.58%12.39%7.81 p.p.171%
Djibouti20.70%12.12%-8.58 p.p.-41%
Dominica3.58%11.51%7.93 p.p.222%
Dominican Republic4.08%5.57%1.48 p.p.36%
Ecuador0.77%4.45%3.68 p.p.478%
Egypt0.31%0.53%0.22 p.p.72%
El Salvador0.90%0.66%-0.24 p.p.-27%
Equatorial Guinea0.65%16.44%15.78 p.p.2413%
Eritrea0.53%0.39%-0.13 p.p.-25%
Estonia24.41%15.02%-9.38 p.p.-38%
Eswatini9.12%2.83%-6.29 p.p.-69%
Ethiopia2.41%0.94%-1.47 p.p.-61%
Faeroe Islands9.01%10.96%²1.95 p.p.22%
Falkland Islands42.69%50.53%²7.84 p.p.18%
Fiji1.82%1.57%-0.25 p.p.-14%
Finland1.27%6.97%5.70 p.p.450%
France10.41%13.06%2.65 p.p.25%
French Guiana54.35%41.09%²-13.26 p.p.-24%
Gabon13.50%18.72%5.22 p.p.39%
Gambia12.36%8.92%-3.44 p.p.-28%
Georgia5.63%1.99%-3.64 p.p.-65%
Germany7.51%18.81%11.30 p.p.151%
Ghana1.12%1.53%0.42 p.p.37%
Greece6.04%12.86%6.81 p.p.113%
Greenland16.71%10.52%²-6.19 p.p.-37%
Grenada4.43%6.41%1.98 p.p.45%
Guadeloupe18.72%21.13%²2.41 p.p.13%
Guatemala2.85%0.47%-2.38 p.p.-83%
Guinea6.35%0.93%-5.43 p.p.-85%
Guinea-Bissau1.58%0.91%-0.66 p.p.-42%
Guyana0.55%3.96%3.41 p.p.619%
Haiti0.27%0.17%-0.11 p.p.-39%
Honduras5.46%0.40%-5.06 p.p.-93%
Hong Kong38.73%39.52%0.78 p.p.2%
Hungary3.35%6.05%2.70 p.p.81%
Iceland3.76%19.17%15.41 p.p.410%
India0.87%0.35%-0.52 p.p.-59%
Indonesia0.26%0.13%-0.13 p.p.-49%
Iran7.61%3.33%-4.28 p.p.-56%
Iraq0.48%0.91%0.43 p.p.89%
Ireland6.49%17.64%11.15 p.p.172%
Israel36.70%22.57%-14.13 p.p.-39%
Italy2.50%10.56%8.06 p.p.322%
Jamaica0.85%0.80%-0.05 p.p.-6%
Japan0.86%2.19%1.33 p.p.154%
Jordan32.15%33.89%1.74 p.p.5%
Kazakhstan22.09%19.88%-2.21 p.p.-10%
Kenya1.26%1.95%0.70 p.p.55%
Kiribati2.99%2.62%-0.37 p.p.-12%
Kuwait51.27%72.83%21.55 p.p.42%
Kyrgyzstan14.25%3.05%-11.20 p.p.-79%
Laos0.54%0.67%0.13 p.p.25%
Latvia24.25%12.69%-11.55 p.p.-48%
Lebanon18.68%25.09%6.41 p.p.34%
Lesotho0.48%0.56%0.08 p.p.16%
Liberia4.58%1.74%-2.84 p.p.-62%
Libya10.30%12.03%1.73 p.p.17%
Liechtenstein37.88%67.85%29.97 p.p.79%
Lithuania9.45%5.33%-4.12 p.p.-44%
Luxembourg29.81%47.62%17.81 p.p.60%
Madagascar0.21%0.13%-0.08 p.p.-38%
Malawi11.99%1.00%-10.99 p.p.-92%
Malaysia3.86%10.74%6.88 p.p.178%
Maldives3.89%12.96%9.07 p.p.233%
Mali1.90%2.40%0.50 p.p.26%
Malta4.17%25.99%21.83 p.p.524%
Marshall Islands2.45%5.57%3.12 p.p.127%
Martinique10.77%16.75%²5.98 p.p.55%
Mauritania5.49%3.92%-1.57 p.p.-29%
Mauritius0.34%2.27%1.93 p.p.564%
Mexico0.83%0.93%0.10 p.p.12%
Moldova12.46%2.59%-9.88 p.p.-79%
Monaco69.17%67.78%-1.39 p.p.-2%
Mongolia0.31%0.65%0.34 p.p.111%
Montenegro12.58%¹11.30%-1.27 p.p.-10%
Montserrat18.76%21.79%²3.03 p.p.16%
Morocco0.22%0.28%0.06 p.p.25%
Mozambique0.94%1.08%0.14 p.p.15%
Myanmar0.32%0.14%-0.18 p.p.-56%
Namibia8.42%4.30%-4.11 p.p.-49%
Nauru29.61%20.32%-9.30 p.p.-31%
Nepal2.27%1.67%-0.60 p.p.-26%
