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Charting the World’s Major Stock Markets on the Same Scale (1990-2019)

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Major stock markets compared to the S&P 500

Charting the World’s Major Stock Markets

Most investors around the world are familiar with the S&P 500 index.

Not only is it the most widely accepted barometer of U.S. stock market performance, but it’s also been on a 10-year bull run, now sitting at all-time highs near 3,170.

This week, we chart those historical returns, and then use the U.S. benchmark as a backdrop to compare other major stock markets around the world, such as those in Europe, Asia, and Canada.

Putting Them All at Scale

One challenge in comparing global markets directly is that all indices are on arbitrary scales.

To directly compare them, the most natural option would be to transform the data to percentage terms. While that’s all fine and dandy, it’s also a little boring.

To make things more interesting, we’ve collected historical data that goes back nearly 30 years for each index. This was mostly done using Macrotrends, a fantastic resource for historical data. We used November 26th, 1990 as a cut-off date, since that was the earliest data point available for some of the country indices used.

We then transformed all of this data to be on the same scale of the S&P 500, so performance can be directly compared to the common American stock market benchmark.

Comparing Markets Using the S&P 500

Alright, now that we have the same scale for each market, let’s dive into the data:

CountryBenchmarkCurrent Value (in S&P 500 terms)Gain since Nov 26, 1990
๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ United StatesS&P 5003,168+901%
๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Hong KongHang Seng Comp.2,926+824%
๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช GermanyDAX 302,913+820%
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ CanadaS&P/TSX Comp.1,717+444%
๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท FranceCAC 401,160+268%
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง United KingdomFTSE 1001,072+238%
๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต JapanNikkei 225315+1%

Note: Data has been transformed to match the scale of the S&P 500, and is current as of December 13, 2019

If you invested $100 in the U.S. market on November 26, 1990, you’d have over $1,000 today.

Over nearly 30 years, the S&P 500 has increased by 901%, which is the most out any of these major indices. If you invested in the German or Hong Kong markets, you’d have fairly similar results as well โ€” each gained more than 800% over the same time period.

Meanwhile, the markets in Canada, France, and the United Kingdom have all increased, but at a far slower pace:

  • In S&P 500 terms, Canada would be sitting at 1,717 โ€” which is where the U.S. market was back in 2013.
  • France would be at 1,160, a mark the S&P 500 last hit in 2010.
  • The United Kingdom would sit at 1,072, also equivalent to 2010 for the U.S. market.

Finally, in S&P 500 terms, the Japanese stock market would be at a lowly 315 points today โ€” roughly where it started 30 years ago. In other words, if you had invested $100 in Japanese stocks in 1990, you’d have gained just $1 over a period of three decades.

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Markets

The Population of China in Perspective

China is the world’s most populous country. But how does the population of China compare to the rest of the world?

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population of china

The Population of China in Perspective

China is the worldโ€™s most populous country with an astounding 1.44 billion citizens. Altogether, the size of the population of China is larger than nearly four regions combined: South America, Europe (excluding Russia), the U.S. & Canada, and Australia & New Zealand.

Using data from the United Nations, this unconventional map reveals the comparative size of China’s population next to a multitude of other countries.

Note: To keep the visualization easy to read, we’ve simplified the shapes representing countries. For example, although we’ve included Alaska and Hawaii in U.S. population totals, the U.S. is represented by the contiguous states map only.

A Historical Perspective

Looking at history, the population of China has more than doubled since the 1950s. The country was the first in the world to hit one billion people in 1980.

However, in 1979, in an attempt to control the burgeoning population, the infamous one-child policy was introduced, putting controls on how many children Chinese citizens could have.

While the government eventually recognized the negative implications of this policy, it appeared to be too little, too late. The two-child policy was introduced in 2016, but it has not yet reversed the current slowdown inย population growth.

