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Mapped: Immigration by Country, as a Percentage of the Population

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Immigration by Country, as a Percentage of the Population

Many people move countries for work, study, or family. However, they may also be displaced by climate change, conflict, or economic instability.

There were 272 million immigrants in 2020, amounting to 3.5% of the global population. Where do they end up?

This interactive map from Our World in Data highlights immigration by country, as a percentage of the total population, using data from the United Nations (UN) Populations Division.

What Is an Immigrant?

The UN defines an immigrant as someone who has been living in a country other than their country of birth for one year or longer. In addition to new citizens or residents, a variety of people fit under this definition:

  • Foreign workers
  • International students
  • Refugees

The UN also includes estimates of unauthorized immigrants living in various countries. On the flip side, tourists, temporary workers, and overseas military personnel are typically not included.

Immigration by Country Over Time

With this definition in mind, here’s a breakdown of immigration by country as a percentage of the nation’s population.

Country19902020Absolute ChangeRelative Change
Afghanistan0.47%0.37%-0.10 p.p.-20%
Albania2.01%1.70%-0.31 p.p.-16%
Algeria1.06%0.57%-0.49 p.p.-46%
American Samoa45.18%30.35%²-14.83 p.p.-33%
Andorra71.35%58.98%-12.37 p.p.-17%
Angola0.28%2.00%1.71 p.p.606%
Anguilla30.59%33.24%²2.66 p.p.9%
Antigua and Barbuda19.24%30.01%10.77 p.p.56%
Argentina5.06%5.05%>-0.01 p.p.>-1%
Armenia18.62%6.42%-12.20 p.p.-65%
Aruba22.84%34.52%²11.67 p.p.51%
Australia23.32%30.14%6.82 p.p.29%
Austria10.27%19.30%9.03 p.p.88%
Azerbaijan4.98%2.49%-2.49 p.p.-50%
Bahamas10.48%16.17%5.69 p.p.54%
Bahrain34.93%55.01%20.09 p.p.58%
Bangladesh0.85%1.28%0.43 p.p.50%
Barbados9.21%12.13%2.93 p.p.32%
Belarus12.30%11.29%-1.01 p.p.-8%
Belgium12.80%17.30%4.51 p.p.35%
Belize16.21%15.60%-0.61 p.p.-4%
Benin1.54%3.25%1.71 p.p.111%
Bhutan4.49%6.95%2.46 p.p.55%
Bolivia1.07%1.41%0.33 p.p.31%
Bosnia and Herzegovina1.25%1.10%-0.16 p.p.-12%
Botswana2.14%4.69%2.55 p.p.119%
Brazil0.54%0.51%-0.03 p.p.-5%
Brunei28.29%25.59%-2.70 p.p.-10%
Bulgaria0.24%2.65%2.41 p.p.992%
Burkina Faso3.97%3.46%-0.50 p.p.-13%
Burundi6.13%2.90%-3.23 p.p.-53%
Cambodia0.43%0.47%0.05 p.p.11%
Cameroon2.26%2.18%-0.08 p.p.-3%
Canada15.73%21.33%5.59 p.p.36%
Cape Verde2.64%2.84%0.20 p.p.7%
Central African Republic2.40%1.83%-0.56 p.p.-23%
Chad1.25%3.33%2.09 p.p.167%
Chile0.81%8.61%7.79 p.p.962%
China0.03%0.07%0.04 p.p.125%
Colombia0.32%3.75%3.43 p.p.1089%
Comoros3.42%1.44%-1.98 p.p.-58%
Congo5.49%7.02%1.53 p.p.28%
Costa Rica13.39%10.22%-3.17 p.p.-24%
