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Visualizing All of China’s Trade Partners

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China's trade partners by import and export destinations.

Visualizing All of China’s Trade Partners

China stands as a formidable player in the global trade arena, wielding its influence as the world’s largest goods exporter.

With a complex network of trade partnerships spanning more than 200 countries, regions, and territories, the world’s second-largest economy has significant economic relationships with both allies and adversaries.

By using 2022 trade data from China’s General Administration of Customs, this visualization from Truman Du breaks down the nation’s top trading partners through imports and exports by destination.

China’s Imports and Exports by Country in 2022

Over the course of 2022, China saw exports totaling $3.57 trillion and imports totaling $2.71 trillion, giving it a massive trade surplus of $857 billion.

ℹ️ Note: For products manufactured in two or more countries, China records the place where the last substantial working or processing occurred as the place of origin, including China itself.
CountryImports (2022 USD)Exports (2022 USD)Balance (2022 USD)
🇺🇸 United States$177.7B$578.8B+$401.1B
🇭🇰 Hong Kong$7.8B$295.2B+$287.4B
🇳🇱 Netherlands$12.5B$117.4B+$104.9B
🇮🇳 India$17.5B$117.7B+$100.3B
🇲🇽 Mexico$17.4B$77.3B+$59.8B
🇬🇧 United Kingdom$21.8B$81.0B+$59.2B
🇻🇳 Vietnam$88.0B$144.4B+$56.4B
🇸🇬 Singapore$33.9B$80.0B+$46.1B
🇵🇭 Philippines$23.0B$63.9B+$40.9B
🇵🇱 Poland$5.1B$38.0B+$32.9B
🇪🇸 Spain$9.8B$41.6B+$31.9B
🇹🇷 Türkiye$4.5B$33.9B+$29.4B
🇧🇪 Belgium$8.7B$35.5B+$26.7B
🇧🇩 Bangladesh$1.0B$26.7B+$25.7B
🇮🇹 Italy$27.0B$50.5B+$23.6B
🇹🇭 Thailand$56.5B$77.7B+$21.1B
🇳🇬 Nigeria$1.6B$22.1B+$20.5B
🇵🇰 Pakistan$3.4B$22.9B+$19.5B
🇪🇬 Egypt$1.0B$17.1B+$16.0B
🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan$0.1B$15.3B+$15.3B
🇨🇿 Czechia$5.4B$18.2B+$12.8B
🇰🇭 Cambodia$1.8B$14.0B+$12.2B
🇬🇷 Greece$0.8B$12.9B+$12.1B
🇵🇦 Panama$1.2B$12.6B+$11.4B
🇨🇦 Canada$42.3B$53.4B+$11.1B
🇫🇷 France$35.6B$45.5B+$9.9B
🇨🇴 Colombia$7.0B$15.5B+$8.5B
🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates$45.4B$53.5B+$8.1B
🇰🇪 Kenya$0.3B$8.2B+$7.9B
🇱🇷 Liberia$0.0B$7.5B+$7.5B
🇮🇱 Israel$9.0B$16.4B+$7.4B
🇹🇿 Tanzania$0.5B$7.7B+$7.1B
🇸🇮 Slovenia$0.6B$6.8B+$6.3B
🇬🇭 Ghana$2.3B$7.8B+$5.5B
🇭🇺 Hungary$5.0B$10.5B+$5.4B
🇺🇿 Uzbekistan$2.3B$7.4B+$5.1B
🇩🇿 Algeria$1.1B$6.2B+$5.1B
🇯🇴 Jordan$0.7B$5.7B+$4.9B
🇲🇦 Morocco$0.9B$5.7B+$4.8B
🇩🇪 Germany$111.4B$115.9B+$4.5B
🇩🇰 Denmark$5.7B$10.2B+$4.4B
🇷🇴 Romania$3.1B$7.4B+$4.3B
🇦🇷 Argentina$8.6B$12.7B+$4.1B
🇲🇴 Macao$0.1B$4.2B+$4.1B
🇬🇹 Guatemala$0.6B$4.3B+$3.8B
🇩🇴 Dominican Republic$0.5B$4.3B+$3.7B
🇸🇳 Senegal$0.3B$4.0B+$3.7B
🇲🇭 Marshall Islands$0.0B$3.5B+$3.5B
🇱🇰 Sri Lanka$0.5B$3.7B+$3.2B
🇩🇯 Djibouti$0.1B$3.2B+$3.1B
🇮🇷 Iran$6.4B$9.4B+$3.0B
🇹🇬 Togo$0.2B$3.1B+$2.9B
🇵🇹 Portugal$3.0B$6.0B+$2.9B
🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire$1.0B$3.5B+$2.5B
🇨🇲 Cameroon$0.7B$3.1B+$2.5B
🇱🇧 Lebanon$0.1B$2.5B+$2.4B
🇸🇪 Sweden$9.1B$11.4B+$2.2B
🇻🇪 Venezuela$0.8B$3.0B+$2.1B
🇾🇪 Yemen$0.6B$2.8B+$2.1B
🇭🇷 Croatia$0.2B$2.3B+$2.1B
🇲🇿 Mozambique$1.3B$3.2B+$1.9B
🇲🇲 Myanmar$11.5B$13.4B+$1.9B
🇹🇯 Tajikistan$0.4B$2.2B+$1.8B
🇵🇾 Paraguay$0.1B$1.9B+$1.8B
🇪🇹 Ethiopia$0.5B$2.2B+$1.8B
🇱🇹 Lithuania$0.1B$1.8B+$1.7B
🇳🇵 Nepal$0.0B$1.6B+$1.6B
🇹🇳 Tunisia$0.3B$1.9B+$1.6B
🇧🇬 Bulgaria$1.3B$2.8B+$1.6B
🇭🇳 Honduras$0.0B$1.6B+$1.5B
🇧🇭 Bahrain$0.3B$1.8B+$1.5B
🇰🇿 Kazakhstan$14.8B$16.3B+$1.5B
🇧🇾 Belarus$1.8B$3.2B+$1.4B
🇧🇯 Benin$0.3B$1.7B+$1.4B
🇸🇻 El Salvador$0.2B$1.7B+$1.4B
🇲🇹 Malta$0.6B$2.0B+$1.4B
🇸🇩 Sudan$0.9B$2.0B+$1.1B
