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Visualized: The 4 Billion Year Path of Human Evolution

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Infographic detailing human evolution from cells to modern sapiens

The 4 Billion Year Path of Human Evolution

The story of human evolution is a fascinating one, stretching back in an unbroken chain over millions of years.

From the tiniest protocells to modern humans, our species has undergone a remarkable journey of adaptation, innovation, and survival.

In this article, we take a look at the key developmental stages in the evolution of life on Earth that led to the emergence of Homo sapiens—us!

From Protocells to People

Evolution is the result of millions of minute mutations over millions of years, but the evolutionary process that created us can bucketed into a few key categories.

Key Evolutionary Stages of Human Evolution

1. Protocells and Early Microorganisms

The first life forms on Earth were simple, single-celled microorganisms known as protocells. These precursor cells lacked a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles, and they had simple genetic proteins called RNA.

Over time, RNA complexified into the more stable DNA. Protocells slowly developed specialized organelles, becoming more complex microbes that would eventually form eukaryotes – the complex, unicellular organisms that would birth a diverse array of life forms, from simple sponges to complex animals.

2. The First Animals

Dickinsonia is the earliest example of an animal we know of. Though it was a simple, flat creature that lacked a mouth or digestive system, it symbolizes the first multicellular organism of substantial complexity.

Over time, the first sophisticated organ systems began to arise. Bilateral symmetry emerged, as well as early versions of the nervous and circulatory systems. Simple eyes, called eyespots, also appeared around the time that spinal cords and vertebrate creatures began to emerge.

3. Fish and Tetrapods

One of the most significant developments in the evolution of life was the transition from marine to terrestrial environments.

Up until 500 million years ago, all life was sequestered in the sea. Fish were the first vertebrates and introduced additional organs like stomachs, spleens, and body components like scales, teeth, blood, and more. Bony fish arose, and over time their development brought about sophisticated changes to the skeletal system, eventually producing “proto-limbs” that would enable organisms to walk on land.

Researchers are still unsure which specific organism might have first crawled on land, but candidates share these pre-limb characteristics. Tiktaalik is one popular candidate because it had specialized bones that suggest it could support its own weight while moving out of shallow waters.

These creatures eventually became the tetrapods (“four-footed”), and they had features like four-legs, a backbone, and lungs which could absorb oxygen from air. All the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals that followed are descendants of the original tetrapods.

4. The First Mammals

Around 200 million years ago, the first mammals emerged. These early mammals were small, shrew-like creatures that lived alongside the dinosaurs. Over time, however, mammals evolved hair, specialized teeth, sweat glands to regulate body temperature, and a more efficient circulatory system.

Mammals also brought about features like nocturnality, mammary glands, external genitalia, and a variety of other features that distinguished them from other living species at the time, like birds or reptiles.

5. The Great Apes and First Homo Species

Around 7 million years ago, the first great apes emerged in Africa. These apes, such as orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees, were highly intelligent and social creatures that lived in complex communities. Over time, one lineage of apes would give rise to the first members of the genus Homo, which includes our own species.

The main developmental changes during this time were the full-time bipedalism of apes, increasing brain size, and advanced bone development that enabled dexterity for tool construction and hunting. Inventions like fire and clothing arose early in the Homo genus, and eventually complex language, hair loss, and dramatic facial changes would evolve.

Researchers struggle with resolving the exact progression of the Homo species. Many Homo species existed at the same time, and since many fossil records overlap, resolving which ones came first is an area of intense focus.

The Future of Human Evolution

As humans continue to evolve, we can expect to see significant changes in our physical and cognitive abilities over the next 10,000 years.

With the rise of technology and the increasing interconnectedness of the world, we may see a shift towards a more globalized and homogeneous human population, with less genetic diversity.

This has been described as “The Great Averaging”, where genetic diversity minimizes and we start to become more alike.

Other theories suggest that we might develop features like a taller, lighter build, with smaller brains and a less aggressive personality.

However, as with all evolution, these changes will be shaped by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. It is impossible to predict exactly how humans will evolve over the next 10,000 years, but one thing is certain: the future of human evolution will be shaped by the choices we make today.

Note: This is a complex topic with new research being published all the time. We’ll continue to dynamically update this graphic to reflect the most recent understanding of evolution.

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Technology

Mapped: How Much Netflix Costs in Every Country

This map of Netflix price by country shows how much a basic subscription package costs around the world.

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Mapped: Netflix Price by Country

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on Apple or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Netflix, the renowned streaming giant, has transformed the way we consume entertainment, providing a vast library of movies, TV shows, and documentaries at the touch of a button.

However, the cost of accessing this digital haven varies significantly from country to country, reflecting economic disparities and market dynamics.