Cote d'Ivoire15.23%9.72%-5.51 p.p.-36%
Croatia9.95%12.86%2.91 p.p.29%
Cuba0.33%0.03%-0.30 p.p.-92%
Cyprus5.71%15.77%10.05 p.p.176%
Czechia1.07%5.05%3.98 p.p.373%
Democratic Republic of Congo2.18%1.06%-1.11 p.p.-51%
Denmark4.58%12.39%7.81 p.p.171%
Djibouti20.70%12.12%-8.58 p.p.-41%
Dominica3.58%11.51%7.93 p.p.222%
Dominican Republic4.08%5.57%1.48 p.p.36%
Ecuador0.77%4.45%3.68 p.p.478%
Egypt0.31%0.53%0.22 p.p.72%
El Salvador0.90%0.66%-0.24 p.p.-27%
Equatorial Guinea0.65%16.44%15.78 p.p.2413%
Eritrea0.53%0.39%-0.13 p.p.-25%
Estonia24.41%15.02%-9.38 p.p.-38%
Eswatini9.12%2.83%-6.29 p.p.-69%
Ethiopia2.41%0.94%-1.47 p.p.-61%
Faeroe Islands9.01%10.96%²1.95 p.p.22%
Falkland Islands42.69%50.53%²7.84 p.p.18%
Fiji1.82%1.57%-0.25 p.p.-14%
Finland1.27%6.97%5.70 p.p.450%
France10.41%13.06%2.65 p.p.25%
French Guiana54.35%41.09%²-13.26 p.p.-24%
Gabon13.50%18.72%5.22 p.p.39%
Gambia12.36%8.92%-3.44 p.p.-28%
Georgia5.63%1.99%-3.64 p.p.-65%
Germany7.51%18.81%11.30 p.p.151%
Ghana1.12%1.53%0.42 p.p.37%
Greece6.04%12.86%6.81 p.p.113%
Greenland16.71%10.52%²-6.19 p.p.-37%
Grenada4.43%6.41%1.98 p.p.45%
Guadeloupe18.72%21.13%²2.41 p.p.13%
Guatemala2.85%0.47%-2.38 p.p.-83%
Guinea6.35%0.93%-5.43 p.p.-85%
Guinea-Bissau1.58%0.91%-0.66 p.p.-42%
Guyana0.55%3.96%3.41 p.p.619%
Haiti0.27%0.17%-0.11 p.p.-39%
Honduras5.46%0.40%-5.06 p.p.-93%
Hong Kong38.73%39.52%0.78 p.p.2%
Hungary3.35%6.05%2.70 p.p.81%
Iceland3.76%19.17%15.41 p.p.410%
India0.87%0.35%-0.52 p.p.-59%
Indonesia0.26%0.13%-0.13 p.p.-49%
Iran7.61%3.33%-4.28 p.p.-56%
Iraq0.48%0.91%0.43 p.p.89%
Ireland6.49%17.64%11.15 p.p.172%
Israel36.70%22.57%-14.13 p.p.-39%
Italy2.50%10.56%8.06 p.p.322%
Jamaica0.85%0.80%-0.05 p.p.-6%
Japan0.86%2.19%1.33 p.p.154%
Jordan32.15%33.89%1.74 p.p.5%
Kazakhstan22.09%19.88%-2.21 p.p.-10%
Kenya1.26%1.95%0.70 p.p.55%
Kiribati2.99%2.62%-0.37 p.p.-12%
Kuwait51.27%72.83%21.55 p.p.42%
Kyrgyzstan14.25%3.05%-11.20 p.p.-79%
Laos0.54%0.67%0.13 p.p.25%
Latvia24.25%12.69%-11.55 p.p.-48%
Lebanon18.68%25.09%6.41 p.p.34%
Lesotho0.48%0.56%0.08 p.p.16%
Liberia4.58%1.74%-2.84 p.p.-62%
Libya10.30%12.03%1.73 p.p.17%
Liechtenstein37.88%67.85%29.97 p.p.79%
Lithuania9.45%5.33%-4.12 p.p.-44%
Luxembourg29.81%47.62%17.81 p.p.60%
Madagascar0.21%0.13%-0.08 p.p.-38%
Malawi11.99%1.00%-10.99 p.p.-92%
Malaysia3.86%10.74%6.88 p.p.178%
Maldives3.89%12.96%9.07 p.p.233%
Mali1.90%2.40%0.50 p.p.26%
Malta4.17%25.99%21.83 p.p.524%
Marshall Islands2.45%5.57%3.12 p.p.127%
Martinique10.77%16.75%²5.98 p.p.55%
Mauritania5.49%3.92%-1.57 p.p.-29%
Mauritius0.34%2.27%1.93 p.p.564%
Mexico0.83%0.93%0.10 p.p.12%
Moldova12.46%2.59%-9.88 p.p.-79%
Monaco69.17%67.78%-1.39 p.p.-2%
Mongolia0.31%0.65%0.34 p.p.111%
Montenegro12.58%¹11.30%-1.27 p.p.-10%
Montserrat18.76%21.79%²3.03 p.p.16%
Morocco0.22%0.28%0.06 p.p.25%
Mozambique0.94%1.08%0.14 p.p.15%