Netherlands7.90%13.76%5.86 p.p.74%
New Caledonia22.20%25.45%²3.25 p.p.15%
New Zealand15.24%28.65%13.41 p.p.88%
Nicaragua0.99%0.64%-0.35 p.p.-36%
Niger1.44%1.44%>-0.01 p.p.>-1%
Nigeria0.48%0.64%0.16 p.p.32%
North Korea0.17%0.19%0.02 p.p.14%
North Macedonia4.77%6.30%1.54 p.p.32%
Norway4.53%15.72%11.19 p.p.247%
Oman16.78%46.47%29.69 p.p.177%
Pakistan5.77%1.48%-4.28 p.p.-74%
Palau18.59%28.12%9.53 p.p.51%
Palestine13.72%5.35%-8.37 p.p.-61%
Panama2.54%7.26%4.72 p.p.186%
Papua New Guinea0.73%0.35%-0.38 p.p.-52%
Paraguay4.64%2.38%-2.26 p.p.-49%
Peru0.26%3.71%3.46 p.p.1345%
Philip.p.ines0.25%0.21%-0.04 p.p.-17%
Poland2.97%2.16%-0.81 p.p.-27%
Portugal4.40%9.83%5.42 p.p.123%
Puerto Rico9.12%7.59%²-1.53 p.p.-17%
Qatar65.04%77.27%12.23 p.p.19%
Reunion9.47%14.39%²4.91 p.p.52%
Romania0.58%3.67%3.09 p.p.534%
Russia7.81%7.97%0.16 p.p.2%
Rwanda2.19%3.97%1.77 p.p.81%
Saint Kitts and Nevis7.97%14.52%6.55 p.p.82%
Saint Lucia3.84%4.54%0.70 p.p.18%
Saint Pierre and Miquelon19.69%19.14%²-0.55 p.p.-3%
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines3.69%4.27%0.58 p.p.16%
Samoa2.06%2.03%-0.03 p.p.-2%
San Marino13.72%16.33%2.61 p.p.19%
Sao Tome and Principe4.68%0.98%-3.71 p.p.-79%
Saudi Arabia30.79%38.65%7.86 p.p.26%
Senegal3.59%1.64%-1.95 p.p.-54%
Serbia1.04%9.42%8.38 p.p.803%
Seychelles5.27%13.27%8.00 p.p.152%
Sierra Leone5.14%0.67%-4.47 p.p.-87%
Singapore24.14%43.14%19.00 p.p.79%
Slovakia0.78%3.61%2.83 p.p.362%
Slovenia8.88%13.37%4.50 p.p.51%
Solomon Islands1.35%0.37%-0.99 p.p.-73%
Somalia6.62%0.37%-6.25 p.p.-94%
South Africa3.16%4.82%1.66 p.p.52%
South Korea0.10%3.37%3.27 p.p.3238%
South Sudan2.43%¹7.88%5.46 p.p.225%
Spain2.10%14.63%12.54 p.p.598%
Sri Lanka0.24%0.19%-0.05 p.p.-22%
Sudan6.96%3.15%-3.82 p.p.-55%
Suriname4.46%8.15%3.68 p.p.83%
Sweden9.21%19.84%10.63 p.p.116%
Switzerland20.93%28.79%7.86 p.p.38%
Syria5.74%4.96%-0.77 p.p.-13%
Tajikistan8.12%2.89%-5.22 p.p.-64%
Tanzania2.28%0.71%-1.56 p.p.-69%
Thailand0.94%5.20%4.27 p.p.457%
Togo2.25%3.38%1.13 p.p.50%
Tonga3.06%3.54%0.48 p.p.16%
Trinidad and Tobago4.15%5.63%1.49 p.p.36%
Tunisia0.46%0.51%0.05 p.p.10%
Turkey2.16%7.18%5.02 p.p.233%
Turkmenistan8.32%3.23%-5.09 p.p.-61%
Tuvalu3.57%2.03%-1.54 p.p.-43%
Uganda3.14%3.76%0.63 p.p.20%
Ukraine13.39%11.43%-1.97 p.p.-15%
United Arab Emirates71.46%88.13%16.67 p.p.23%
United Kingdom6.39%13.79%7.40 p.p.116%
United States9.22%15.30%6.08 p.p.66%
Uruguay3.15%3.12%-0.04 p.p.-1%
Uzbekistan8.10%3.47%-4.63 p.p.-57%
Vanuatu1.57%1.06%-0.51 p.p.-33%
Venezuela5.22%4.66%-0.56 p.p.-11%
Vietnam0.04%0.08%0.04 p.p.93%
Western Sahara0.97%0.83%²-0.14 p.p.-15%
World2.87%3.60%0.73 p.p.25%
Yemen1.01%1.30%0.28 p.p.28%
Zambia3.48%1.02%-2.46 p.p.-71%
Zimbabwe6.08%2.80%-3.28 p.p.-54%


