All of the World’s Spaceports on One Map
View the high-resolution map
Mapped: The World’s Rocket Launch Sites
From Sputnik 1 to today’s massive satellite constellations, every object in space was launched from just a handful of locations.
The map above, from BryceTech, is a comprehensive look at the world’s spaceports (both orbital and sub-orbital) as well as ballistic missile test sites.
The World’s Major Spaceports
Though the graphic above is a detailed list of many types of rocket launch sites, we’ll focus on major sites that are sending satellites and passengers into sub-orbit, orbit, and beyond.
|Cape Canaveral Space Force Station||Florida||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Cape Canaveral Spaceport||Florida||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Kennedy Space Center||Florida||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Cecil Field Spaceport||Florida||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Colorado Air & Space Port||Colorado||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Vandenberg Air Force Base||California||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Mojave Air and Space Port||California||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Oklahoma Air & Space Port||Oklahoma||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Poker Flat Research Range||Alaska||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Pacific Spaceport Complex||Alaska||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Spaceport America||New Mexico||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Launch Site One (Corn Ranch)||Texas||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Houston Spaceport||Texas||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Midland Air & Space Port||Texas||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|SpaceX Development and Test Facility||Texas||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|SpaceX Starbase||Texas||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Spaceport Camden||Georgia||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport||Virginia||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Wallops Flight Facility||Virginia||🇺🇸 U.S.|
|Reagan Test Site||Kwajalein Atoll||🇲🇭 Marshall Islands|
|Naro Space Center||Outer Naro Island||🇰🇷 South Korea|
|Sohae Satellite Launching Station||North Pyongan Province||🇰🇵 North Korea|
|Kapustin Yar||Astrakhan Oblast||🇷🇺 Russia|
|Plesetsk Cosmodrome||Arkhangelsk Oblast||🇷🇺 Russia|
|Vostochny Cosmodrome||Amur Oblast||🇷🇺 Russia|
|Yasny Launch Base||Orenburg Oblast||🇷🇺 Russia|
|Arnhem Space Centre||Northern Territory||🇦🇺 Australia|
|Whalers Way Orbital Launch Complex||South Australia||🇦🇺 Australia|
|Koonibba Test Range||South Australia||🇦🇺 Australia|
|Bowen Orbital Spaceport||Queensland||🇦🇺 Australia|
|Rocket Lab Launch Complex 1||Wairoa District||🇳🇿 New Zealand|
|Baikonur Cosmodrome||Baikonur||🇰🇿 Kazakhstan|
|Space Port Oita||Ōita||🇯🇵 Japan|
|Tanegashima Space Center||Kagoshima||🇯🇵 Japan|
|Uchinoura Space Center||Kagoshima||🇯🇵 Japan|
|Taiki Aerospace Research Field||Hokkaido||🇯🇵 Japan|
|Hokkaido Spaceport||Hokkaido||🇯🇵 Japan|
|Ryori Launch Site||Iwate||🇯🇵 Japan|
|Sonmiani Satellite Launch Center||Balochistan||🇵🇰 Pakistan|
|Integrated Test Range||Odisha||🇮🇳 India|
|Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station||Kerala||🇮🇳 India|
|Satish Dhawan Space Centre||Sriharikota||🇮🇳 India|
|Guiana Space Centre||Kourou||🇬🇫 French Guiana|
|Barreira do Inferno Launch Center||Rio Grande do Norte||🇧🇷 Brazil|
|Alcântara Space Center||Maranhão||🇧🇷 Brazil|
|Stasiun Peluncuran Roket||West Java||🇮🇩 Indonesia|
|Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center||Gansu Province||🇨🇳 China|
|Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center||Shanxi Province||🇨🇳 China|
|Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site||Hainan Province||🇨🇳 China|
|Xichang Satellite Launch Center||Sichuan Province||🇨🇳 China|
|Palmachim Airbase||Central District||🇮🇱 Israel|
|Imam Khomeini Space Launch Terminal||Semnan||🇮🇷 Iran|
|Qom Lauch Facility||Qom||🇮🇷 Iran|
|El Arenosillo Test Centre||Huelva||🇪🇸 Spain|
|Spaceport Sweden||Lapland||🇸🇪 Sweden|
|Esrange Space Center||Lapland||🇸🇪 Sweden|
|Andøya Space||Nordland||🇳🇴 Norway|
|SaxaVord Spaceport||Shetland Islands||🇬🇧 UK|
|Sutherland Spaceport||Sutherland||🇬🇧 UK|
|Western Isles Spaceport||Outer Hebrides||🇬🇧 UK|
|Spaceport Machrihanish||Campbeltown||🇬🇧 UK|
|Prestwick Spaceport||Glasgow||🇬🇧 UK|
|Snowdonia Spaceport||North West Wales||🇬🇧 UK|
|Spaceport Cornwall||Cornwall||🇬🇧 UK|
|Orbex LP1||Moray||🇬🇧 UK|
|Spaceport Nova Scotia||Nova Scotia||🇨🇦 Canada|
Editor’s note: The above table includes all sites that are operational, as well as under construction, as of publishing date.
The list above covers fixed locations, and does not include SpaceX’s autonomous spaceport drone ships. There are currently three active drone ships—one based near Los Angeles, and the other two based at Port Canaveral, Florida.