YearChina's Population (Millions)Annual Rate of Growth (%)Median AgeFertility Rate
1955612.22.00%22.26.11
1960660.41.53%21.35.48
1965724.21.86%19.86.15
1970827.62.70%19.36.30
1975926.22.28%20.34.85
19801,000.11.55%21.93.01
19851,075.61.47%23.52.52
19901,176.91.82%24.92.73
19951,240.91.07%27.41.83
20001,290.60.79%30.01.62
20051,330.80.62%32.61.61
20101,368.80.57%35.01.62
20151,406.80.55%36.71.64
20161,414.00.51%37.01.65
20171,421.00.49%37.01.65
20181,427.60.47%37.01.65
20191,433.80.43%37.01.65
20201,439.30.39%38.41.69

The fertility rate has been consistently falling from over 6 births per woman in 1955 to 1.69 in 2020. Today, the median age in China is 38 years old, rising from 22 in 1955. Longer life spans and fewer births form a demographic trend that has many social and economic implications.

Overall, Chinaโ€™s young population is becoming scarcer, meaning that the domestic labor market will eventually begin shrinking. Additionally, the larger share of elderly citizens will require publicly-funded resources, resulting in a heavier societal and financial burden.

Strength in Numbers

Despite these trends, however, Chinaโ€™s current population remains massive, constituting almost 20% of the worldโ€™s total population. Right now 71% of the Chinese population is between the ages of 15 and 65 years old, meaning that the labor supply is still immense.

Here are the populations of 65 countries from various regions of the worldโ€”and added together, you’ll see they still fall short of the population of China:

CountryPopulation Region
๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ U.S.331,002,651North America
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Canada37,742,154North America
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Brazil212,559,417South America
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ด Colombia50,882,891South America
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ท Argentina45,195,774South America
๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ช Peru32,971,854South America
๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช Venezuela28,435,940South America
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Chile19,116,201South America
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ Ecuador17,643,054South America
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ด Bolivia11,673,021South America
๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พ Paraguay7,132,538South America
๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พ Uruguay3,473,730South America
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พ Guyana786,552South America
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ท Suriname586,632South America
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ซ French Guyana298,682South America
๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Falkland Islands3,480South America
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ Australia25,499,884Oceania
๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฟ New Zealand4,822,233Oceania
๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Germany83,783,942Europe
๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท France65,273,511Europe
๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Netherlands17,134,872Europe
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ช Belgium11,589,623Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น Austria9,006,398Europe
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ Switzerland8,654,622Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ Luxembourg625,978Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡จ Monaco39,242Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Liechtenstein38,128Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Italy60,461,826Europe
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Spain46,754,778Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท Greece10,423,054Europe
๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Portugal10,196,709Europe
๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธ Serbia8,737,371Europe
๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ท Croatia4,105,267Europe
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆ Bosnia and Herzegovina3,280,819Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Albania2,877,797Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐ North Macedonia2,083,374Europe
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Slovenia2,078,938Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ช Montenegro628,066Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡น Malta441,543Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Andorra77,265Europe
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฒ San Marino33,931Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Gibraltar33,691Europe
๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฆ Vatican City801Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง United Kingdom67,886,011Europe
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Sweden10,099,265Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Denmark5,792,202Europe
๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Finland5,540,720Europe
๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด Norway5,421,241Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช Ireland4,937,786Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น Lithuania2,722,289Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ป Latvia1,886,198Europe
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ช Estonia1,326,535Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธ Iceland341,243Europe
Channel Islands173,863Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Isle of Man85,033Europe
๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ด Faroe Islands48,863Europe
๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Ukraine43,733,762Europe
๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ Poland37,846,611Europe
๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด Romania19,237,691Europe
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Czechia10,708,981Europe
๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ Hungary9,660,351Europe
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พ Belarus9,449,323Europe
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌ Bulgaria6,948,445Europe
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐ Slovakia5,459,642Europe
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Moldova4,033,963Europe
Total1,431,528,252

To break it down even further, here’s a look at the population of each of the regions listed above:

  • Australia and New Zealand: 30.3 million
  • Europe (excluding Russia): 601.7 million
  • South America: 430.8 million
  • The U.S. and Canada: 368.7 million

Combined their population is 1.432 billion compared to China’s 1.439 billion.

