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Mapped: Life Expectancy Gains From Breathing Cleaner Air

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World map of life expectancy gains from pollution reduction.

Map of Life Expectancy Gains From Breathing Cleaner Air

The health impact of something as pervasive as air pollution can be hard to communicate due to the complex nature of its effects on humans. This makes it a challenge to convey the full extent of its consequences to the general public.

However, satellite-derived data from from the 2023 Air Quality Life Index (AQLI) shows how exposure to particulate matter in the air can impact average life expectancy of residents in different cities.

Using this data, Aarsh Batra visualizes a map of life expectancy gains (the deeper the hue, the higher the gain) if all people around the world breathed cleaner air.

Top 500 Cities By Life Expectancy Gains From Cleaner Air

Consistent exposure to particulate matter in the air with a width of 2.5 micrometers, or PM2.5, can lead to strokes, heart attacks, and an increased risk of lung disease. The WHO recommended guideline for annual average PM2.5 levels is below 5 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³).

If particle pollution levels in 2021 had matched WHO guidelines around the world, life expectancy on average on the planet would have increased by more than 2 years.

In some cities however, gains are much higher, indicating how much worse their air quality was.

RankCity/DistrictCountryPopulationPM 2.5 Levels
(2021)
Life Expectancy Gain
(With Cleaner Air)
1NCT of Delhi🇮🇳 India18,030,054126.5111.91
2Gautam Buddha Nagar🇮🇳 India2,604,177119.9911.27
3Gurugram🇮🇳 India1,746,628119.5011.22
4Faridabad🇮🇳 India2,443,079115.5610.83
5Ghaziabad🇮🇳 India3,882,065113.6510.65
6Hathras🇮🇳 India1,698,569109.2610.22
7Sonipat🇮🇳 India1,630,727109.2810.22
8Aligarh🇮🇳 India4,152,828109.0710.20
9Mathura🇮🇳 India2,863,039108.6210.15
10Palwal🇮🇳 India869,785108.3810.13
11Jaunpur🇮🇳 India5,086,963107.9110.09
12Azamgarh🇮🇳 India4,501,783107.4310.04
13Etah🇮🇳 India1,979,047107.4110.04
14Mainpuri🇮🇳 India2,105,322106.899.99
15Jhajjar🇮🇳 India1,111,303106.209.92
16Firozabad🇮🇳 India3,535,204106.169.91
17Unnao🇮🇳 India3,499,247106.089.91
18Mau🇮🇳 India3,146,042106.059.90
19Ghazipur🇮🇳 India4,052,326105.509.85
20Pratapgarh🇮🇳 India3,615,621105.359.83
21Agra🇮🇳 India4,253,657104.919.79
22Ambedkar Nagar🇮🇳 India2,692,878104.779.78
23Lucknow🇮🇳 India5,155,721104.399.74
24Kanpur Nagar🇮🇳 India5,121,237104.229.72
25Baghpat🇮🇳 India1,456,640104.129.71
26Etawah🇮🇳 India1,758,602103.909.69
27Rae Bareli🇮🇳 India2,764,725103.899.69
28Mewat🇮🇳 India1,209,627103.729.67
29Amethi🇮🇳 India2,859,643102.969.60
30Farrukhabad🇮🇳 India2,113,678102.919.60
31Sultanpur🇮🇳 India2,480,449102.829.59
32Rohtak🇮🇳 India1,181,579102.699.57
33Siwan🇮🇳 India3,820,774102.699.57
34Gopalganj🇮🇳 India3,001,323102.579.56
35Kasganj🇮🇳 India1,576,882102.589.56
36Ballia🇮🇳 India3,651,870102.479.55
37Barabanki🇮🇳 India4,286,133102.109.52
38Sant Kabir Nagar🇮🇳 India1,640,454102.019.51
39Gorakhpur🇮🇳 India4,757,213101.849.49
40Kannauj🇮🇳 India1,862,255101.459.45
41Saran🇮🇳 India4,615,182101.079.42
42Varanasi🇮🇳 India4,052,825100.859.39
43Faizabad🇮🇳 India2,153,545100.479.36
44Hardoi🇮🇳 India4,581,753100.479.36
