Visualizing the World’s Sleeping Habits
Sleep quality, patterns, and duration may vary among countries, but one thing’s clear─people still aren’t getting enough sleep. While some people can function on a few hours, others find themselves reaching for that second cup of morning coffee instead of getting those extra Z’s.
Today’s graphic comes from Raconteur and highlights some startling takeaways from the 2019 Philips Global Sleep Survey, answered by over 11,000 adults from 12 countries.
Let’s settle in to discover what impacts our sleeping habits, also known as sleep hygiene, and what helps people sleep better and longer.
Why Sleep Is Important
Roughly 62% of adults worldwide feel that they don’t sleep well when they go to bed. Losing just one or two hours of sleep per night can have the same impact on motor and cognitive functions as going without sleep for a full day or two.
Experts have long emphasized that developing good sleeping habits can help to maintain our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Ongoing sleep deprivation can also cause severe, long-term health conditions:
- Heart disease and heart failure
- Weak immune system
- High blood pressure
- Kidney disease
Drowsiness has been a significant factor in roughly 100,000 car accidents every year, causing an estimated 1,500 deaths. Sleep deficiency has also been linked to a number of disasters, such as airplane and boat accidents, and even nuclear reactor meltdowns.
The Science of Sleep
The human body follows the circadian rhythm─a 24-hour repeating rhythm that operates as an internal clock. This clock is controlled by two things: external cues such as light and darkness, and internal compounds that trigger and maintain our sleep.
These chemicals work together to keep our sleep/wake cycles in harmony.
- Adenosine: slowly builds the desire for sleep throughout the day
- Melatonin: produces drowsy feelings that signal your body is now ready for sleep
- Cortisol: naturally triggers your body to wake up
While sleep duration can vary greatly around the world, most adults are still not getting enough shut-eye. The average person gets 6.8 hours of sleep on a weeknight, which is significantly lower than the recommended 8 hours.
One company in the UK has even developed a real-time map of social media posts from people who say they can’t fall or stay asleep.
What Prevents Better Sleep?
People can suffer from a lack of sleep for many reasons─below are the top six culprits.
- Worry and Stress
Job, family, health, financial, and a myriad of other concerns plague people from all walks of life. Adults living in Canada and Singapore tend to be the most worried.
The physical space where you sleep plays a large role in the quality and duration of your sleep. Nearly 35% of adults fall asleep somewhere other than their bed. Interestingly, Chinese adults are the least comfortable when sleeping, while Japanese adults are the most comfortable.
- Work and School Schedules
Hectic careers and heavy school workloads have a direct and lasting impact on sleeping habits. Many forego sleep in favor of completing work, social, and household responsibilities.
In the age of technology, natural rhythms of daytime and nighttime perception have been skewed, especially from the effects of blue light emitted from our device screens.
Eating food, or drinking alcohol or caffeine within the last few hours before bedtime can prevent our brains from knowing it’s time to wind down and get ready for sleep. Adults living in the fast-paced developed nations of China, Canada, the United States, and Singapore are the most caffeinated.
- Health Conditions
Over three-quarters of adults experience at least one health condition that impacts sleep. These include insomnia, sleep apnea─which affects roughly 22 million people in the U.S. alone─snoring, restless leg syndrome (RLS), narcolepsy, and chronic pain.
Developing Good Sleeping Habits
Sleep is often the first to be neglected with our hectic schedules. Here are a few ways to practice better habits for a good night’s sleep.
Wake up and go to bed at the same time each day─even on weekends─to establish a more ingrained rhythm for your body clock and help your brain better prepare for sleep.
Pick a time of day that suits your schedule and energy levels, and be sure to stick with it. Exercise helps to balance melatonin and cortisol levels throughout the day.
Get outside often during the day and reduce the time spent outside at night. Limit screen time at least 30-60 minutes before sleep.
Food and Drink
Avoid eating large meals or drinking alcohol or caffeine in the last couple of hours before you go to sleep. Caffeine effects can linger for up to 8 hours, which breaks natural sleep rhythms.
Recent studies have shown that mind-body treatments for insomnia such as yoga, tai chi, and meditation had positive impacts on improving sleep quality.
Set the bed for success—keep your room cool and dark, buy a high-quality mattress and comfortable bed linens and use a white-noise machine to help you fall asleep.
Sleep is one of the most important aspects of our health; it’s also one of the easiest to neglect. Don’t put yourself into sleep debt─get enough shut-eye to enjoy those sweet dreams.
Visualized: The Biggest Ponzi Schemes in Modern History
Learn the stories behind some of the world’s biggest Ponzi schemes in this illustrative infographic timeline.
The Biggest Ponzi Schemes in Modern History
Some things simply sound too good to be true, but when money is involved, our judgement can become clouded.
This is often the case with Ponzi schemes, a type of financial fraud that lures investors by promising abnormally high returns. Money brought in by new members is used to pay the scheme’s founders, as well as its earlier investors.
The scheme is named after Charles Ponzi, an Italian who became infamous in the 1920s for claiming he could double his clients’ money within 90 days. Since then, numerous Ponzi schemes have been orchestrated around the globe.