🇨🇾 Cyprus$0.0B$1.2B+$1.1B
🇬🇪 Georgia$0.1B$1.2B+$1.1B
🇸🇴 Somalia$0.0B$1.0B+$1.0B
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan$0.1B$1.1B+$1.0B
🇯🇲 Jamaica$0.0B$1.0B+$1.0B
🇺🇬 Uganda$0.1B$1.1B+$1.0B
🇲🇺 Mauritius$0.0B$1.0B+$0.9B
🇷🇸 Serbia$1.4B$2.2B+$0.8B
🇲🇬 Madagascar$0.6B$1.4B+$0.8B
🇰🇵 Korea, DPR$0.1B$0.8B+$0.7B
🇳🇮 Nicaragua$0.0B$0.7B+$0.7B
🇪🇪 Estonia$0.3B$0.9B+$0.7B
🇱🇻 Latvia$0.4B$1.0B+$0.6B
🇭🇹 Haiti$0.0B$0.6B+$0.6B
🇦🇱 Albania$0.2B$0.7B+$0.5B
🇦🇫 Afghanistan$0.0B$0.6B+$0.5B
🇲🇱 Mali$0.1B$0.6B+$0.5B
🇫🇯 Fiji$0.0B$0.5B+$0.5B
🇲🇻 Maldives$0.0B$0.4B+$0.4B
🇸🇾 Syria$0.0B$0.4B+$0.4B
🇬🇲 Gambia$0.0B$0.4B+$0.4B
🇧🇫 Burkina Faso$0.1B$0.5B+$0.4B
🇧🇸 Bahamas$0.0B$0.4B+$0.4B
🇳🇪 Niger$0.3B$0.7B+$0.4B
🇨🇷 Costa Rica$2.0B$2.4B+$0.4B
🇷🇼 Rwanda$0.1B$0.4B+$0.3B
🇧🇿 Belize$0.0B$0.3B+$0.3B
🇸🇷 Suriname$0.0B$0.3B+$0.3B
🇲🇼 Malawi$0.0B$0.3B+$0.3B
🇷🇪 Réunion$0.0B$0.2B+$0.2B
🇱🇺 Luxembourg$0.3B$0.5B+$0.2B
🇧🇴 Bolivia$0.9B$1.1B+$0.2B
🇲🇪 Montenegro$0.0B$0.2B+$0.2B
🇧🇹 Bhutan$0.0B$0.2B+$0.2B
🇵🇸 Palestine$0.0B$0.2B+$0.2B
🇵🇫 French Polynesia$0.0B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇹🇱 Timor-Leste$0.1B$0.3B+$0.1B
🇧🇧 Barbados$0.0B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇲🇩 Moldova$0.1B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇼🇸 Samoa$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇮🇸 Iceland$0.2B$0.3B+$0.1B
🇻🇬 British Virgin Islands$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇧🇮 Burundi$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🌏 Other Oceanian Territories$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇦🇬 Antigua and Barbuda$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇸🇨 Seychelles$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇨🇻 Cabo Verde$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇻🇺 Vanuatu$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇧🇲 Bermuda$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇸🇿 Eswatini$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇬🇵 Guadeloupe$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇰🇲 Comoros$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇦🇼 Aruba$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇧🇦 Bosnia and Herzegovina$0.1B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇨🇼 Curaçao$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇾🇹 Mayotte$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇹🇴 Tonga$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇲🇰 North Macedonia$0.2B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇰🇾 Cayman Islands$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🌎 Other Latin American Territories$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇵🇼 Palau$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇲🇶 Martinique$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇰🇮 Kiribati$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇬🇫 French Guiana$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇱🇸 Lesotho$0.0B$0.1B+$0.0B
🇱🇨 Saint Lucia$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇩🇲 Dominica$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇹🇻 Tuvalu$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇫🇲 Federated States of Micronesia$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇨🇫 Central African Republic$0.0B$0.1B+$0.0B