45Basti🇮🇳 India2,406,653100.329.34
46Fatehpur🇮🇳 India2,968,289100.239.33
47Deoria🇮🇳 India3,490,772100.159.32
48Vaishali🇮🇳 India4,005,909100.059.31
49Kaushambi🇮🇳 India2,990,14399.079.22
50Auraiya🇮🇳 India1,599,59298.909.20
51Bhadohi🇮🇳 India1,751,43698.899.20
52Bulandshahr🇮🇳 India3,895,22098.759.19
53Sitapur🇮🇳 India5,028,00698.729.18
54Gonda🇮🇳 India3,810,97598.489.16
55Muzaffarpur🇮🇳 India5,529,06898.329.15
56Kanpur Dehat🇮🇳 India1,986,56698.009.11
57Buxar🇮🇳 India1,958,63497.579.07
58Samastipur🇮🇳 India4,911,12196.969.01
59Bhind🇮🇳 India1,916,99295.998.92
60Panipat🇮🇳 India1,349,73195.808.90
61Hapur🇮🇳 India1,480,74695.548.87
62Bharatpur🇮🇳 India2,882,43995.178.84
63Kushinagar🇮🇳 India3,981,77194.878.81
64Prayagraj🇮🇳 India5,415,60294.778.80
65Purba Champaran🇮🇳 India5,844,76494.838.80
66Rewari🇮🇳 India896,70894.548.77
67Budaun🇮🇳 India3,474,05894.078.73
68Sheohar🇮🇳 India1,283,27494.078.73
69Shahjahanpur🇮🇳 India3,370,21293.998.72
70Bhojpur🇮🇳 India3,180,13593.868.71
71Patna🇮🇳 India6,718,98493.368.66
72Dhaulpur🇮🇳 India1,358,47792.508.57
73Sitamarhi🇮🇳 India3,423,36991.688.49
74Chandauli🇮🇳 India2,257,55091.418.47
75Darbhanga🇮🇳 India4,595,22791.108.44
76Begusarai🇮🇳 India3,464,71990.518.38
77Morena🇮🇳 India2,195,45690.238.35
78Gazipur🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,989,97589.858.31
79Jind🇮🇳 India1,519,44289.288.26
80Meerut🇮🇳 India3,847,66288.828.21
81Noakhali🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,540,24788.748.21
82Feni🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,630,83188.658.20
83Comilla🇧🇩 Bangladesh6,124,07588.218.16
84Narsingdi🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,547,06688.258.16
85Khagaria🇮🇳 India1,922,42687.878.12
86Chandpur🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,731,43887.798.11
87Lakshmipur🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,986,78687.598.09
88Sambhal🇮🇳 India2,372,46687.448.08
89Jalaun🇮🇳 India1,896,35087.348.07
90Dhaka🇧🇩 Bangladesh13,791,22287.238.06
91Munshiganj🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,634,79387.248.06
92Arwal🇮🇳 India821,00786.958.03
93Narayanganj🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,159,73086.908.03
94Nalanda🇮🇳 India3,327,89386.688.00
95Siddharth Nagar🇮🇳 India3,485,91286.668.00
96Jehanabad🇮🇳 India1,297,18386.397.98
97Raipur🇮🇳 India2,575,95286.267.96
98Bahraich🇮🇳 India2,839,62286.087.95
99Pashchim Champaran🇮🇳 India4,549,54785.477.89
100Saharsa🇮🇳 India2,186,83285.467.88
101Maharajganj🇮🇳 India3,255,11385.077.85
102Charkhi Dadri🇧🇩 Bangladesh541,56084.707.81
103Manikganj🇮🇳 India1,571,42284.747.81
104Durg🇮🇳 India2,265,90784.087.75
105Hisar🇮🇳 India1,938,57183.577.70
106Lakhimpur Kheri🇮🇳 India4,506,47383.577.70
107Shamli🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,332,90183.127.66
108Brahamanbaria🇮🇳 India3,252,02083.067.65
109Alwar🇮🇳 India4,163,93682.977.64
110Banda🇮🇳 India2,004,84882.637.61
111Tarn Taran🇮🇳 India1,162,16482.547.60
112Hamirpur🇮🇳 India1,239,82782.307.58
113Madhubani🇮🇳 India5,166,52782.307.58
114Shravasti🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,313,89382.357.58
115Shariatpur🇮🇳 India1,330,69082.187.56
116Sheikhpura🇧🇩 Bangladesh724,93582.167.56
117Kishoreganj🇵🇰 Pakistan3,328,83781.997.55
118Lahore🇳🇵 Nepal9,317,10881.817.53