¹Data as of 2010 due to data availability
²Data as of 2015 due to data availability

Higher immigration levels are generally correlated with higher standards of living and advanced economies. For instance, North America, Europe, and Oceania all have a relatively high proportion of immigrants.

The United States is home to the largest number of immigrants—over 50 million—which now make up 15% of the country’s population. Since 1990, the proportion of immigrants in the country has continued to rise. As with most advanced economies, immigration has helped to counter a decline in fertility rates.

Over the last 30 years, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has had the highest immigration by country, with 88% of its population being defined as immigrants in 2020. The country has the highest GDP per capita of any of its neighboring countries, and draws many migrant workers.

Meanwhile, South Korea has seen the largest relative increase in immigrants over the last three decades. Faced with the lowest fertility rate in the world and an aging population, the country has enacted policy reforms to encourage immigration, including a formal guest worker program and local voting rights for permanent foreign residents.

Integration or Separation?

Immigrants can help fill labor gaps and drive economic innovation in their new country of residence. Depending on their destination, they may benefit from things like higher pay, access to better education, and a more stable political climate.

Notably, countries respond to immigration in different ways. In one study measuring what governments are doing to integrate migrants, Sweden ranked at the top. The country offers non-EU citizens equal access to education, labor market rights and its social safety net, and it also has strong anti-discrimination laws.

On the flip side, immigrants may face challenges integrating into other countries. For instance, the UAE’s kafala (sponsorship) system is structured so that employment visas are granted by local individuals or companies rather than the state. This gives employers enhanced power over their workers, and in the past it has resulted in alleged human rights abuses.

green check mark icon

This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist
Click for Comments

Demographics

Mapped: The Population of India’s States Compared with Countries

This map juxtaposes nations and Indian states to provide a new perspective on the world’s soon-to-be most populous country

Published

on

The Population of India’s States Compared with Countries

In a world with eight billion people, even the numbers of the largest population centers like China and India can start to lose their impact.

The visualization above looks to give people a different frame of reference to think about the country’s massive population figures.