Overall, the population of China has few comparables. India is one exception, with a population of 1.38 billion. As a continent, Africa comes in close as well at 1.34 billion people. Here’s a breakdown of Africa’s population for further comparison.

CountryPopulation Region
๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Nigeria206,139,589Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ Ghana31,072,940Africa
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎ Cรดte d'Ivoire26,378,274Africa
๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ช Niger24,206,644Africa
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ซ Burkina Faso20,903,273Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Mali20,250,833Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ Senegal16,743,927Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ณ Guinea13,132,795Africa
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏ Benin12,123,200Africa
๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌ Togo8,278,724Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Sierra Leone7,976,983Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ท Liberia5,057,681Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ท Mauritania4,649,658Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Gambia2,416,668Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ผ Guinea-Bissau1,968,001Africa
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป Cabo Verde555,987Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ญ Saint Helena6,077Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ South Africa59,308,690Africa
๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Namibia2,540,905Africa
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ผ Botswana2,351,627Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ธ Lesotho2,142,249Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Eswatini1,160,164Africa
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌ Egypt102,334,404Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Algeria43,851,044Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Sudan43,849,260Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Morocco36,910,560Africa
๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Tunisia11,818,619Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พ Libya6,871,292Africa
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ญ Western Sahara597,339Africa
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉ Democratic Republic of the Congo89,561,403Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ด Angola32,866,272Africa
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Cameroon26,545,863Africa
๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฉ Chad16,425,864Africa
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Congo5,518,087Africa
๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซ Central African Republic4,829,767Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Gabon2,225,734Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ถ Equatorial Guinea1,402,985Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡น Sao Tome and Principe219,159Africa
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น Ethiopia114,963,588Africa
๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟ Tanzania59,734,218Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช Kenya53,771,296Africa
๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Uganda45,741,007Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ Mozambique31,255,435Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฌ Madagascar27,691,018Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ผ Malawi19,129,952Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Zambia18,383,955Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ด Somalia15,893,222Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ผ Zimbabwe14,862,924Africa
๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผ Rwanda12,952,218Africa
๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎ Burundi11,890,784Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธ South Sudan11,193,725Africa
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ท Eritrea3,546,421Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡บ Mauritius1,271,768Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฏ Djibouti988,000Africa
๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ช Rรฉunion895,312Africa
๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฒ Comoros869,601Africa
๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡น Mayotte272,815Africa
๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡จ Seychelles98,347Africa
Total1,340,598,147

Future Outlook on the Population of China

Whether or not Chinaโ€™s population growth is slowing appears to be less relevant when looking at its sheer size. While India is expected to match the country’s population by 2026, China will remain one of the worldโ€™s largest economic powerhouses regardless.

It is estimated, however, that the population of China will drop below one billion people by the year 2100โ€”bumping the nation to third place in the ranking of the worldโ€™s most populous countries. At the same time, it’s possible that China’s economic dominance may be challenged by these same demographic tailwinds as time moves forward.

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Mining

How to Avoid Common Mistakes With Mining Stocks (Part 5: Funding Strength)

A mining companyโ€™s past projects and funding strength are interlinked. This infographic outlines how a company’s ability to raise capital can determine the fate of a mining stock.

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Funding Strength

A mining companyโ€™s past projects and funding strength are interlinked, and can provide clues as to its potential success.

A good track record can provide better opportunities to raise capital, but the company must still ensure it times its financing with the market, protects its shareholders, and demonstrates value creation from the funding it receives.

Part 5: The Role of Funding Strength

Weโ€™ve partnered with Eclipse Gold Mining on an infographic series to show you how to avoid common mistakes when evaluating and investing in mining exploration stocks.

Part 5 of the series highlights six things to keep in mind when analyzing a companyโ€™s project history and funding ability.

Funding Strength

View all five parts of the series:

Part 5: Raising Capital and Funding Strength

So what must investors evaluate when it comes to funding strength?