119Mahottari🇮🇳 India735,76981.697.52
120Mansa🇮🇳 India854,72681.717.52
121Fatehabad🇮🇳 India1,052,28881.657.51
122Bhiwani🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,281,84981.257.47
123Tangail🇮🇳 India4,122,30480.977.45
124Karnal🇳🇵 Nepal1,665,27780.897.44
125Rautahat🇮🇳 India791,97280.777.43
126Madhepura🇮🇳 India2,322,28680.657.41
127Bathinda🇮🇳 India1,524,74280.407.39
128Puruliya🇮🇳 India3,178,49080.277.38
129Kaithal🇳🇵 Nepal1,233,02480.207.37
130Dhanusha🇮🇳 India874,03680.007.35
131Balrampur🇮🇳 India2,412,97279.787.33
132Bareilly🇧🇩 Bangladesh4,971,74479.177.27
133Madaripur🇳🇵 Nepal1,320,62479.047.26
134Bara🇮🇳 India800,20278.747.23
135Amritsar🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,636,76578.627.22
136Gopalganj🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,342,23078.647.22
137Barisal🇮🇳 India2,621,58178.557.21
138Lakhisarai🇮🇳 India1,200,36578.337.19
139Dhanbad🇮🇳 India3,031,91178.247.18
140Katihar🇳🇵 Nepal3,543,45078.317.18
141Parsa🇮🇳 India694,05078.127.17
142Mahendragarh🇳🇵 Nepal1,045,72878.107.16
143Sarlahi🇮🇳 India888,61178.047.16
144Rohtas🇮🇳 India3,449,30877.967.15
145Sepahijala🇮🇳 India404,75477.847.14
146Bhagalpur🇮🇳 India3,540,53777.727.13
147Kaimur🇮🇳 India1,869,28577.777.13
148Munger🇮🇳 India1,521,10577.807.13
149Chitrakoot🇮🇳 India1,110,00277.427.10
150Faridkot🇮🇳 India658,81477.477.10
151Faridpur🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,181,05377.427.10
152South Tripura🇮🇳 India375,75477.257.08
153Gwalior🇮🇳 India2,149,77777.117.07
154Mirzapur🇮🇳 India2,835,46677.177.07
155Sri Muktsar Sahib🇮🇳 India943,83177.197.07
156Sirsa🇮🇳 India1,448,41777.037.06
157Bhola🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,007,25976.907.05
158Bankura🇮🇳 India3,867,37076.887.04
159Bokaro🇮🇳 India2,395,63776.787.03
160Sangrur🇮🇳 India1,759,76276.497.01
161Magura🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,054,68276.076.97
162Bemetara🇮🇳 India836,25676.056.96
163Sirajganj🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,519,01976.016.96
164Barnala🇮🇳 India632,39175.776.94
165Rajbari🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,200,63575.796.94
166Moga🇮🇳 India1,066,61175.716.93
167Chittagong🇧🇩 Bangladesh8,657,01275.546.91
168Purnia🇮🇳 India3,765,57475.286.89
169Narail🇧🇩 Bangladesh832,03975.086.87
170Firozpur🇮🇳 India1,111,58574.706.83
171Nawada🇮🇳 India2,589,68174.746.83
172Baloda Bazar🇮🇳 India1,451,74674.546.81
173Ludhiana🇮🇳 India3,748,90074.416.80
174Supaul🇮🇳 India2,580,75274.226.78
175Muzaffarnagar🇮🇳 India3,303,41074.046.77
176Purbi Singhbhum🇳🇵 Nepal2,635,47674.136.77
177Siraha🇮🇳 India739,78173.546.72
178West Tripura🇮🇳 India999,36773.586.72
179Aurangabad🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,918,68873.476.71
180Mymensingh🇮🇳 India5,815,59573.526.71
181Barddhaman🇮🇳 India8,343,10373.236.69
182Datia🇧🇩 Bangladesh991,34073.296.69
183Bagerhat🇮🇳 India1,670,29673.156.68
184Kapurthala🇧🇩 Bangladesh860,15673.036.67
185Khulna🇮🇳 India2,636,74672.926.66
186Amroha🇮🇳 India2,354,36672.906.65
187Hooghly🇧🇩 Bangladesh5,980,01972.836.65
188Jhenaidah🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,997,29472.646.63
189Pabna🇮🇳 India2,879,66172.456.61
190Maldah🇵🇰 Pakistan4,321,27272.256.59
191Sheikhupura🇮🇳 India2,953,59672.236.59
192Ramgarh🇮🇳 India1,068,34172.126.58
193Janjgir-Champa🇮🇳 India1,857,07771.796.55