Myanmar0.32%0.14%-0.18 p.p.-56%
Namibia8.42%4.30%-4.11 p.p.-49%
Nauru29.61%20.32%-9.30 p.p.-31%
Nepal2.27%1.67%-0.60 p.p.-26%
Netherlands7.90%13.76%5.86 p.p.74%
New Caledonia22.20%25.45%²3.25 p.p.15%
New Zealand15.24%28.65%13.41 p.p.88%
Nicaragua0.99%0.64%-0.35 p.p.-36%
Niger1.44%1.44%>-0.01 p.p.>-1%
Nigeria0.48%0.64%0.16 p.p.32%
North Korea0.17%0.19%0.02 p.p.14%
North Macedonia4.77%6.30%1.54 p.p.32%
Norway4.53%15.72%11.19 p.p.247%
Oman16.78%46.47%29.69 p.p.177%
Pakistan5.77%1.48%-4.28 p.p.-74%
Palau18.59%28.12%9.53 p.p.51%
Palestine13.72%5.35%-8.37 p.p.-61%
Panama2.54%7.26%4.72 p.p.186%
Papua New Guinea0.73%0.35%-0.38 p.p.-52%
Paraguay4.64%2.38%-2.26 p.p.-49%
Peru0.26%3.71%3.46 p.p.1345%
Philip.p.ines0.25%0.21%-0.04 p.p.-17%
Poland2.97%2.16%-0.81 p.p.-27%
Portugal4.40%9.83%5.42 p.p.123%
Puerto Rico9.12%7.59%²-1.53 p.p.-17%
Qatar65.04%77.27%12.23 p.p.19%
Reunion9.47%14.39%²4.91 p.p.52%
Romania0.58%3.67%3.09 p.p.534%
Russia7.81%7.97%0.16 p.p.2%
Rwanda2.19%3.97%1.77 p.p.81%
Saint Kitts and Nevis7.97%14.52%6.55 p.p.82%
Saint Lucia3.84%4.54%0.70 p.p.18%
Saint Pierre and Miquelon19.69%19.14%²-0.55 p.p.-3%
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines3.69%4.27%0.58 p.p.16%
Samoa2.06%2.03%-0.03 p.p.-2%
San Marino13.72%16.33%2.61 p.p.19%
Sao Tome and Principe4.68%0.98%-3.71 p.p.-79%
Saudi Arabia30.79%38.65%7.86 p.p.26%
Senegal3.59%1.64%-1.95 p.p.-54%
Serbia1.04%9.42%8.38 p.p.803%
Seychelles5.27%13.27%8.00 p.p.152%
Sierra Leone5.14%0.67%-4.47 p.p.-87%
Singapore24.14%43.14%19.00 p.p.79%
Slovakia0.78%3.61%2.83 p.p.362%
Slovenia8.88%13.37%4.50 p.p.51%
Solomon Islands1.35%0.37%-0.99 p.p.-73%
Somalia6.62%0.37%-6.25 p.p.-94%
South Africa3.16%4.82%1.66 p.p.52%
South Korea0.10%3.37%3.27 p.p.3238%
South Sudan2.43%¹7.88%5.46 p.p.225%
Spain2.10%14.63%12.54 p.p.598%
Sri Lanka0.24%0.19%-0.05 p.p.-22%
Sudan6.96%3.15%-3.82 p.p.-55%
Suriname4.46%8.15%3.68 p.p.83%
Sweden9.21%19.84%10.63 p.p.116%
Switzerland20.93%28.79%7.86 p.p.38%
Syria5.74%4.96%-0.77 p.p.-13%
Tajikistan8.12%2.89%-5.22 p.p.-64%
Tanzania2.28%0.71%-1.56 p.p.-69%
Thailand0.94%5.20%4.27 p.p.457%
Togo2.25%3.38%1.13 p.p.50%
Tonga3.06%3.54%0.48 p.p.16%
Trinidad and Tobago4.15%5.63%1.49 p.p.36%
Tunisia0.46%0.51%0.05 p.p.10%
Turkey2.16%7.18%5.02 p.p.233%
Turkmenistan8.32%3.23%-5.09 p.p.-61%
Tuvalu3.57%2.03%-1.54 p.p.-43%
Uganda3.14%3.76%0.63 p.p.20%
Ukraine13.39%11.43%-1.97 p.p.-15%
United Arab Emirates71.46%88.13%16.67 p.p.23%
United Kingdom6.39%13.79%7.40 p.p.116%
United States9.22%15.30%6.08 p.p.66%
Uruguay3.15%3.12%-0.04 p.p.-1%
Uzbekistan8.10%3.47%-4.63 p.p.-57%
Vanuatu1.57%1.06%-0.51 p.p.-33%
Venezuela5.22%4.66%-0.56 p.p.-11%
Vietnam0.04%0.08%0.04 p.p.93%
Western Sahara0.97%0.83%²-0.14 p.p.-15%
World2.87%3.60%0.73 p.p.25%
Yemen1.01%1.30%0.28 p.p.28%
Zambia3.48%1.02%-2.46 p.p.-71%
Zimbabwe6.08%2.80%-3.28 p.p.-54%


