The Topography of Mars: Visualizing an Alien Landscape
The surface of the Red Planet is full of surprises.
While the Grand Canyon and Mount Everest are both impressive features on Earth, they are nothing next to Valles Marineris and Olympus Mons, their epic Martian counterparts.
Even more extraordinary, the overall difference between the highest and lowest point on Mars is 19 miles (31 km), whereas just 12 miles (20 km) separates the summit of Mount Everest from the bottom of the Mariana Trench on Earth.
This week’s map comes to us from Reddit user /hellofromthemoon, who carefully laid out the terrain of Mars in awesome detail.
Take a look…
Lay of the Land
Mars can be divided into two major regions, separated by a ridge of mountains roughly around the planet’s middle.
On the north side are lowlands that have been shaped by lava flows, creating a surface dominated by large plains. Meanwhile, the southern hemisphere is mountainous, with many meteorite impact craters, some of which stretch for hundreds of kilometers.
The Plains Game
The plains of Mars fall into two categories: the planitia (Latin for “plains”) and the maria (Latin for “seas”). The latter type is named after the sea because these regions appeared to be under water in the eyes of early astronomers. But actually, the surfaces of these regions are covered with many rocks, making them look darker to the eye.
The second type of plains are the planitia, and they account for vast areas covered by sand rich in iron oxide. The strong winds that blow the sand and dust around can change the configuration of the plains, forming new patterns on the surface of Mars. However, the planet’s features remain relatively unchanged over time.
One of the largest plains is the Utopia Planitia (Latin for “Nowhere Land Plain”) impact basin. This giant impact crater lies within a larger lava plain. With an estimated diameter of 3,300 km, Utopia Planitia is the largest recognized impact basin in the solar system.
As Above, so Below
The northern and southern hemispheres are vastly different from one another on Mars, and such a stark difference is unlike any other planet in the solar system. Patterns of internal magma flow could have caused the variation, but some scientists think it is the result of Mars taking one or several major impacts.
About 4.5 billion years ago, Mars formed from the collection of rocks that circle the sun before they formed the planets. Over time, the red planet’s molten masses differentiated into a core, a mantle, and an outer crust.
Understanding how the red planet’s topography changes over time is a crucial step in grasping how the planet formed. That is why NASA launched the InSight Mars lander on May 5, 2019. This probe will listen for vibrations deep within the Martian crust to further understand the composition of the planet.
Understanding the topography of Mars is critical for any mission to the planet, including the selection of a site for a potential colony. There are three basic criteria for picking a manned mission landing site:
- A spot that is sustainable in terms of water, energy generation, and building materials.
- A spot that is scientifically interesting for a long mission.
- A spot that is safe to land.
Brian Hynek, a planetary scientist and Director of the Center for Astrobiology at the University of Colorado at Boulder, offers five potential landing sites:
- Outer edge of Mars’ North polar ice cap
- Deep canyon of Valles Marineris
- Martian “glaciers” in the Hellas Basin near Mars’ mid-latitudes
- Arabia Terra
- Martian lava tubes and caves
With growing information from every new mission to Mars, a greater picture will help guide future human activity and ambitions on the planet.
The Impact of International Students on the U.S. Economy
The U.S. has benefited from being the top destination for the world’s international students, but new enrollments have begun to show signs of weakness.
The Economic Impact of America’s International Students
For decades, the U.S. has been the top destination for students looking to study abroad.
It’s easy to see why. Not only does the country provide access to world-class economic hubs like Silicon Valley, but the U.S. is also home to 14 of the top 20 universities in the world, many of which are famed for their research and alumni networks.
Yet, there is cause for concern.
International enrollments in the U.S. have slowed, while other countries are attracting a larger share of the global talent pool. To help us understand what’s at stake if enrollments continue to decline, today’s infographic shows the impact of international students on the U.S. economy.
Driving American Innovation and Growth
International students and scholars are a vital economic asset, and America’s ability to attract them puts the country in an enviable position.
First, there are the direct economic benefits which result from tuition fees and living expenses. Throughout the 2018/2019 school year, these benefits totaled $41 billion, a comparable value to many other American exports:
Even after graduation, however, international students and scholars continue to make significant contributions to the U.S. economy.