194Saraikela-kharsawan🇮🇳 India1,182,93771.736.54
195Kurukshetra🇮🇳 India1,287,01371.426.51
196Gaya🇧🇩 Bangladesh5,063,63071.376.50
197Jhalokati🇧🇩 Bangladesh770,50071.226.49
198Habiganj🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,373,76971.166.48
199Chuadanga🇮🇳 India1,308,92870.796.45
200Jalandhar🇵🇰 Pakistan2,364,89770.756.44
201Kasur🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,295,62670.456.41
202Kushtia🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,188,12670.426.41
203Jessore🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,143,32970.166.39
204Pirojpur🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,273,24870.206.39
205Natore🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,922,03769.796.35
206Naogaon🇮🇳 India2,970,89769.706.34
207Gomati🇮🇳 India583,49969.596.33
208Mungeli🇧🇩 Bangladesh823,85369.626.33
209Meherpur🇮🇳 India745,20269.316.30
210Mahoba🇧🇩 Bangladesh971,95869.206.29
211Bogra🇳🇵 Nepal3,873,07769.136.28
212Nawalparasi West🇮🇳 India383,21969.136.28
213Dakshin Dinajpur🇮🇳 India1,753,77868.846.26
214Karauli🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,697,57968.756.25
215Patuakhali🇳🇵 Nepal1,741,15468.666.24
216Rupandehi🇮🇳 India1,011,00468.436.22
217Dausa🇮🇳 India1,883,85168.256.20
218Jamtara🇮🇳 India888,65868.196.19
219Banka🇳🇵 Nepal2,351,87467.936.17
220Saptari🇮🇳 India740,83667.986.17
221Pashchimi
Singhbhum
🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,700,88567.866.16
222Jamalpur🇮🇳 India2,630,06867.736.15
223Jamui🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,054,45167.776.15
224Joypurhat🇮🇳 India1,036,25267.606.14
225Mahasamund🇳🇵 Nepal1,191,32567.616.14
226Kapilbastu🇧🇩 Bangladesh659,38967.596.13
227Rajshahi🇮🇳 India2,973,64667.526.13
228Araria🇮🇳 India3,280,69867.226.10
229Nadia🇮🇳 India5,654,06667.216.10
230Godda🇮🇳 India1,490,51267.006.08
231Pilibhit🇮🇳 India2,311,36567.056.08
232Dhamtari🇮🇳 India917,92266.976.07
233Hanumangarh🇮🇳 India1,815,27066.936.07
234Saharanpur🇮🇳 India3,818,43966.936.07
235Rajnandgaon🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,735,37066.846.06
236Satkhira🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,258,75166.796.06
237Khagrachhari🇮🇳 India678,44466.586.03
238Bilaspur🇮🇳 India2,211,06166.436.02
239Fazilka🇮🇳 India1,063,16066.426.02
240Jhansi🇮🇳 India2,259,63366.316.01
241Nawabganj🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,868,19566.206.00
242Sahibganj🇮🇳 India1,331,99966.055.98
243Moradabad🇮🇳 India3,267,06265.715.95
244Patiala🇮🇳 India2,045,20965.655.94
245Fatehgarh Sahib🇮🇳 India656,82565.555.93
246Birbhum🇮🇳 India3,777,75465.155.89
247Balod🇮🇳 India712,34664.965.88
248Peshawar🇵🇰 Pakistan4,795,82764.765.86
249Gaibandha🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,706,02364.605.84
250Gurdaspur🇮🇳 India1,912,10564.445.83
251Pashchim Medinipur🇮🇳 India6,372,52164.345.82
252Rampur🇮🇳 India2,661,23564.365.82
253Bargarh🇮🇳 India1,597,87064.265.81
254Uttar Dinajpur🇮🇳 India3,367,37964.335.81
255Rewa🇮🇳 India2,669,37964.235.80
256Dinajpur🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,416,68863.985.78
257Kabirdham🇮🇳 India907,76663.875.77
258Murshidabad🇮🇳 India7,711,94963.895.77
259Sawai Madhopur🇮🇳 India1,423,00163.735.76
260Khowai🇮🇳 India477,96563.715.75
