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Map of Mars: The Geology of the Red Planet

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View the full-size version of this infographic

A Map of Mars: The Geology of the Red Planet

Mapping Mars: The Geology of the Red Planet

View the high resolution version of this incredible map by clicking here

For centuries, Mars has been mythically defined by its characteristic red appearance.

In Babylonian astronomy, Mars was named after Nergal, the deity of fire, war, and destruction. In Chinese and Japanese texts, the planet was known as 火星, the fire star.

Although this unique reddish hue has been a key defining characteristic of Mars in culture for centuries, today we now know that it’s the iron oxide soil of the Martian landscape that makes it the “Red Planet” – and that there is much more to Mars than its color upon closer observation.

Above, today’s map, posted and created by Reddit user /hellofromthemoon, brings together the data from centuries of observation and the numerous missions to the Red Planet to map out its geology on a grand scale.

A Red Dot in the Sky

Egyptian astronomers first observed the planet Mars four thousand years ago and named it “Horus-the-red.” Babylonian astronomers marked its course through the night sky to track the passage of time. But it was not until 1610, when Galileo Galilei witnessed Mars with his own eyes through a telescope, that Mars was revealed as a whole other world.

Over the centuries with improving technology, a succession of astronomers observed and crudely mapped out everything from polar ice caps to yellow clouds, and white and dark spots denoting varying elevations across the Martian surface. Some of the earliest maps of Mars date to 1831. But there is only so much you can accurately observe from the surface of the Earth.

On July 14, 1965, NASA successfully received the first up-close images of Mars from the Mariner 4 spacecraft, passing within 9,844 kilometers (6,117 miles) of Mars’ surface. Mariner 4 captured the image of a large ancient crater and confirmed the existence of a thin atmosphere composed largely of carbon dioxide.

Since then, four space agencies have successfully made it to Mars: NASA, the former Soviet Union space program, the European Space Agency and the Indian Space Research Organization. From orbital satellites to surface exploration with robots, each successful mission has brought back important data to develop an evolving picture of the planet.

Here is a complete list of both the successful and failed missions to Mars.

Martian Geology

On Mars, we see volcanoes, canyons, and impact basins much like the ones on Earth. The yellows scattered across the map indicate meteor impacts of varying size while the swaths of red indicate volcanoes and their associated lava flows. The varying colors of brown indicate the cratered highlands and midlands that make up most of the southern hemisphere.

The planet appears asymmetric. Most of the southern hemisphere is heavily cratered and resembles the moon’s highlands. In contrast, the northern hemisphere is sparsely cratered and has many large volcanoes.

Mars is approximately one-half the diameter of the Earth, but both planets have the same amount of dry land. This is because the current surface of Mars has no liquid water.

Mars and Earth are very different planets when it comes to temperature, size, and atmosphere, but geologic processes on the two planets are eerily similar. The sheer size of some landforms on Mars would shadow over similar features on Earth because of the lack of water erosion. This lack of erosion has preserved billion year-old geologic features.

The tallest mountain on Mars and in the solar system is Olympus Mons, and it is two and a half times taller than Mt. Everest. A Martian canyon system, called Valles Marineris, is the length of the entire continental United States and three times deeper than the Grand Canyon.

Mars Colony: Location, Location, Location

The first step to building a colony is to figure out where the best chance of survival is. For Mars, some researchers have identified the planet’s poles, which contain millennia-old ice deposits. These are thought to contain large amounts of ice, which mars settlers could extract and turn into liquid water.

The poles also host other natural resources, such as carbon dioxide, iron, aluminum, silicon and sulfur, which could be used to make glass, brick and plastic. Furthermore, the planet’s atmosphere contains enough hydrogen and methanol for fuel.

Closing the Distance

The map above represents the culmination of centuries of work which we are lucky enough to view here on a computer, conveniently online for us to appreciate and wonder what life’s like on the surface of Mars.

Who knows what more exploration will reveal.

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Technology

Visualizing All of Earth’s Satellites: Who Owns Our Orbit?

Nearly 6,000 satellites circle our tiny planet. About 60% are space junk, 40% are operational—and hundreds more are launched every year.

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Visualizing All of Earth’s Satellites

For centuries, humans have looked to space and the stars for answers. The fascination is more than philosophical—it’s coupled with the need to solve problems here on Earth.