To help you learn more about these sophisticated crimes, this infographic examines some of the biggest Ponzi schemes in modern history.
Ponzi Schemes in the 20th Century
The 1990s saw a number of large Ponzi schemes worth upwards of $500 million.
|Country||Date Ended||Name of Scheme and Founder||Value (USD)|
|Belgium||1991||Moneytron, Jean-Pierre Van Rossem||$860M|
|Romania||1994||Caritas, Ioan Stoica||$1B - $5B|
|Russia||1994||MMM, Sergei Mavrodi||$10B|
|U.S.||1997||Great Ministries International, Geral Payne||$500M|
In many cases, these schemes thrived by taking advantage of the unsuspecting public who often lacked any knowledge of investing. Caritas, for example, was a Ponzi scheme based in Romania that marketed itself as a “self-help game” for the poor.
The scheme was initially very successful, tricking millions of people into making deposits by offering the chance to earn an 800% return after three months. This was not sustainable, and Caritas was eventually unable to distribute further winnings.
Caritas operated for only two years, but its “success” was undeniable. In 1993, it was estimated that a third of the country’s money was circulating through the scheme.
Ponzi Schemes in the 21st Century
The American public has fallen victim to numerous multi-billion dollar Ponzi schemes since the beginning of the 21st century.
|Country||Date Ended||Name of Scheme and Founder||Value (USD)|
|U.S.||2003||Mutual Benefits Company, Joel Steinger||$1B|
|U.S.||2003||Petters Group Worldwide, Tom Petters||$4B|
|U.S.||2008||Madoff Investment Scandal, Bernie Madoff||$65B|
|U.S.||2012||Stanford Financial Group, Allen Stanford||$7B|
Many of these schemes have made major headlines, but much less is said about the thousands of everyday Americans that were left in financial ruin.
For victims of the Madoff Investment Scandal, receiving any form of compensation has been a drawn-out process. In 2018, 10 years after the scheme was uncovered, a court-appointed trustee managed to recover $13 billion by liquidating Madoff’s firm and personal assets.
As NPR reported, investors may recover up to 60 to 70 percent of their initial investment only. For victims who had to delay retirement or drastically alter their lifestyles, this compensation likely provides little solace.
Do the Crime, Pay the Time
Running a Ponzi scheme is likely to land you in jail for a long time, at least in the U.S.
In 2009, for example, 71-year-old Bernie Madoff pled guilty to 11 federal felonies and was sentenced to 150 years in prison. That’s 135 years longer than the average U.S. murder conviction.
Outside of the U.S., it’s a much different story. Weaker regulation and enforcement, particularly in developing countries, means a number of schemes are ongoing today.
Sergei Mavrodi, known for running the Russian Ponzi scheme MMM, started a new organization named MMM Global after being released from prison in 2011. Although he died in March 2018, his self-described “social financial network” has established a base in several Southeast Asian and African countries.
If you or someone you know is worried about falling victim to a Ponzi scheme, this checklist from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) may be a useful resource.
The Top 100 Companies of the World: The U.S. vs Everyone Else
Where are the top 100 companies of the world located? We highlight the U.S. share of the top companies by market capitalization .
The Top 100 Companies of the World: U.S. vs Everyone
When it comes to breaking down the top 100 companies of the world, the United States still commands the largest slice of the pie.
Throughout the 20th century and before globalization reached its current peaks, American companies made the country an economic powerhouse and the source of a majority of global market value.
But even as countries like China have made headway with multi-billion dollar companies of their own, and the market’s most important sectors have shifted, the U.S. has managed to stay on top.
How do the top 100 companies of the world stack up? This visualization pulls from PwC’s annual ranking of the world’s largest companies, using market capitalization data from May 2021.
Where are the World’s Largest Companies Located?
The world’s top 100 companies account for a massive $31.7 trillion in market cap, but that wealth is not distributed evenly.
Between companies, there’s a wide range of market caps. For example, the difference between the world’s largest company (Apple) and the 100th largest (Anheuser-Busch) is $1.9 trillion.
And between countries, that divide becomes even more stark. Of the 16 countries with companies making the top 100 ranking, the U.S. accounts for 65% of the total market cap value.
|Location||# of Companies||Market Capitalization (May 2021)|
|🇺🇸 United States||59||$20.55T|
|🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia||1||$1.92T|
|🇰🇷 South Korea||1||$0.43T|
|🇬🇧 United Kingdom||3||$0.43T|
Compared to the U.S., other once-prominent markets like Japan, France, and the UK have seen their share of the world’s top 100 companies falter over the years. In fact, all of Europe accounts for just $3.46 trillion or 11% of the total market cap value of the list.
A major reason for the U.S. dominance in market values is a shift in important industries and contributors. Of the world’s top 100 companies, 52% were based in either technology or consumer discretionary, and the current largest players like Apple, Alphabet, Tesla, and Walmart are all American-based.
The Top 100 Companies of the World: Competition From China
The biggest and most impressive competitor to the U.S. is China.