261Sherpur🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,541,33363.665.75
262Nankana Sahib🇵🇰 Pakistan1,267,14463.355.72
263Barguna🇧🇩 Bangladesh995,93363.205.70
264Khunti🇮🇳 India615,99363.165.70
265Cox'S Bazar🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,452,97062.695.65
266Yamunanagar🇮🇳 India1,081,12362.705.65
267Gujranwala🇵🇰 Pakistan4,481,73262.455.63
268Rangamati🇧🇩 Bangladesh687,43962.205.61
269Ulan Bator🇲🇳 Mongolia1,477,06462.295.61
270Giridih🇮🇳 India2,759,94062.125.60
271Netrakona🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,537,43462.195.60
272North 24 Parganas🇮🇳 India11,094,09162.175.60
273Ranchi🇮🇳 India3,274,25162.005.59
274Banke🇳🇵 Nepal565,00561.805.57
275Pakur🇮🇳 India997,90861.775.56
276Jharsuguda🇮🇳 India625,92461.605.55
277Jhunjhunu🇮🇳 India2,388,81361.555.54
278Howrah🇮🇳 India5,178,19361.365.52
279Morang🇳🇵 Nepal1,122,30361.325.52
280Sunsari🇳🇵 Nepal857,27561.365.52
281Phuentsholing🇧🇹 Bhutan29,15860.855.47
282Raigarh🇮🇳 India1,710,33960.775.47
283Shahid Bhagat
Singh Nagar
🇮🇳 India681,19260.795.47
284Deoghar🇮🇳 India1,692,62260.485.44
285Purba Medinipur🇮🇳 India5,537,02760.485.44
286Kishanganj🇮🇳 India1,986,13760.325.42
287Bardiya🇳🇵 Nepal492,39060.175.41
288Hauts Plateaux🇨🇲 Cameroon116,56860.065.40
289Jaipur🇮🇳 India7,480,29260.155.40
290Kodarma🇮🇳 India479,64159.765.37
291Nowshera🇵🇰 Pakistan1,817,31459.675.36
292Satna🇮🇳 India2,488,78459.735.36
293Sialkot🇵🇰 Pakistan3,559,38359.595.35
294Thakurgaon🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,586,64059.535.34
295Hazaribagh🇮🇳 India2,325,63959.365.33
296South 24 Parganas🇮🇳 India8,750,99159.265.32
297Rangpur🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,320,61759.175.31
298Kolkata🇮🇳 India4,508,25958.895.28
299Mayurbhanj🇮🇳 India2,723,50458.865.28
300Jhapa🇳🇵 Nepal933,76158.745.27
301Narowal🇵🇰 Pakistan1,743,88058.695.26
302Sambalpur🇮🇳 India1,129,85558.695.26
303Koung Khi🇨🇲 Cameroon95,97358.605.25
304Yoeseltse🇧🇹 Bhutan2,33558.605.25
305Charsadda🇵🇰 Pakistan1,914,69958.515.24
306Dhalai🇮🇳 India415,64458.485.24
307Hardwar🇮🇳 India2,152,03158.445.24
308Ambala🇮🇳 India1,356,52358.225.22
309Dumka🇮🇳 India1,526,72658.305.22
310Menoua🇨🇲 Cameroon410,98558.265.22
311Bandarban🇧🇩 Bangladesh468,57158.215.21
312Sundargarh🇮🇳 India2,264,20758.145.21
313Maulvibazar🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,169,51457.805.17
314Tonk🇮🇳 India1,609,97157.635.16
315Ugentse🇧🇹 Bhutan1,60457.585.15
316Kendujhar🇮🇳 India1,943,85557.405.14
317Jalpaiguri🇮🇳 India2,858,45357.375.13
318Bhandara🇮🇳 India1,561,05257.045.10
319Chhatarpur🇮🇳 India1,989,14057.005.10
320Bundi🇮🇳 India1,198,33156.815.08
321Swabi🇮🇳 India1,586,44456.795.08
322Mardan🇵🇰 Pakistan2,414,56156.285.03
323Norbugang🇧🇹 Bhutan5,06456.375.03
324Samtse🇧🇹 Bhutan10,80256.315.03
325Simdega🇮🇳 India682,50156.255.02
326Alipurduar🇮🇳 India1,368,53455.884.99
327Nawalparasi East🇳🇵 Nepal358,95855.954.99
328Nilphamari🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,023,68755.964.99
329Bijnor🇮🇳 India4,095,13555.834.98
330Gondiya🇮🇳 India1,199,30755.774.98
331Tikamgarh🇮🇳 India1,639,57055.864.98
332Tashicholing🇧🇹 Bhutan3,97655.724.97
333Unokoti🇮🇳 India472,72855.674.97
334Subarnapur🇮🇳 India662,15855.614.96
335Korba🇮🇳 India1,381,57855.514.95
336Sangngagchhoeling🇧🇹 Bhutan4,25455.524.95
337Balangir🇮🇳 India1,784,13555.444.94