Today, there are seemingly countless benefits and applications of space technology. Satellites, for instance, are becoming critical for everything from internet connectivity and precision agriculture, to border security and archaeological study.

Space is Open for Business

Right now, there are nearly 6,000 satellites circling our tiny planet. About 60% of those are defunct satellites—space junk—and roughly 40% are operational.

As highlighted in the chart above, The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), determined that 2,666 operational satellites circled the globe in April of 2020.

Over the coming decade, it’s estimated by Euroconsult that 990 satellites will be launched every year. This means that by 2028, there could be 15,000 satellites in orbit.

With SpaceX’s planned Starlink constellation of 12,000 satellites and Amazon’s proposed constellation in the works, the new space race continues its acceleration.

Let’s take a closer look at who operates those satellites and how they apply their technology.

Technology with a Purpose

Humans have long used space for navigation. While sailors once relied on the stars, today we use satellites for GPS, navigation, and various other applications.

More than half of Earth’s operational satellites are launched for commercial purposes. About 61% of those provide communications, including everything from satellite TV and Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity to global internet.

Commercial Satellites by PurposeNumber of Satellites
Communications1007
Earth Observation446
Navigation / GPS97
Tech Demonstration & Development87
Other9
All Commercial Satellites
(including combination)
1646

Second to communications, 27% of commercial satellites have been launched for Earth Observation (EO) purposes, including environmental monitoring and border security.

Commercial satellites, however, can serve multiple purposes. One week, a satellite may be ‘tasked’ to image a contested border. It could later be tasked to monitor the reclamation of a mining site or even the aftermath of a natural disaster.

Operational Satellites by TypeNumber of SatellitesPercentage of Operational Satellites
Commercial144054%
Government43616%
Military33913%
Civil1335%
Combination (Other)1124%
Combination (Commercial)2068%
Defunct Satellites
3200

Government and civil purposes make up 21% of all of Earth’s operational satellites, and military purposes come in at 13%.

Who Owns Earth’s Orbit? Space Operators

SpaceX—founded by Elon Musk—is not only a disruptive launch provider for missions to the International Space Station (saving NASA millions). It’s also the largest commercial operator of satellites on the planet.

With 358 satellites launched as of April, part of SpaceX’s mission is to boost navigation capabilities and supply the world with space-based internet.

While the company operated 22% of the world’s operational satellites as of April, it went on to launch an additional 175 satellites in the span of one month, from August to September 2020.

Following its series of summer launches, SpaceX announced that it had deployed enough satellites to support the beta version of its satellite-based internet service, Starlink.

Every Commercial Satellite in One Table

Since December 2005, the UCS has compiled data on every operational satellite in Earth’s orbit. In the table below, you’ll find every commercial satellite in orbit, as of April 2020.