Two of the most famous launch sites on the list are the Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakhstan) and Cape Canaveral (United States). The former was constructed as the base of operations for the Soviet space program and was the launch point for Earth’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. The latter was NASA’s primary base of operations and the first lunar-landing flight was launched from there in 1969.
The global roster of spaceports has grown immensely since Baikonur and Cape Canaveral were the only game in town. Now numerous countries have the ability to launch satellites, and many more are getting in on the action.
Wenchang Space Launch Site, on the island of Hainan, is China’s newest launch location. The site recorded its first successful launch in 2016.
One interesting quirk of the map above is the lack of spaceports in Europe. Europe’s ambitions for space are actually launched from the Guiana Space Centre in South America. Europe’s Spaceport has been operating in French Guiana since 1968.
Low altitude launch locations near the equator are the most desirable, as far less energy is required to take a spacecraft from surface level to an equatorial, geostationary orbit.
Islands and coastal areas are also common locations for launch sites. Since the open waters aren’t inhabited, there is minimal risk of harm from debris in the event of a launch failure.
As demand for satellites and space exploration grows, the number of launch locations will continue to grow as well.
Mapped: The World’s Legal Government Systems
The political regimes of the world’s countries have changed over centuries. This map charts the nine government systems that rule the world today.
Mapping The World’s Legal Government Systems
With over 200 countries existing across the world with unique cultures and traditions, one might assume that there are hundreds of types of government systems. But both historically and in modern times, that’s not the case.
Even while political regimes across these countries have changed over time, they’ve largely followed a few different types of governance. Today, every country can ultimately be classified into just nine broad forms of government systems.
This map by Truman Du uses information from Wikipedia to map the government systems that rule the world today.
Countries By Type of Government
It’s important to note that this map charts government systems according to each country’s legal framework.
Many countries have constitutions stating their de jure or legally recognized system of government, but their de facto or realized form of governance may be quite different.
Here is a list of the stated government system of UN member states and observers as of January 2023:
|Country||Constitutional form||Head of state|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|Bahamas, The||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Republic||Ceremonial|
|Central African Republic||Republic||Executive|
|China, People's Republic of||Republic||Ceremonial|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Republic||Executive|
|Congo, Republic of the||Republic||Executive|
|New Zealand||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|Papua New Guinea||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|Saint Lucia||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Republic||Executive|
|Saudi Arabia||Absolute monarchy||Executive|
|Solomon Islands||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Republic||Ceremonial|
|United Arab Emirates||Constitutional monarchy||Executive|
|United Kingdom||Constitutional monarchy||Ceremonial|
|Vatican City||Absolute monarchy||Executive|
Let’s take a closer look at some of these systems.
Brought back into the spotlight after the death of Queen Elizabeth II of England in September 2022, this form of government has a single ruler. They carry titles from king and queen to sultan or emperor, and their government systems can be further divided into three modern types: constitutional, semi-constitutional, and absolute.
A constitutional monarchy sees the monarch act as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, giving them little to no real power. For example, King Charles III is the head of 15 Commonwealth nations including Canada and Australia. However, each has their own head of government.
On the other hand, a semi-constitutional monarchy lets the monarch or ruling royal family retain substantial political powers, as is the case in Jordan and Morocco. However, their monarchs still rule the country according to a democratic constitution and in concert with other institutions.
Finally, an absolute monarchy is most like the monarchies of old, where the ruler has full power over governance, with modern examples including Saudi Arabia and Vatican City.
Unlike monarchies, the people hold the power in a republic government system, directly electing representatives to form government. Again, there are multiple types of modern republic governments: presidential, semi-presidential, and parliamentary.
The presidential republic could be considered a direct progression from monarchies. This system has a strong and independent chief executive with extensive powers when it comes to domestic affairs and foreign policy. An example of this is the United States, where the President is both the head of state and the head of government.
In a semi-presidential republic, the president is the head of state and has some executive powers that are independent of the legislature. However, the prime minister (or chancellor or equivalent title) is the head of government, responsible to the legislature along with the cabinet. Russia is a classic example of this type of government.
The last type of republic system is parliamentary. In this system, the president is a figurehead, while the head of government holds real power and is validated by and accountable to the parliament. This type of system can be seen in Germany, Italy, and India and is akin to constitutional monarchies.
It’s also important to point out that some parliamentary republic systems operate slightly differently. For example in South Africa, the president is both the head of state and government, but is elected directly by the legislature. This leaves them (and their ministries) potentially subject to parliamentary confidence.
Many of the systems above involve multiple political parties vying to rule and govern their respective countries.
In a one-party state, also called a single-party state or single-party system, only one political party has the right to form government. All other political parties are either outlawed or only allowed limited participation in elections.
In this system, a country’s head of state and head of government can be executive or ceremonial but political power is constitutionally linked to a single political movement. China is the most well-known example of this government system, with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China ruling as the de facto leader since 1989.
The final form of government is a provisional government formed as an interim or transitional government.
In this system, an emergency governmental body is created to manage political transitions after the collapse of a government, or when a new state is formed. Often these evolve into fully constitutionalized systems, but sometimes they hold power for longer than expected.
Some examples of countries that are considered provisional include Libya, Burkina Faso, and Chad.
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