338Chitawan🇳🇵 Nepal660,75955.394.94
339Sheopur🇮🇳 India782,11655.164.92
340Bamboutos🇨🇲 Cameroon419,78555.084.91
341Mifi🇨🇲 Cameroon430,14755.074.91
342Chatra🇮🇳 India1,170,68855.004.90
343Okara🇵🇰 Pakistan2,909,81355.004.90
344Sittwe🇲🇲 Myanmar655,68055.024.90
345Kailali🇳🇵 Nepal892,70954.934.89
346Hafizabad🇵🇰 Pakistan1,276,36954.774.88
347Phuentshogpelri🇧🇹 Bhutan8,93254.834.88
348South West
Garo Hills
🇮🇳 India188,94654.734.87
349Sikar🇮🇳 India3,012,66754.624.86
350Kurigram🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,357,40854.504.85
351Udayapur🇳🇵 Nepal365,63854.374.84
352Kota🇮🇳 India2,248,27454.154.82
353Samphelling🇧🇹 Bhutan7,81954.094.81
354Sunamganj🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,798,53853.924.79
355Hoshiarpur🇮🇳 India1,737,01753.804.78
356Ganganagar🇮🇳 India2,389,90853.724.77
357Nagpur🇮🇳 India5,094,05053.664.77
358Jabalpur🇮🇳 India2,427,33253.454.75
359Maungdaw🇲🇲 Myanmar116,24553.384.74
360Nuapada🇮🇳 India642,84553.164.72
361Panchagarh🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,164,09553.124.72
362Shompangkha🇧🇹 Bhutan2,06753.184.72
363Gariaband🇮🇳 India596,09152.984.70
364Palamu🇮🇳 India2,201,77652.974.70
365Sahibzada Ajit
Singh Nagar
🇮🇳 India1,024,16652.804.68
366Kanchanpur🇳🇵 Nepal522,86852.694.67
367Pakpattan🇵🇰 Pakistan1,976,06852.624.67
368Sergelen🇲🇳 Mongolia19,79052.674.67
369Akola🇮🇳 India2,021,84652.524.66
370Churu🇮🇳 India2,633,04652.554.66
371Deogarh🇮🇳 India339,47652.504.66
372Sidhi🇮🇳 India1,267,06552.594.66
373Lalitpur🇮🇳 India1,354,54652.284.63
374Mezam🇨🇲 Cameroon766,08252.244.63
375Lalmonirhat🇧🇩 Bangladesh1,441,37751.934.60
376Balaghat🇮🇳 India1,908,86951.734.58
377Gumla🇮🇳 India1,164,75151.694.58
378Nichula🇧🇹 Bhutan80151.784.58
379Jalgaon🇮🇳 India4,619,08351.594.57
380Lohardaga🇮🇳 India522,37351.654.57
381Dhenkanal🇮🇳 India1,289,36251.414.55
382Lhamoi Zingkha🇧🇹 Bhutan3,74451.464.55
383Senggey🇧🇹 Bhutan3,90451.444.55
384Katni🇮🇳 India1,790,49551.364.54
385Anugul🇮🇳 India1,372,76751.254.53
386Panna🇮🇳 India1,146,62151.274.53
387Baleshwar🇮🇳 India2,484,44851.084.52
388Baran🇮🇳 India1,401,37551.164.52
389Mandi Bahauddin🇵🇰 Pakistan2,086,07851.124.52
390Ndé🇨🇲 Cameroon135,54351.104.52
391Islamabad🇵🇰 Pakistan2,930,80450.974.51
392North Tripura🇮🇳 India289,30750.934.50
393Darjeeling🇮🇳 India1,920,80850.794.49
394Momo🇨🇲 Cameroon204,61650.794.49
395Haut Nkam🇨🇲 Cameroon207,95950.704.48
396Damoh🇮🇳 India1,434,97550.574.47
397Buldhana🇮🇳 India2,788,16550.464.46
398Lawangtlai🇮🇳 India131,59550.524.46
399Narsimhapur🇮🇳 India1,236,62350.524.46
400Uttar Bastar Kanker🇮🇳 India865,70150.504.46
401Mixco🇬🇹 Guatemala545,15150.294.44
402Pemaling🇧🇹 Bhutan3,74150.314.44
403Rahim Yar Khan🇵🇰 Pakistan5,044,20850.324.44
404Sonbhadra🇮🇳 India2,086,25150.174.43
405Magdalena
Milpas Altas
🇬🇹 Guatemala16,25950.134.42
406Burhanpur🇮🇳 India847,00550.024.41
407San Lucas
Sacatepéquez
🇬🇹 Guatemala34,60349.994.41
408Sindhuli🇳🇵 Nepal339,64250.014.41
409Wardha🇮🇳 India1,436,02250.034.41
410Latehar🇮🇳 India832,65349.884.40
411Nagaur🇮🇳 India3,740,76449.924.40
412Amravati🇮🇳 India3,137,97549.794.39
413Santa María
de Jesús
🇬🇹 Guatemala25,05949.774.39
414Tando Allahyar🇵🇰 Pakistan664,64649.764.39
415Garhwa🇮🇳 India1,501,17349.664.38
416Mangai🇨🇩 DRC7,80649.724.38
417Shivpuri🇮🇳 India1,929,59949.674.38
418Bhadrak🇮🇳 India1,638,19249.564.37