For example, attracting the world’s brightest minds helps to grow the knowledge economy in the United States, and 40% of American Nobel Prizes won in chemistry, medicine, and physics since 2000 have been awarded to immigrants. Furthermore, students who return home often do so with a network of connections and an appreciation for American culture, thus promoting U.S. international leadership.
Finally, these individuals can also go on to become successful entrepreneurs and business leaders in the U.S. economy. The list is long, but here are two noteworthy examples:
- Elon Musk, known for founding Paypal, Tesla, and SpaceX, was born in South Africa. He received two Bachelor’s degrees from the University of Pennsylvania before founding his first business.
- Satya Nadella, CEO of Microsoft, was an international student from India. He received an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin and an MBA from the University of Chicago before helping Microsoft develop its cloud computing capabilities.
Cause for Concern
In recent years, however, the number of new international students enrolling at U.S. institutions has been on the decline:
|School Year||New International Student Enrollments in the U.S.||Percent Change|
With so many opportunities and success stories, why have international enrollments slowed? A survey of 509 higher education institutions in the U.S. revealed the top reasons for declining international enrollments:
|Cited Reason for Decline in Enrollment||% of Institutions|
|% of Institutions|
|% of Institutions
|Visa Application Process (delays/denials)||34%||68%||83%|
|Social and Political Environment||15%||57%||60%|
|Enroll in Another Country’s Institutions||19%||54%||59%|
|Cost of Tuition||51%||55%||57%|
|Securing a Job||-||41%||44%|
Critically, the two most common reasons for declining enrollment—visa applications and the social and political environment—suggest that the quality of an American education is not the issue. Rather, it would appear that students are being discouraged from coming to the United States.
When we discourage or turn away international students, we lose much more than the students themselves… We lose their inventions and innovation, their collaborative input and their contributions to our communities.
– Dr. Martha E. Pollack, President, Cornell University
At the same time, other countries are taking proactive measures to attract global talent.
Australia allows its international students to work for up to 18 months after graduation. This limit can increase to 4 years for graduates of high-demand occupations. In 2018, the country saw a 15% increase in international enrollments.
Canada, a country distinguished for its multiculturalism, is quickly becoming an attractive destination for international students. The country offers expedited visa processing for qualified individuals, as well as a 3-year work visa for graduates. In 2017, international enrollments in Canada grew by an impressive 20%.
The world’s brightest minds are an important asset for continued innovation and growth, and today, there is a mass of countries welcoming them with open arms.
While the U.S. is still the preferred destination for international students and scholars, the country’s leadership in this space is at risk. In fact, since 2001, the share of international students in America has fallen from 28% to 21%.
Will the U.S be able to maintain global competitiveness if the number of new international students enrolling continues to fall? Can the country work to cultivate a more welcoming and barrier-free route to higher education?
These are potent questions that will need to be answered, especially with a sizable economic impact on the line.
Where Are the Oldest Companies in Existence?
Which companies have stood the test of time? This detailed map highlights the oldest company in every country that is still in business.
Where Are the Oldest Companies in Existence?
View the high resolution version of this infographic by clicking here.
In just a few decades, it’s possible that some of today’s most recognized companies may no longer be household names.
Corporate longevity, or the average lifespan of a company, has been shrinking dramatically.
In the 1960s, a typical S&P 500 company was projected to last for more than 60 years. However, with the rapidly transforming business landscape today, it’s down to just 18 years.
The Companies With the Strongest Staying Power
Even with companies skewing younger, there are always exceptions to the rule.
Luckily, many companies around the world have stood the test of time, and today’s detailed map from Business Financing highlights the oldest company in existence in each country.