🇧🇶 Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇬🇩 Grenada$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇦🇩 Andorra$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇻🇨 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇬🇮 Gibraltar$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇸🇹 Sao Tome and Principe$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🌍 Other European Territories$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇰🇳 Saint Kitts and Nevis$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇳🇷 Nauru$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇨🇰 Cook Islands$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇹🇨 Turks and Caicos Islands$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇲🇫 Saint Martin$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🌏 Other North American Territories$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇸🇲 San Marino$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🌍 Other African Territories$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇮🇨 Canary Islands$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇼🇫 Wallis and Futuna$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇳🇫 Norfolk Island$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇪🇭 Western Sahara$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🌏 Other Asian Territories$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇲🇸 Montserrat$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇪🇺 Ceuta$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇻🇦 Holy See$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇪🇺 Melilla$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇵🇲 Saint Pierre and Miquelon$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇧🇶 Bonaire$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇲🇨 Monaco$0.0B$0.0B-$0.0B
🇨🇺 Cuba$0.5B$0.4B-$0.0B
🇳🇦 Namibia$0.6B$0.6B-$0.0B
🇸🇸 South Sudan$0.2B$0.2B-$-0.1B
🇸🇧 Solomon Islands$0.3B$0.2B-$-0.1B
🇫🇴 Faroe Islands$0.1B$0.0B-$-0.1B
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein$0.2B$0.1B-$-0.1B
🇧🇼 Botswana$0.4B$0.2B-$-0.2B
🇿🇼 Zimbabwe$1.3B$1.1B-$-0.2B
🇸🇱 Sierra Leone$0.8B$0.6B-$-0.2B
🇹🇹 Trinidad and Tobago$0.8B$0.5B-$-0.2B
🇲🇷 Mauritania$1.2B$0.9B-$-0.2B
🇦🇲 Armenia$0.8B$0.5B-$-0.3B
🇪🇷 Eritrea$0.5B$0.1B-$-0.3B
🇵🇷 Puerto Rico$1.3B$1.0B-$-0.3B
🇬🇱 Greenland$0.4B$0.0B-$-0.4B
🇪🇨 Ecuador$6.8B$6.3B-$-0.6B
🇱🇾 Libya$2.9B$2.4B-$-0.6B
🇫🇮 Finland$5.3B$4.5B-$-0.7B
🇬🇾 Guyana$1.3B$0.6B-$-0.7B
🇹🇩 Chad$1.1B$0.3B-$-0.8B
🇺🇦 Ukraine$4.3B$3.3B-$-1.1B
🇱🇦 Laos$3.4B$2.3B-$-1.1B
🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea$1.5B$0.2B-$-1.3B
🌏 Unknown Countries (Territories)$1.4B$0.0B-$-1.4B
🇧🇳 Brunei$2.2B$0.8B-$-1.4B
🇺🇾 Uruguay$4.5B$3.0B-$-1.5B
🇳🇨 New Caledonia$1.9B$0.2B-$-1.7B
🇬🇳 Guinea$4.5B$2.3B-$-2.3B
🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea$3.8B$1.4B-$-2.4B
🇳🇴 Norway$8.0B$5.2B-$-2.8B
🇦🇹 Austria$8.2B$5.1B-$-3.1B
🇸🇰 Slovakia$7.7B$4.4B-$-3.3B
🇬🇦 Gabon$3.9B$0.6B-$-3.4B
🇨🇬 Congo$5.6B$1.0B-$-4.6B
🇿🇲 Zambia$5.7B$1.0B-$-4.8B
🇲🇳 Mongolia$9.3B$2.9B-$-6.5B
🇳🇿 New Zealand$16.0B$9.1B-$-6.8B
🇮🇩 Indonesia$77.9B$70.9B-$-7.0B
🇿🇦 South Africa$32.4B$24.0B-$-8.4B
🇹🇲 Turkmenistan$10.3B$0.9B-$-9.5B
🇵🇪 Peru$24.1B$13.4B-$-10.7B
🇨🇩 Democratic Republic of Congo$16.6B$5.1B-$-11.5B
🇯🇵 Japan$184.4B$172.5B-$-11.9B
🇮🇪 Ireland$18.1B$5.7B-$-12.4B
🇲🇾 Malaysia$109.9B$92.2B-$-17.7B
🇶🇦 Qatar$22.6B$3.9B-$-18.6B
🇦🇴 Angola$23.2B$4.0B-$-19.2B
🇰🇼 Kuwait$26.5B$4.9B-$-21.6B
🇨🇱 Chile$44.4B$22.4B-$-22.0B
🇮🇶 Iraq$39.4B$13.8B-$-25.6B
🇴🇲 Oman$36.2B$4.2B-$-32.1B
🇰🇷 Republic of Korea$199.1B$161.3B-$-37.8B
🇷🇺 Russia$114.4B$75.6B-$-38.7B
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia$78.1B$37.7B-$-40.4B
🇨🇭 Switzerland$49.7B$7.6B-$-42.1B
🇧🇷 Brazil$109.4B$61.8B-$-47.6B
🇦🇺 Australia$142.1B$78.5B-$-63.6B
🇨🇳 China$121.9BN/A-$-121.9B
🇹🇼 Taiwan$237.2B$81.5B-$-155.8B