Satellite Owner/OperatorNumber of SatellitesCountry of Operator/Owner
SpaceX358USA
Planet Labs, Inc.246USA
Spire Global Inc.89USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.78USA
OneWeb Satellites74United Kingdom
SES S.A.51Luxembourg
Intelsat S.A.51USA
ORBCOMM Inc.35USA
DoD/US Air Force33USA
EUTELSAT Americas33Multinational
Ministry of Defense33Egypt
Globalstar32USA
European Space Agency (ESA)26ESA
O3b Networks Ltd.20United Kingdom
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.15China
Gonets Satcom15Russia
Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation15Japan
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)14Canada
Echostar Corporation (entire payload leased from Telesat Canada Ltd.)9USA
INMARSAT, Ltd.13United Kingdom
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.13China
Aerospace Corporation12USA
DirecTV Latin America/Intelsat12Brazil
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)11USA
Aprize Satellite10Canada
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)10Russia
Swarm Technologies9USA
Satellogic S.A.8Argentina
Spacety Aerospace Co.8China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.7China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)7China
GeoOptics Inc.7USA
Riyadh Space Research Institute7Saudi Arabia
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.6Multinational
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.6China
Embratel Star One6Brazil
Guodian Gaoke6China
Sirius XM Holdings6USA
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.6United Kingdom
Beijing Space View Technology5China
BlackSky Global5USA
Gazprom Space Systems5Russia
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.5China
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)5Australia
RapidEye AG5Germany
APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.4China
Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.4Japan
exactEarth4Canada
Fleet Space Technologies4Australia
Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat - Spain)4Spain
Hispasat4Spain
ICEYE Ltd.4Finland
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)4South Korea
KT Corporation4South Korea
Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT)3United Arab Emirates
Astro Digital3USA
Avanti Communications, PLC3United Kingdom
Dauria Aerospace3Russia
German Orbital Systems3Germany
HawkEye 3603USA
HEAD Aerospace3China
Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd.3Greece
Maxar Technologies Inc.3USA
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd.3Malaysia
Nagoya University and Daido University3Japan
PT Telkomunikasi3Indonesia
Russian Federal Space Agency3Russia
Samara State Aerospace University, SGAU3Russia
Sky and Space Global, UK3United Kingdom
Space-Communication Ltd.3Israel
Telenor Satellite Broadcasting3Norway
Thaicom Public Company Ltd.3Thailand
Turksat3Turkey
Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc.3USA
AISTech2Spain
Arab Satellite Communications Org. (ASCO)2Multinational
ArSat2Argentina
Astrocast2Switzerland
Bigelow Aerospace2USA
China Electronic Technology Group2China
Elbit Systems2Israel
German Aerospace Center (DLR)2Germany
Ghalam LLP2Kazakhstan
Hiber Global2Netherlands
Hughes Space and Communications Co.3USA
Innovation Academy for Microsatellites, Chinese Academy of Sciences/unnamed German firm2China/Germany
JSC KazSat2Kazakhstan
Kepler Communications2Canada
Mobile Satellite Ventures2USA/Canada
NanoAvionics2Lithuania
NBN Co (operated by Optus)2Australia
SpaceQuest2USA
Spot Image2France/Belgium/Sweden
SRI International2USA
Thuraya Satellite Communications2United Arab Emirates
Tiger Innovations2USA
University of California2USA
ViaSat, Inc.2USA
Weathernews, Inc.2Japan
XM Satellite Radio USA2USA
1Worldspace1USA
ACME AtronOmatic (MyRadar)1Germany
Aerospace Corporation1USA
AgilSpace1Singapore
Airbus1ESA
Alibaba1China
Astranis1USA
Astro Live Experiences1Japan
ATL (Advanced Technology of Laser)1Hungary
Axelspace1Japan
Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI)1Indonesia
Beijing Future Navigation Technology Co. Ltd.1China
Beijing Landview Mapping Information Technology Co. Ltd (BLMIT)1China
Beijing ZeroG Technology Co. Ltd.1China
Bulsatcom1Bulgaria
Canon Electronics1Japan
Capella Space1USA
Changchun Institute of Optics1China
Chengdu Guoxing Aerospace Technology Co. Ltd.1China
China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC)1China
Ciel Satellite Group1Canada
DigitalGlobe Corporation1USA
Earthi/Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.1United Kingdom
Es’hailSat1Qatar
Exseed Space1India
Fossa Systems1Spain
GalaxySpace1China
GasTianta and GZH-HNJ BDS AGR Co., Ltd.1China
General Atomics - Electromagnetic Systems Group1USA
GHGSat, Inc.1Canada
Global Eagle Entertainment1USA
GomSpace ApS1Denmark
Harris Corporation1USA
Helios Wire1USA
Hera Systems1USA
Hisdesat1Spain
Horizons 2 Satellite, LLC (Intelsat, Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation)1USA/Japan
Horizons 2 Satellite, LLC (Intelsat, Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation)1USA/Japan
ImageSat International, NV/Ministry of Defense1Israel
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)1India
iQPS1Japan
iSky Technology1Czech Republic
Italian Defense Ministry/Telespazio1Italy
LightSquared1USA
Link Space Aerospace Technology1China
MDA Corporation1Canada
Microspace Rapid Pvt Ltd.1Singapore
Momentus1USA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/SES Americom (SES [Société Européenne des Satellites (SES)])1USA
National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (JPN)1Japan
NigComSat1Nigeria
Northwest Nazarene University1USA
NSLComm1Israel
OHB Italia1Italy
Orbital Micro Systems Ltd.1USA
Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)/PakSat International1Pakistan
Planetary Resources1USA
PT Indosat1Indonesia
PT Pasifik Satelit Nusantara1Indonesia
Qiansheng Exploration Technology Co. Ltd.1China
Reaktor Space Lab1Finland
Regional African Satellite Communications Organization (RASCOM)1Multinational
SatRevolution1Poland
Shanghai Lizheng Satellite Application Technology1China
Singapore Telecommunications Ltd. (SingTel)/Chunghwa Telecom Co. Ltd.1Singapore/Taiwan
Sky Mexico1Mexico
SkyFox Labs1Czech Republic
Space Logistics LLC1USA
Space OK (Shanghai Ok Space Co Ltd.)1China
SpacePharma1Switzerland
Sputnix Ltd.1Russia
Stara Space1USA
Surrey Space Center1United Kingdom
Telebras/Brazilian Air Force1Brazil
TerraStar Corporation1USA
Turkmenistan Ministry of Communications/SSI-Monaco1Turkmenistan/Monaco
UK Government/Surrey Satellite Technologies1United Kingdom
University of Vigo/Alén Space1Spain
UnseenLabs1France
Utah State University1USA
WildBlue Communications1USA
Xinwei Telecom Technology Company1China
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
AISTechSpain
Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT)United Arab Emirates
Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT)United Arab Emirates
Aprize SatelliteCanada
Aprize SatelliteUSA/Argentina
Aprize SatelliteUSA/Argentina
Aprize SatelliteUSA/Argentina