The Population Breakdown

Similar to other big countries, the gap between India’s largest and smallest states is quite wide.

Uttar Pradesh is the most populous country subdivision in the world at 232 million people, while Sikkim, in the northeast of the country, is the least populated state in India (0.7 million).

Here are India’s 28 states and 8 union territories compared to other countries and territories with comparable sizes:

State Population (2022)CountryPopulation (2022)
Uttar Pradesh232M🇧🇷 Brazil + 🇪🇨 Ecuador234M
Bihar129M🇲🇽 Mexico132M
Maharashtra125M🇯🇵 Japan126M
West Bengal101M🇪🇬 Egypt107M
Madhya Pradesh85M🇹🇷 Turkey87M
Tamil Nadu84M🇩🇪 Germany84M
Rajasthan80M🇺🇦 Ukraine + 🇵🇱 Poland81M
Gujarat70M🇹🇭 Thailand70M
Karnataka70M🇬🇧 UK69M
Andhra Pradesh54M🇲🇲 Myanmar55M
Odisha47M🇪🇸 Spain47M
Jharkhand40M🇮🇶 Iraq42M
Telangana38M🇲🇾 Malaysia + 🇸🇬 Singapore39M
Assam36M🇨🇦 Canada39M
Kerala35M🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia36M
Chhattisgarh32M🇵🇪 Peru34M
Punjab31M🇦🇺 Australia + 🇳🇿 New Zealand31M
Haryana29M🇻🇪 Venezuela28M
Delhi19M🇷🇴 Romania19M
Jammu and Kashmir15M🇿🇼 Zimbabwe15M
Uttarakhand12M🇧🇴 Bolivia12M
Himachal Pradesh7.5M🇭🇰 Hong Kong7.6M
Tripura4.2M🇭🇷 Croatia4.0M
Meghalaya3.8M🇪🇷 Eritrea3.7M
Manipur3.4M🇺🇾 Uruguay3.5M
Nagaland2.1M🇸🇮 Slovenia2.1M
Puducherry1.6M🇧🇭 Bahrain1.8M
Arunachal Pradesh1.7M🇱🇻 Latvia1.8M
Goa1.5M🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea1.5M
Mizoram1.3M🇪🇪 Estonia1.3M
Chandigarh1.2M🇨🇾 Cyprus1.3M
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
& Daman and Diu
0.8M🇬🇾 Guyana0.8M
Sikkim0.7M🇲🇴 Macao0.7M
Andaman & Nicobar Islands0.4M🇧🇸 Bahamas0.4M
Lakshadweep0.07M🇰🇾 Cayman Islands0.07M 

Hypothetically, if India’s states were to all became countries today, they would take up half the spots in a ranking of the world’s top 20 most populous countries.

A number of Indian states match up evenly against some very large countries, including Maharashtra (Japan), West Bengal (Egypt), and Tamil Nadu (Germany). Of course, the largest is Uttar Pradesh (Brazil+Chile), which also happens to measure up to neighboring Pakistan.

For people living in countries such as Canada or Australia, it may be humbling to know that these countries are equal to a smallish Indian state.

The Big Get Bigger

According to United Nations projections, India is on track to become the most populous country in the world in 2023.

The population of India’s growth is fueled by several factors, including declining mortality rates, increased life expectancy, and high birth rates. While India’s population growth has slowed in recent years due to factors such as urbanization and increasing access to contraception, the country’s population is still expected to continue growing at a significant rate for the foreseeable future.

Where does this data come from?

Source: Population projections for India are from indiacensus.net. Population figures for comparison countries are from the UN’s World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision (medium-fertility variant), accessed via Worldometers‘ live tracker. All population figures shown are 2022 projections.

Data note: Because there are only so many countries, the populations of comparison countries may not perfectly match that of the various Indian states and union territories. Numbers are rounded.

Map note: A number of borders and regions in India are disputed with other countries. Our depiction of borders is a good faith, apolitical attempt at reflecting the “de facto” situation in each region.

Continue Reading

Subscribe

Popular