China had individual trade surpluses with the overwhelming majority of its trade partners: 174 of the 234 countries and territories listed.

These trade surpluses are especially visible in China’s trade relationships with many of the world’s largest economies, including the U.S. and India, with $401.1 billion and $100.3 billion surpluses respectively.

Meanwhile, a good sum of the country’s trade deficits are with major Asian economies. Its largest deficit is with Taiwan, primarily coming from integrated circuit imports. China also has deficits with Japan (-$11.9 billion) and South Korea (-$37.8 billion), the region’s second and fourth-largest economies respectively, largely due to electronics and machinery imports.

The country’s other trade deficits stem from fulfilling strategic needs. For example, China has deficits with oil-producing countries like Russia and Saudi Arabia. It also has a trade deficit with Australia, a key supplier of raw goods such as iron, gold, lithium, and liquefied petroleum gas.

China’s Evolving Trade Partner Relationships

China’s trade relationships extend far beyond just economic considerations; they reflect historical, geopolitical, and strategic factors as well.

Taiwan’s major role in the semiconductor market, for example, makes it both a valuable trade partner and a contentious rival. China considers Taiwan a part of its territory, while Taiwan operates as a separate, self-governed entity.

Likewise, China’s increasing investments in infrastructure across parts of Asia and Africa are starting to reflect growing trade balances with developing countries set to become major trade partners in the future.

As the Chinese economy evolves (and potentially weakens), its relationships with both allies and potential enemies may only grow more complex.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Real Estate

Charted: U.S. Median House Prices vs. Income

We chart the ever-widening gap between median incomes and the median price of houses in America, using data from the Federal Reserve from 1984 to 2022.

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A cropped chart with the ever-widening gap between median house prices vs. income in America, using data from the Federal Reserve from 1984 to 2022.

Houses in America Now Cost Six Times the Median Income

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

As of 2023, an American household hoping to buy a median-priced home, needs to make at least $100,000 a year. In some cities, they need to make nearly 3–4x that amount.