Aprize SatelliteUSA/Argentina
Aprize Satellite ArgentinaArgentina
Aprize Satellite ArgentinaArgentina
Aprize Satellite ArgentinaArgentina
Aprize Satellite ArgentinaArgentina
APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.China
APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.China
APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.China
Arab Satellite Communications Org. (ASCO)Multinational
ArSatArgentina
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Astro DigitalUSA
Astro DigitalUSA
AstrocastSwitzerland
Avanti Communications, PLCUnited Kingdom
Avanti Communications, PLCUnited Kingdom
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Space View TechnologyChina
Beijing Space View TechnologyChina
Beijing Space View TechnologyChina
Bigelow AerospaceUSA
BlackSky GlobalUSA
BlackSky GlobalUSA
BlackSky GlobalUSA
BlackSky GlobalUSA
Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.Japan
Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.Japan
Broadcasting Satellite System Corp./Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
China Electronic Technology GroupChina
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
Dauria AerospaceRussia/USA
Dauria AerospaceRussia/USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLC/IntelsatUSA
Elbit SystemsIsrael
Embratel Star OneBrazil
Embratel Star OneBrazil
Embratel Star OneBrazil
Embratel Star OneBrazil
Embratel Star OneBrazil
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
EUTELSAT AmericasMultinational
EUTELSAT AmericasMultinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A. -- leased from Loral Skynet Satellite Services (Loral Global Alliance)Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A./Es'hailSatMultinational
EUTELSAT S.A./NilesatMultinational
EUTELSAT S.A./NilesatMultinational
exactEarthCanada
exactEarthCanada
exactEarthCanada
Fleet Space TechnologiesAustralia
Fleet Space TechnologiesAustralia
Fleet Space TechnologiesAustralia
Gazprom Space SystemsRussia
Gazprom Space SystemsRussia
Gazprom Space SystemsRussia
Gazprom Space SystemsRussia
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
German Aerospace Center (DLR)/InfoterraGermany
German Orbital SystemsGermany
German Orbital SystemsGermany
Ghalam LLPKazakhstan
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Guodian GaokeChina
Guodian GaokeChina
Guodian GaokeChina
Guodian GaokeChina
Guodian GaokeChina
HawkEye 360USA
HawkEye 360USA
HEAD AerospaceChina
HEAD AerospaceChina
Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd.Greece
Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd./INMARSATGreece/United Kingdom
Hiber GlobalNetherlands
Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat - Spain)Spain
Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat - Spain)Spain
Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat - Spain)Spain
HispasatSpain
HispasatSpain
HispasatSpain
HughesNet leased from Echostar Technologies, LLCUSA
ICEYE Ltd.Finland
ICEYE Ltd.Finland
ICEYE Ltd.Finland
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd./European Space Agency (ESA)United Kingdom/ESA
Innovation Academy for Microsatellites, Chinese Academy of Sciences/unnamed German firmChina/Germany
Intelsat S.A./Sky Perfect JSAT Corp.USA
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
JSC KazSatKazakhstan
Kepler CommunicationsUnited Kingdom
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)South Korea
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)South Korea
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)South Korea
KT CorporationSouth Korea
KT CorporationSouth Korea
KT Corporation/Korean Agency for Defense Development (ADD)South Korea
Maxar Technologies Inc.USA
Maxar Technologies Inc.USA
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd.Malaysia
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd.Malaysia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Mobile Satellite VenturesUSA/Canada
Nagoya University and Daido UniversityJapan
Nagoya University and Daido UniversityJapan
NanoAvionicsLithuania
NBN Co (operated by Optus)Australia
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.China
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.China
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.China
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.China
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)Australia
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)Australia
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)Australia
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)/Australian Ministry of DefenseAustralia
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)/DirecTV, Inc.USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)/Sky Perfect JSAT Corp.USA/Japan
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
PT TelkomunikasiIndonesia
PT TelkomunikasiIndonesia
RapidEye AGGermany
RapidEye AGGermany
RapidEye AGGermany
RapidEye AGGermany
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Russian Federal Space AgencyRussia
Russian Federal Space AgencyRussia
Samara State Aerospace University, SGAURussia
Samara State Aerospace University, SGAURussia
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Sweden
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A. -- total capacity leased to subsidiary of EchoStar Corp.USA
SES S.A./EchoStar Satellite Services, LLCLuxembourg
SES S.A./GogoUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sky and Space Global, UKUnited Kingdom
Sky and Space Global, UKUnited Kingdom
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation/DSN Corp.Japan
Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation/KacificJapan/Singapore
Space-Communication Ltd.Israel
Space-Communication Ltd.Israel
SpaceQuest, Ltd.USA
Spacety Aerospace Co.China
Spacety Aerospace Co.China
Spacety Aerospace Co.China
Spacety Aerospace Co.China
Spacety Aerospace Co./Changsha Gaoxinqu Tianyi Research InstituteChina
Spacety Aerospace Co./Changsha Gaoxinqu Tianyi Research InstituteChina
Spacety Aerospace Co./ThrustMeChina/France
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spot ImageFrance/Belgium/Sweden
SRI InternationalUSA
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Telenor Satellite BroadcastingNorway
Telenor Satellite BroadcastingNorway
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)/APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.Canada
Thaicom Public Company Ltd.Thailand
Thaicom Public Company Ltd.Thailand
Thuraya Satellite CommunicationsUnited Arab Emirates
Tiger InnovationsUSA
TurksatTurkey
TurksatTurkey
Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc.USA
Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc.USA
University of CaliforniaUSA
ViaSat, Inc.USA
Weathernews, Inc.Japan
XM Satellite Radio USAUSA
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.China
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.China
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.China
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China