419Bui🇨🇲 Cameroon470,13449.544.37
420Udham Singh
Nagar
🇮🇳 India1,919,01649.564.37
421Vidisha🇮🇳 India1,636,48949.644.37
422Matiari🇵🇰 Pakistan508,16149.484.36
423Bhopal🇮🇳 India2,656,34049.424.35
424East Nimar🇮🇳 India1,468,73849.444.35
425Khargone🇮🇳 India2,101,95649.364.35
426Hoshangabad🇮🇳 India1,410,24049.294.34
427Mandsaur🇮🇳 India1,492,71749.284.34
428Mrauk-U🇲🇲 Myanmar823,86649.304.34
429Raisen🇮🇳 India1,508,51049.174.33
430Sagar🇮🇳 India2,673,55549.194.33
431Rawalpindi🇵🇰 Pakistan5,905,27849.104.32
432Santa Catarina
Pinula
🇬🇹 Guatemala70,52748.974.31
433Shijiazhuang🇨🇳 China10,674,48049.004.31
434Zone 19,
Guatemala City
🇬🇹 Guatemala11,66948.994.31
435Ghotki🇵🇰 Pakistan1,479,55248.914.30
436Jajapur🇮🇳 India1,964,64848.864.30
437Ahmadabad🇮🇳 India8,114,63948.804.29
438Jhalawar🇮🇳 India1,620,71948.784.29
439Santiago
Sacatepéquez
🇬🇹 Guatemala35,29948.784.29
440Chandigarh🇮🇳 India1,166,50748.654.28
441Sehore🇮🇳 India1,452,46848.704.28
442Bahawalnagar🇵🇰 Pakistan3,895,46848.564.27
443Harda🇮🇳 India655,24448.584.27
444San Bartolomé
Milpas Altas
🇬🇹 Guatemala11,63748.564.27
445Sylhet🇧🇩 Bangladesh3,903,75848.524.27
446Lodhran🇵🇰 Pakistan2,265,23348.354.25
447Muzaffargarh🇵🇰 Pakistan4,850,11448.324.25
448Ashoknagar🇮🇳 India957,80748.294.24
449Rajgarh🇮🇳 India1,732,70548.304.24
450Seoni🇮🇳 India1,547,46248.244.24
451Dekiling🇧🇹 Bhutan4,53548.114.23
452Ciudad Vieja🇬🇹 Guatemala36,97348.014.22
453Gelephu🇧🇹 Bhutan18,14448.024.22
454Luebo (ville)🇨🇩 DRC26,52048.024.22
455Multan🇵🇰 Pakistan5,764,76948.094.22
456Rupnagar🇮🇳 India755,59548.104.22
457Koch Bihar🇮🇳 India3,037,21947.954.21
458Umaria🇮🇳 India591,38147.874.20
459Makawanpur🇳🇵 Nepal481,79747.764.19
460Rajanpur🇵🇰 Pakistan1,840,12947.754.19
461Ajmer🇮🇳 India2,938,94747.704.18
462Agar Malwa🇮🇳 India734,87747.504.17
463Attock🇵🇰 Pakistan3,028,39047.564.17
464Gujrat🇵🇰 Pakistan3,446,39447.594.17
465Ilebo🇨🇩 DRC501,40747.544.17
466Liaocheng🇨🇳 China6,045,85847.524.17
467Santa Lucía Milpas Altas🇬🇹 Guatemala19,66747.524.17
468Shaheed Benazir Abad🇵🇰 Pakistan1,296,63047.594.17
469Oshwe🇨🇩 DRC318,09947.444.16
470Boudh🇮🇳 India480,37647.404.15
471Shajapur🇮🇳 India955,08547.304.15
472Shikarpur🇵🇰 Pakistan722,63447.304.15
473Chhuzagang🇧🇹 Bhutan1,82247.224.14
474Kashmore🇵🇰 Pakistan809,60047.214.14
475Namgaychhoeling🇧🇹 Bhutan3,10947.204.14
476Naushahro Feroze🇵🇰 Pakistan1,350,50047.274.14
477Zone 7,
Guatemala City
🇬🇹 Guatemala112,44147.254.14
478San Antonio Aguas Calientes🇬🇹 Guatemala13,94547.184.13
479Ilebo (ville)🇨🇩 DRC96,36747.014.12
480Jocotenango🇬🇹 Guatemala24,13547.044.12
481Kutu🇨🇩 DRC744,41646.994.12
482Ngo Ketunjia🇨🇲 Cameroon274,42947.064.12
483Nioki🇨🇩 DRC73,90247.064.12
484Luebo🇨🇩 DRC295,88746.894.11
485Pastores🇬🇹 Guatemala21,37946.884.10
486Jalna🇮🇳 India2,140,05246.694.09
487Pune🇮🇳 India10,338,86446.694.09
488South Garo Hills🇮🇳 India163,68146.764.09
489Sahiwal🇵🇰 Pakistan2,688,96046.674.08
490Samtenling🇧🇹 Bhutan2,17546.614.08
491Santa Catarina
Barahona
🇬🇹 Guatemala3,43846.654.08
492Sumpango🇬🇹 Guatemala42,56446.614.08
493Vehari🇵🇰 Pakistan3,242,85346.624.08
494Cuttack🇮🇳 India2,903,81746.584.07
495Hyderabad🇵🇰 Pakistan1,446,96846.504.07
496Tading🇧🇹 Bhutan4,31446.504.07
497Chandrapur🇮🇳 India2,414,69546.414.06
498Fraijanes🇬🇹 Guatemala67,41746.384.06
499Gandhinagar🇮🇳 India1,312,49546.464.06
500Yumbi🇨🇩 DRC138,55246.454.06