For centuries, here are the world’s oldest corporations which have made their mark:
|578||Kongō Gumi Co., Ltd.||Japan||Construction|
|803||St. Peter Stifts Kulinarium||Austria||Service Industry (Restaurant)|
|862||Staffelter Hof||Germany||Distillers, Vintners, & Breweries (Winery)|
|864||Monnaie de Paris||France||Manufacturing & Production (Mint)|
|886||The Royal Mint||England||Manufacturing & Production (Mint)|
|900||Sean’s Bar||Ireland||Service Industry (Pub)|
|1040||Pontificia Fonderia Marinelli||Italy||Manufacturing & Production (Bell foundry)|
|1074||Affligem Brewery||Belgium||Distillers, Vintners, & Breweries|
|1135||Munke Mølle||Denmark||Manufacturing & Production (Flour Mill)|
|1153||Ma Yu Ching’s Bucket Chicken House||China||Service Industry (Restaurant)|
Whether they were born out of necessity to support a rapidly growing population—requiring new infrastructure and more money circulation—or simply to satisfy peoples’ thirst for alcohol or hunger for fried chicken, these companies continue to play a lasting role.
The Oldest Company in Every Country, by Region
Let’s dive into the regional maps, which paint a different picture for each continent.
In the following maps, countries are color-coded based on the major industry that the oldest company falls under:
- Primary: Natural resources
- Secondary: Manufacturing and processing
- Tertiary: Services and distribution
- Quaternary: Knowledge and information
Notes on Methodology:
This research considers both state-run and independent businesses in their definitions. For countries where data was hard to pin down, they have been grayed out.
As well, since many countries have a relatively new inception, present-day names and borders have been used. The map does not factor in older companies that are no longer in operation, or if it was unclear whether they were still open.
Click here to explore the full research methodology.
Mexico’s La Casa de Moneda de México (founded 1534) is the oldest company across North America, and the first mint of America. Owned by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés, it was where the famous ‘pieces of eight’, or Spanish dollars were created.
In the U.S., the Shirley Plantation in Virginia is an ongoing reminder of the history of slavery. First founded in 1613, business actually began in 1638—and as many as 90 slaves were under indentured labor on the estate growing tobacco.
Further north, Canada’s Hudson’s Bay (founded 1670) was at the helm of the fur trade between European settlers and First Nations tribes—the two parties agreed on beaver pelts as a common, valuable trade standard.
Three of the five oldest companies in South America are mints—specifically in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru.
The oldest of these mints, Casa Nacional de Moneda in Peru, was built on order from Spain and established in 1565. After the great influx of newly-mined silver from America to Europe, the Spanish crown outlined to King Felipe II that building a mint would give the colony economic benefits and more control.
In total, 15 of Europe’s oldest companies are related to the food and beverage industries, from distilleries, vintners (winemaking), and breweries alongside restaurants and pubs. Austria’s St. Peter Stifts Kulinarium (founded in 803) is Europe’s oldest restaurant, located inside the St. Peter’s Abbey monastery.
Although Germany is famously known for its beer culture, its oldest company is in fact the Staffelter Hof Winery (founded in 862). Today, Germany is still a top wine country, with the industry generating up to $17 billion in revenue per year.
Asia has six oldest companies in the banking and finance category, as well as another six in the aviation and transport sector. The continent is also home to two of the world’s oldest companies, located in Japan and China.
The Japanese temple and shrine construction company, Kongō Gumi Co., Ltd. (founded in 578) has weathered a few storms over the millennia, from nuclear bombs to financial crises. In 2006, it was bought by the construction conglomerate, Takamatsu Construction Group Co., and continues to operate today.
In neighboring China, Ma Yu Ching’s Bucket Chicken House has endured dynasties of change as well. The company’s simple premise has come a long way, and it was named a cultural heritage in the country’s Henan Province.
Africa’s oldest companies are another vestige of the colonial legacy, with 11 transport companies—airlines, ports and shipping, and railways—and 9 postal services.
In fact, Cape Verde’s Correios de Cabo Verde (postal service, founded in 1849) and the DRC’s Société nationale des Chemins de fer du Congo (national railway company, founded in 1889) still go by their Portuguese and French names respectively.
Banking is another one of the oldest industries, with 17 companies across Africa. Zimbabwe’s Standard Chartered branch has been around since 1892, a subsidiary of its London-based parent company.
Australia officially became a country on January 1st, 1901—but its oldest company, the Australia Post (founded in 1809) precedes this by almost a century.
Interestingly, just one more old company could be located for this region, which is the Bank of New Zealand—one of the country’s Big Four banks.
All in all, these oldest companies paint a historical picture of the major industries which have shaped entire regions.
Did you recognize any on the list?
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