Cubesats, microsats, nanosats, and more—the new space race is all about small satellites.

With its flock of small EO satellites, or “doves”, Planet Labs now has more than 150 satellites in operation (however, in April 2020, the number exceeded 250, as per above data).

Even Amazon is preparing for space. In July of 2020, the FCC granted approval for Jeff Bezos’s tech empire to launch and operate an internet constellation of 3,236 satellites.

Nations that Dominate Earth’s Orbit

It may be no surprise that the United States, China, and Russia top the list of countries with operational satellites.

The U.S. and Russia (then the USSR) piloted the space race throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Both nations are found in the top three of current satellite operators, with the U.S. operating nearly half of all satellites—1,308 as of April 2020.

China trails the U.S. with approximately 356 satellites. Taking third spot, Russia has 167 satellites in operation, and the UK comes in at a close fourth with 130 satellites.

Collectively, the above five countries operate roughly 76% of the world’s satellites.

The New Space Race

Where the original space race was a nationalistic competition between Cold War rivals, the new space race is collaborative and commercialized.

Today, international cooperation allows for the deployment of satellites, as well as space-based science. Before SpaceX, NASA and the other space agencies that operate the International Space Station had been reliant on Russian Soyuz rockets for hundreds of missions.

With the success of its famed reusable rockets, SpaceX is on track to reduce launch costs by as much as US$6 million per flight—which is likely to support the proliferation of satellites in the coming years.

With improved technology and commercial partnerships, all signs point to a crowded orbit.

Correction: In the table, Intelsat was listed as having 36 owned satellites in operation. The correct number is 51.

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Misc

The 44 Closest Stars and How They Compare to our Sun

This graphic visualizes the 44 closest stars, revealing key facts such as distance from Earth, brightness, and whether potential planets are in orbit.

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44 closest stars

44 Closest Stars and How They Compare to our Sun

Humans have been fascinated by the stars in the night sky since the dawn of time.