With 14 companies of its own in the world’s top 100, China accounted for $4.19 trillion or 13% of the top 100’s total market cap value. That includes two of the top 10 firms by market cap, Tencent and Alibaba.
|Company||Country||Sector||Market Cap (May 2021)|
|#2||Saudi Aramco||Saudi Arabia||Energy||$1,920B|
|#4||Amazon||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$1,558B|
|#8||Tesla||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$641B|
|#10||Berkshire Hathway||United States||Financials||$588B|
|#13||JPMorgan Chase||United States||Financials||$465B|
|#14||Johnson & Johnson||United States||Health Care||$433B|
|#15||Samsung Electronics||South Korea||Technology||$431B|
|#16||Kweichow Moutai||China||Consumer Staples||$385B|
|#17||Walmart||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$383B|
|#19||UnitedHealth Group||United States||Health Care||$352B|
|#20||LVMH Moët Hennessy||France||Consumer Discretionary||$337B|
|#21||Walt Disney Co||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$335B|
|#22||Bank of America||United States||Financials||$334B|
|#23||Procter & Gamble||United States||Consumer Staples||$333B|
|#25||Home Depot||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$329B|
|#26||Nestle SA||Switzerland||Consumer Staples||$322B|
|#28||Paypal Holdings||United States||Industrials||$284B|
|#29||Roche Holdings||Switzerland||Health Care||$283B|
|#31||ASML Holding NV||Netherlands||Technology||$255B|
|#32||Toyota Motor||Japan||Consumer Discretionary||$254B|
|#34||Verizon Communications||United States||Telecommunication||$241B|
|#35||Exxon Mobil||United States||Energy||$236B|
|#36||Netflix||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$231B|
|#38||Coca-Cola Co||United States||Consumer Staples||$227B|
|#41||Cisco Systems||United States||Telecommunication||$218B|
|#44||China Construction Bank||China||Financials||$213B|
|#45||Abbott Labs||United States||Health Care||$212B|
|#46||Novartis AG||Switzerland||Health Care||$212B|
|#47||Nike||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$209B|
|#49||Pfizer||United States||Health Care||$202B|
|#50||Chevron||United States||Oil & Gas||$202B|
|#51||China Merchants Bank||China||Financials||$196B|
|#52||PepsiCo||United States||Consumer Staples||$195B|
|#54||Merck & Co||United States||Health Care||$195B|
|#55||AbbVie||United States||Health Care||$191B|
|#59||Thermo Fisher Scientific||United States||Health Care||$180B|
|#60||Eli Lilly & Co||United States||Health Care||$179B|
|#61||Agricultural Bank of China||China||Financials||$178B|
|#64||Texas Instruments||United States||Technology||$174B|
|#65||McDonalds||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$167B|
|#66||Volkswagen AG||Germany||Consumer Discretionary||$165B|
|#67||BHP Group||Australia||Basic Materials||$163B|
|#68||Wells Fargo & Co||United States||Financials||$162B|
|#69||Tata Consultancy Services||India||Technology||$161B|
|#70||Danaher||United States||Health Care||$160B|
|#71||Novo Nordisk||Denmark||Health Care||$160B|
|#73||Wuliangye Yibin||China||Consumer Staples||$159B|
|#74||Costco Wholesale||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$156B|
|#75||T-Mobile US||United States||Telecommunication||$156B|
|#81||Royal Dutch Shell||Netherlands||Oil & Gas||$148B|
|#82||NextEra Energy||United States||Utilities||$148B|
|#83||United Parcel Service||United States||Industrials||$148B|
|#84||Union PAC||United States||Industrials||$148B|
|#85||Unilever||United Kingdom||Consumer Staples||$147B|
|#87||Linde||United Kingdom||Basic Materials||$146B|
|#88||Amgen||United States||Health Care||$144B|
|#89||Bristol Myers Squibb||United States||Health Care||$141B|
|#91||Bank of China||China||Financials||$139B|
|#92||Philip Morris||United States||Consumer Staples||$138B|
|#93||Lowe's Companies||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$136B|
|#94||Charter Communications||United States||Telecommunication||$135B|
|#96||Sony Group||Japan||Consumer Discretionary||$132B|
|#97||Astrazeneca||United Kingdom||Health Care||$131B|
|#98||Royal Bank of Canada||Canada||Financials||$131B|
|#99||Starbucks||United States||Consumer Discretionary||$129B|
Impressively, China’s rise in market value isn’t limited to well-known tech and consumer companies. The country’s second biggest contributing industry to the top 100 firms was finance, once also the most valuable sector in the U.S. (currently 4th behind tech, consumer discretionary, and health care).
Other notable countries on the list include Saudi Arabia and its state-owned oil and gas giant Saudi Aramco, which is the third largest company in the world. Despite only having one company in the top 100, Saudi Arabia had the third-largest share of the top 100’s total market cap value.
As Europe continues to lose ground year-over-year and the rest of Asia struggles to keep up, the top 100 companies might become increasingly concentrated in just the U.S. and China. The question is, will the imbalance of global market value start to even out, or become even bigger?
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