¹Data as of 2010 due to data availability
²Data as of 2015 due to data availability

Higher immigration levels are generally correlated with higher standards of living and advanced economies. For instance, North America, Europe, and Oceania all have a relatively high proportion of immigrants.

The United States is home to the largest number of immigrants—over 50 million—which now make up 15% of the country’s population. Since 1990, the proportion of immigrants in the country has continued to rise. As with most advanced economies, immigration has helped to counter a decline in fertility rates.

Over the last 30 years, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has had the highest immigration by country, with 88% of its population being defined as immigrants in 2020. The country has the highest GDP per capita of any of its neighboring countries, and draws many migrant workers.

Meanwhile, South Korea has seen the largest relative increase in immigrants over the last three decades. Faced with the lowest fertility rate in the world and an aging population, the country has enacted policy reforms to encourage immigration, including a formal guest worker program and local voting rights for permanent foreign residents.

Integration or Separation?

Immigrants can help fill labor gaps and drive economic innovation in their new country of residence. Depending on their destination, they may benefit from things like higher pay, access to better education, and a more stable political climate.

Notably, countries respond to immigration in different ways. In one study measuring what governments are doing to integrate migrants, Sweden ranked at the top. The country offers non-EU citizens equal access to education, labor market rights and its social safety net, and it also has strong anti-discrimination laws.

On the flip side, immigrants may face challenges integrating into other countries. For instance, the UAE’s kafala (sponsorship) system is structured so that employment visas are granted by local individuals or companies rather than the state. This gives employers enhanced power over their workers, and in the past it has resulted in alleged human rights abuses.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Politics

Mapped: 2024 Global Elections by Country

It’s election year around the world, and this map of 2024 global elections by country shows just how many people will be impacted.

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2024 global elections map

Mapping 2024 Global Elections by Country

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

With almost half of the world’s population residing in countries holding executive or legislative elections in 2024, it’s set to be the busiest election year ever recorded.

This visualization uses collated 2024 global elections data from our 2024 Global Forecast Series as well as from Time, while country populations are taken from Worldometer as of January 2024.

Countries Holding 2024 Elections Around the World

Many people are already aware of the U.S. presidential and legislative elections set to be held on November 5th, especially due to American influence on the global political stage and media coverage.

But two governments affecting larger populations, India and the European Union, are also slated to have elections in 2024.

Below, we sort the countries expected to hold elections in 2024 by population (countries with no set election date yet have been marked “N/A”):