We’ve been decoding the mysteries of celestial bodies for many centuries, but it is only in the last 200 years or so that we’ve been able to glean more detailed information on the lights that dot the night sky. Friedrich Bessel’s method of stellar parallax was a breakthrough in accurately measuring the positions of stars, and opened new doors in the effort to map our universe. Today, high-powered telescopes offer even more granular data on our cosmic neighborhood.

The infographic above, from Alan’s Factory Outlet, categorizes the 44 closest stars to Earth, examining the size, luminosity, constellations, systems, and potential planets of each star.

Our Nearest Stellar Neighbors

Our closest neighboring stars are all part of the same solar system: Alpha Centauri. This triple star system – consisting of Proxima Centauri, Alpha Centauri A, and Alpha Centauri B – attracts a lot of interest because it hosts planets, including one that may be similar to Earth.

The planet, Proxima Centauri b, is a lot closer to its star than Earth is to the Sun. However, because Proxima Centauri is a smaller and cooler red dwarf type star, the planet’s orbit is within the habitable zone. It’s thought that Proxima Centauri b receives approximately the same amount of solar energy as Earth does from our Sun.

Here’s a full list of the 44 of the closest stars to Earth:

Star NameDistance (light years)MoE
Sun0.000016±0.0011
Proxima Centauri4.37±0.0068
α Centauri A4.37±0.0068
α Centauri B4.37±0.0068
Barnard's Star5.96±0.0032
Wolf 3597.86±0.031
Lalande 211858.31±0.014
Sirius A8.66±0.010
Sirius B8.66±0.010
Luyten 726-8 A8.79±0.012
Luyten 726-8 B8.79±0.012
Ross 1549.70±0.0019
Ross 24810.29±0.0041
Epsilon Eridani10.45±0.016
Lacaille 935210.72±0.0016
Ross 12811.01±0.0026
EZ Aquarii A11.11±0.034
61 Cygni A11.40±0.0012
61 Cygni B11.40±0.0012
Procyon A11.40±0.032
Procyon B11.40±0.032
Struve 2398 A11.49±0.0012
Struve 2398 B11.49±0.0012
Groombridge 34 A11.62±0.0008
Groombridge 34 B11.62±0.0008
DX Cancri11.68±0.0056
Tau Ceti11.75±0.022
Epsilon Indi11.87±0.011
Gliese 106111.98±0.0029
YZ Ceti12.11±0.0035
Luyten's Star12.20±0.036
Teegarden's Star12.50±0.013
SCR 1845-635713.05±0.008
Kapteyn's Star12.83±0.0013
Lacaille 876012.95±0.0029
Kruger 60 A13.07±0.0052
Kruger 60 B13.07±0.0052
Wolf 106114.05±0.0038
Wolf 424 A14.05±0.26
Van Maanen's star14.07±0.0023
Gliese 114.17±0.0037
TZ Arietis14.58±0.0070
Gliese 67414.84±0.0033
Gliese 68714.84±0.0022

Even though we see many of these stars in the night sky, humans aren’t likely to see them in person any time soon. To put these vast distances into perspective, if the Voyager spacecraft were to travel to Proxima Centauri, it would take over 73,000 years to finally arrive.

The Brightest Stars in the Sky

The closest stars aren’t necessarily the ones most visible to us here on Earth. Here are the top 10 stars in terms of visual brightness from Earth:

RankProper nameConstellationVisual magnitude (mV)Distance (light years)
1SunN/A−26.740.000016
2SiriusCanis Major−1.468.6
3CanopusCarina−0.74310.0
4Rigil Kentaurus & TolimanCentaurus−0.27 (0.01 + 1.33)4.4
5ArcturusBoötes−0.0537.0
6VegaLyra0.03 (−0.02–0.07var)25.0
7CapellaAuriga0.08 (0.03–0.16var)43.0
8RigelOrion0.13 (0.05–0.18var)860.0
9ProcyonCanis Minor0.3411.0
10AchernarEridanus0.46 (0.40–0.46var)139.0

Excluding our Sun, the brightest star visible from Earth is Sirius, or the Dog Star. Sirius, which is about 25 times more luminous than the sun, visually punctuates the constellation Canis Major.

Filling in the Gaps

The next step in learning more about our surroundings in the cosmos will be seeing which of the stars listed above have planets orbiting them. So far, the 44 stars in the infographic have over 40 planets scattered among them, though new discoveries are made all the time.

With each new mission and discovery, we learn a little bit more about our pocket of the universe.

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