Here are six important areas to cover.

1. Past Project Success: Veteran vs. Recruit

A history of success in mining helps to attract capital from knowledgeable investors. Having an experienced team provides confidence and opens up opportunities to raise additional capital on more favorable terms.

Veteran:

  • A team with past experience and success in similar projects
  • A history of past projects creating value for shareholders
  • A clear understanding of the building blocks of a successful project

A company with successful past projects instills confidence in investors and indicates the company knows how to make future projects successful, as well.

2. Well-balanced Financing: Shareholder Friendly vs. Banker Friendly

Companies need to balance between large investors and protecting retail shareholders. Management with skin in the game ensures they find a balance between serving the interests of both of these unique groups.

Shareholder Friendly:

  • Clear communication with shareholders regarding the companyโ€™s financing plans
  • High levels of insider ownership ensures management has faith in the companyโ€™s direction, and is less likely to make decisions which hurt shareholders
  • Share dilution is done in a limited capacity and only when it helps finance new projects that will create more value for shareholders

Mining companies need to find a balance between keeping their current shareholders happy while also offering attractive financing options to attract further investors.

3. A Liquid Stock: Hot Spot vs. Ghost Town

Lack of liquidity in a stock can be a major problem when it comes to attracting investment. It can limit investments from bigger players like funds and savvy investors. Investors prefer liquid stocks that are easily traded, as this allows them to capitalize on market trends.

Hot Spot:

  • A liquid stock ensures shareholders are able to buy and sell shares at their expected price
  • More liquid stocks often trade at better valuations than their illiquid counterparts
  • High liquidity can help avoid price crashes during times of market instability

Liquidity makes all the difference when it comes to attracting investors and ensuring theyโ€™re comfortable holding a companyโ€™s stock.

4. Timing the Market: On Time vs. Too Late or Too Early

Raising capital at the wrong time can result in little interest from investors. Companies in tune with market cycles can raise capital to capture rising interest in the commodity theyโ€™re mining.

Being On Time:

  • Raising capital near the start of a commodityโ€™s bull market can attract interest from speculators looking to capitalize on price trends
  • If timed well, the attention around a commodity can attract investors
  • Well-timed financing will instill confidence in shareholders, who will be more likely to hold onto their stock
  • Raising capital at the right time during bull markets is less expensive for the company and reduces risk for investors

Companies need to time when they raise capital in order to maximize the amount raised.

5. Where is the Money Going? Money Well Spent vs. Well Wasted

How a company spends its money plays a crucial role in whether the company is generating more value or just keeping the lights on. Investors should always try to determine if management is simply in it for a quick buck, or if they truly believe in their projects and the quality of the ore the company is mining.

Money Well Spent:

  • Raised capital goes towards expanding projects and operations
  • Efficient use of capital can increase revenue and keep shareholders happy with dividend hikes and share buybacks
  • By showing tangible results from previous investments, a company can more easily raise capital in the future

Raised capital needs to be allocated wisely in order to support projects and generate value for shareholders.

6. Additional Capital: Back for More vs. Tapped Out

Mining is a capital intensive process, and unless the company has access to a treasure trove, funding is crucial to advancing any project. Companies that demonstrate consistency in their ability to create value at every stage will find it easier to raise capital when itโ€™s necessary.

Back For More:

  • Raise more capital when necessary to fund further development on a project
  • Able to show the value they generated from previous funding when looking to raise capital a second time
  • Attract future shareholders easily by treating current shareholders well

Every mining project requires numerous financings. However, if management proves they spend capital in a way that creates value, investors will likely offer more funding during difficult or unexpected times.

Wealth Creation and Funding Strength

Mining companies that develop significant assets can create massive amounts of wealth, but often the company will not see cash flow for years. This is why it is so important to have funding strength: an ability to raise capital and build value to harvest later.

It is a challenging process to build a mining company, but management that has the ability to treat their shareholders and raise money can see their dreams built.

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