CountryElection DateTypePopulation
🇮🇳 IndiaN/ALegislative1,428,627,663
🇪🇺 European Union6/6/2024Legislative448,387,872
🇺🇸 United States11/5/2024Executive & Legislative339,996,563
🇮🇩 Indonesia2/14/2024Executive & Legislative277,534,122
🇵🇰 Pakistan2/8/2024Legislative240,485,658
🇧🇩 Bangladesh1/7/2024Legislative172,954,319
🇷🇺 Russia3/15/2024Executive144,444,359
🇲🇽 Mexico6/2/2024Executive & Legislative128,455,567
🇮🇷 Iran3/1/2024Legislative89,172,767
🇬🇧 UKN/ALegislative67,736,802
🇿🇦 South Africa5/29/2024Legislative60,414,495
🇰🇷 South Korea4/10/2024Legislative51,784,059
🇩🇿 AlgeriaN/AExecutive45,606,480
🇺🇦 Ukraine3/31/2024Executive36,744,634
🇺🇿 UzbekistanN/ALegislative35,163,944
🇬🇭 Ghana12/7/2024Executive & Legislative34,121,985
🇲🇿 Mozambique10/9/2024Executive & Legislative33,897,354
🇲🇬 MadagascarN/ALegislative30,325,732
🇻🇪 VenezuelaN/AExecutive28,838,499
🇰🇵 North KoreaN/ALegislative26,160,821
🇹🇼 Taiwan1/13/2024Executive & Legislative23,923,276
🇲🇱 MaliN/AExecutive23,293,698
🇸🇾 SyriaN/ALegislative23,227,014
🇱🇰 Sri LankaN/AExecutive & Legislative21,893,579
🇷🇴 RomaniaN/AExecutive & Legislative19,892,812
🇹🇩 ChadN/AExecutive18,278,568
🇸🇳 Senegal12/15/2024Executive17,763,163
🇰🇭 Cambodia2/25/2024Legislative16,944,826
🇷🇼 Rwanda7/15/2024Executive & Legislative14,094,683
🇹🇳 TunisiaN/AExecutive12,458,223
🇧🇪 Belgium6/9/2024Legislative11,686,140
🇯🇴 JordanN/ALegislative11,337,052
🇩🇴 Dominican Republic5/19/2024Executive & Legislative11,332,972
🇸🇸 South SudanN/AExecutive & Legislative11,088,796
🇨🇿 CzechiaN/ALegislative10,495,295
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan2/7/2024Executive10,412,651
🇵🇹 Portugal3/10/2024Legislative10,247,605
🇧🇾 Belarus2/25/2024Legislative9,498,238
🇹🇬 Togo4/20/2024Legislative9,053,799
🇦🇹 AustriaN/ALegislative8,958,960
🇸🇻 El Salvador2/4/2024Executive & Legislative6,364,943
🇸🇰 Slovakia3/23/2024Executive5,795,199
🇫🇮 Finland1/28/2024Executive5,545,475
🇲🇷 Mauritania6/22/2024Executive4,862,989
🇵🇦 Panama5/5/2024Executive & Legislative4,468,087
🇭🇷 Croatia9/22/2024Executive & Legislative4,008,617
🇬🇪 Georgia10/26/2024Executive & Legislative3,728,282
🇲🇳 Mongolia6/28/2024Legislative3,447,157
🇲🇩 MoldovaN/AExecutive3,435,931
🇺🇾 Uruguay10/27/2024Executive & Legislative3,423,108
🇱🇹 Lithuania5/12/2024Executive & Legislative2,718,352
🇧🇼 BotswanaN/ALegislative2,675,352
🇳🇦 NamibiaN/AExecutive & Legislative2,604,172
🇬🇼 Guinea BissauN/AExecutive2,150,842
🇲🇰 North Macedonia5/8/2024Executive & Legislative2,085,679
🇲🇺 Mauritius11/30/2024Legislative1300557
🇰🇲 Comoros1/14/2024Executive852,075
🇧🇹 Bhutan1/9/2024Legislative787,424
🇸🇧 Solomon Islands4/17/2024Legislative740,424
🇲🇻 Maldives3/17/2024Legislative521,021
🇮🇸 Iceland6/1/2024Executive375,318
🇰🇮 KiribatiN/AExecutive & Legislative133,515
🇸🇲 San MarinoN/ALegislative33,642
🇵🇼 Palau11/12/2024Executive & Legislative18,058
🇹🇻 Tuvalu1/26/2024Legislative11,396

A few notable elections have already occurred. Taiwan held general elections on January 13th, with the more anti-China Democratic Progressive Party retaining the presidency but losing its majority in the legislature.

Pakistan also held elections on February 8th, with former Prime Minster Imran Khan’s party and affiliates winning a plurality of seats but losing power to a military-backed coalition.

Pakistan’s election results were cast into doubt by foreign observers and media, with Khan having been arrested and sentenced to prison on corruption charges. It is far from the only country holding controversial and potentially undemocratic elections in 2024.

Bangladesh’s landslide January 7th elections were boycotted by the opposition and voters, and Russia’s March 15th elections had three anti-war presidential candidates barred from competing, including Alexei Navalny before his controversial death in February.

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