The median household income in the country is currently well below that $100,000 threshold. To look at the trends between median incomes and median house prices through the years, we charted their movement using the following datasets data from the Federal Reserve:

Importantly this graphic does not make allowances for actual household disposable income, nor how monthly mortgage payments change depending on the interest rates at the time. Finally, both datasets are in current U.S. dollars, meaning they are not adjusted for inflation.

Timeline: Median House Prices vs. Income in America

In 1984, the median annual income for an American household stood at $22,420, and the median house sales price for the first quarter of the year came in at $78,200. The house sales price-to-income ratio stood at 3.49.

By pure arithmetic, this is the most affordable houses have been in the U.S. since the Federal Reserve began tracking this data, as seen in the table below.

A hidden caveat of course, was inflation: running rampant towards the end of the 70s and the start of the 80s. While it fell significantly in the next five years, in 1984 the 30-year fixed rate was close to 14%, meaning a significant chunk of household income went to interest payments.

DateMedian House
Sales Price
Median Household
Income
Price-to-Income Ratio
1984-01-01$78,200$22,4203.49
1985-01-01$82,800$23,6203.51
1986-01-01$88,000$24,9003.53
1987-01-01$97,900$26,0603.76
1988-01-01$110,000$27,2304.04
1989-01-01$118,000$28,9104.08
1990-01-01$123,900$29,9404.14
1991-01-01$120,000$30,1303.98
1992-01-01$119,500$30,6403.90
1993-01-01$125,000$31,2404.00
1994-01-01$130,000$32,2604.03
1995-01-01$130,000$34,0803.81
1996-01-01$137,000$35,4903.86
1997-01-01$145,000$37,0103.92
1998-01-01$152,200$38,8903.91
1999-01-01$157,400$40,7003.87
2000-01-01$165,300$41,9903.94
2001-01-01$169,800$42,2304.02
2002-01-01$188,700$42,4104.45
2003-01-01$186,000$43,3204.29
2004-01-01$212,700$44,3304.80
2005-01-01$232,500$46,3305.02
2006-01-01$247,700$48,2005.14
2007-01-01$257,400$50,2305.12
2008-01-01$233,900$50,3004.65
2009-01-01$208,400$49,7804.19
2010-01-01$222,900$49,2804.52
2011-01-01$226,900$50,0504.53
2012-01-01$238,400$51,0204.67
2013-01-01$258,400$53,5904.82
2014-01-01$275,200$53,6605.13
2015-01-01$289,200$56,5205.12
2016-01-01$299,800$59,0405.08
2017-01-01$313,100$61,1405.12
2018-01-01$331,800$63,1805.25
2019-01-01$313,000$68,7004.56
2020-01-01$329,000$68,0104.84
2021-01-01$369,800$70,7805.22
2022-01-01$433,100$74,5805.81

Note: The median house sale price listed in this table and in the chart is from the first quarter of each year. As a result the ratio can vary between quarters of each year.

The mid-2000s witnessed an explosive surge in home prices, eventually culminating in a housing bubble and subsequent crash—an influential factor in the 2008 recession. Subprime mortgages played a pivotal role in this scenario, as they were issued to buyers with poor credit and then bundled into seemingly more attractive securities for financial institutions. However, these loans eventually faltered as economic circumstances changed.

In response to the recession and to stimulate economic demand, the Federal Reserve reduced interest rates, consequently lowering mortgage rates.

While this measure aimed to make homeownership more accessible, it also contributed to a significant increase in housing prices in the following years. Additionally, a new generation entering the home-buying market heightened demand. Simultaneously, a scarcity of new construction and a surge in investors and corporations converting housing units into rental properties led to a shortage in supply, exerting upward pressure on prices.

As a result, median house prices are now nearly 6x the median household income in America.

How Does Unaffordable Housing Affect the U.S. Economy?

When housing costs exceed a significant portion of household income, families are forced to cut back on other essential expenditures, dampening consumer spending. Given how expanding housing supply helped drive U.S. economic growth in the 20th century, the current constraints in the country are especially ironic.

Unaffordable housing also stifles mobility, as individuals may be reluctant to relocate for better job opportunities due to housing constraints. On the flip side, many cities are seeing severe labor shortages as many lower-wage workers simply cannot afford to live in the city. Both phenomena affect market efficiency and productivity growth.

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