Note: Data for some cities in the DRC and Egypt is mislabeled in the source and has been omitted from this table.

For instance, residents of the national capital region of India could live nearly 12 years longer if they had cleaner air. In fact the top 78 cities with the most to gain from better air quality are all in India, located in and around the north and northwest regions of the country.

Cities in the broader South Asian region—Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan—also feature in the top 500 cities list.

Greater industrialization, economic activity, and rapid population growth in the last two decades have combined to make South Asia a global hotspot for air pollution. Other unique practices in the region that exacerbate the problem include: solid fuel combustion for cooking, burning agricultural waste, and cremation.

Only a few cities, like Melbourne, Australia, meet the WHO guideline. The AQLI report found that 98.4% of the world’s population lives in regions whose air quality is worse than recommended standards.

There is also a significant correlation between a country’s per capita GDP and their air quality; richer countries have cleaner air and vice-versa.

Air Pollution Has the Biggest Impact on Life Expectancy

But perhaps most surprising is how much worse air pollution is to human health, compared to other causes of disease and death. Measured in terms of life expectancy, the AQLI finds that ambient particulate pollution is consistently the world’s greatest external risk to human health.

Click to view this graphic in a higher-resolution.

Chart comparing particle pollutants with health threats

Globally, particulate pollution reduces average life expectancy the most, worse than tobacco use (2.2 years), unsafe water, sanitation and handwashing (0.6 years), and nutritional deficiencies (0.1 years).

Thus, the impact of particulate pollution on life expectancy is 3.8 times that of exposure to unsafe water, and 23 times that of nutritional deficiencies.

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Agriculture

The World’s Top Cocoa Producing Countries

Here are the largest cocoa producing countries globally—from Côte d’Ivoire to Brazil—as cocoa prices hit record highs.

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This tree map graphic shows the world's biggest cocoa producers.

The World’s Top Cocoa Producing Countries

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

West Africa is home to the largest cocoa producing countries worldwide, with 3.9 million tonnes of production in 2022.

In fact, there are about one million farmers in Côte d’Ivoire supplying cocoa to key customers such as Nestlé, Mars, and Hershey. But the massive influence of this industry has led to significant forest loss to plant cocoa trees.

This graphic shows the leading producers of cocoa, based on data from the UN FAO.

Global Hotspots for Cocoa Production

Below, we break down the top cocoa producing countries as of 2022:

Country2022 Production, Tonnes
🇨🇮 Côte d'Ivoire2.2M
🇬🇭 Ghana1.1M
🇮🇩 Indonesia667K
🇪🇨 Ecuador337K
🇨🇲 Cameroon300K
🇳🇬 Nigeria280K
🇧🇷 Brazil274K
🇵🇪 Peru171K
🇩🇴 Dominican Republic76K
🌍 Other386K

With 2.2 million tonnes of cocoa in 2022, Côte d’Ivoire is the world’s largest producer, accounting for a third of the global total.

For many reasons, the cocoa trade in Côte d’Ivoire and Western Africa has been controversial. Often, farmers make about 5% of the retail price of a chocolate bar, and earn $1.20 each day. Adding to this, roughly a third of cocoa farms operate on forests that are meant to be protected.

As the third largest producer, Indonesia produced 667,000 tonnes of cocoa with the U.S., Malaysia, and Singapore as major importers. Overall, small-scale farmers produce 95% of cocoa in the country, but face several challenges such as low pay and unwanted impacts from climate change. Alongside aging trees in the country, these setbacks have led productivity to decline.

In South America, major producers include Ecuador and Brazil. In the early 1900s, Ecuador was the world’s largest cocoa producing country, however shifts in the global marketplace and crop disease led its position to fall. Today, the country is most known for its high-grade single-origin chocolate, with farms seen across the Amazon rainforest.

Altogether, global cocoa production reached 6.5 million tonnes, supported by strong demand. On average, the market has grown 3% annually over the last several decades.

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