This graphic from Preyash Shah maps Netflix price by country, using standard (basic) package subscription monthly rates from Netflix.com and converting to USD as of December 10, 2023.

What is the Netflix Price by Country?

Across 244 countries and territories that had Netflix available in December of 2023, Switzerland was the most expensive at $21.48 per month. That was $5 more than the second-most-expensive country on the list.

CountriesNetflix Cost (USD)
🇦🇫 Afghanistan$7.99
🇦🇽 Åland Islands$12.92
🇦🇱 Albania$8.61
🇩🇿 Algeria$7.99
🇦🇸 American Samoa$15.49
🇦🇩 Andorra$14.00
🇦🇴 Angola$7.99
🇦🇮 Anguilla$12.99
🇦🇬 Antigua & Barbuda$12.99
🇦🇷 Argentina$3.57
🇦🇲 Armenia$10.76
🇦🇼 Aruba$12.99
🇦🇺 Australia$11.19
🇦🇹 Austria$14.00
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan$10.76
🇧🇸 Bahamas$12.99
🇧🇭 Bahrain$10.49
🇧🇩 Bangladesh$7.99
🇧🇧 Barbados$15.29
🇧🇾 Belarus$10.76
🇧🇪 Belgium$14.54
🇧🇿 Belize$5.99
🇧🇯 Benin$9.99
🇧🇲 Bermuda$12.99
🇧🇹 Bhutan$7.99
🇧🇴 Bolivia$5.99
🇧🇦 Bosnia & Herzegovina$8.61
🇧🇼 Botswana$7.99
🇧🇻 Bouvet Island$9.99
🇧🇷 Brazil$8.10
🇮🇴 British Indian Ocean Territory$7.99
🇻🇬 British Virgin Islands$12.99
🇧🇳 Brunei$11.99
🇧🇬 Bulgaria$8.61
🇧🇫 Burkina Faso$7.99
🇧🇮 Burundi$7.99
🇰🇭 Cambodia$7.99
🇨🇲 Cameroon$7.99
🇨🇦 Canada$12.13
🇨🇻 Cape Verde$7.99
🇨🇰 Caribbean Netherlands$12.99
🇰🇾 Cayman Islands$12.99
🇨🇫 Central African Republic$7.99
🇹🇩 Chad$7.99
🇨🇱 Chile$9.58
🇨🇽 Christmas Island$7.99
🇨🇨 Cocos (Keeling) Islands$11.19
🇨🇴 Colombia$6.75
🇰🇲 Comoros$7.99
🇨🇬 Republic of the Congo$7.99
🇨🇩 Democratic Republic of the Congo$7.99
🇨🇰 Cook Islands$11.32
🇨🇷 Costa Rica$12.99
🇨🇮 Côte d’Ivoire$7.99
🇭🇷 Croatia$8.61
🇨🇺 Cuba$5.99
🇨🇼 Curaçao$12.99
🇨🇾 Cyprus$11.84
🇨🇿 Czechia$11.42
🇩🇰 Denmark$16.46
🇩🇯 Djibouti$7.99
🇩🇲 Dominica$5.99
🇩🇴 Dominican Republic$7.99
🇪🇨 Ecuador$7.99
🇪🇬 Egypt$3.88
🇸🇻 El Salvador$7.99
🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea$7.99
🇪🇷 Eritrea$7.99
🇪🇪 Estonia$10.76
🇸🇿 Eswatini$7.99
🇪🇹 Ethiopia$7.99
🇫🇰 Falkland Islands$12.99
🇫🇴 Faroe Islands$16.46
🇫🇯 Fiji$7.99
🇫🇮 Finland$12.92
🇫🇷 France$14.54
🇬🇫 French Guiana$13.46
🇵🇫 French Polynesia$11.99
🇹🇫 French Southern Territories$12.92
🇬🇦 Gabon$7.99
🇬🇲 Gambia$7.99
🇬🇪 Georgia$12.70
🇩🇪 Germany$14.00
🇬🇭 Ghana$7.99
🇬🇮 Gibraltar$14.00
🇬🇷 Greece$11.84
🇬🇱 Greenland$16.46
🇬🇩 Grenada$5.99
🇬🇵 Guadeloupe$13.46
🇬🇺 Guam$15.49
🇬🇹 Guatemala$7.99
🇬🇬 Guernsey$13.79
🇬🇳 Guinea$7.99
🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau$7.99
🇬🇾 Guyana$5.99
🇭🇹 Haiti$5.99
🇭🇲 Heard & McDonald Islands$9.99
🇭🇳 Honduras$7.99
🇭🇰 Hong Kong$9.99
🇭🇺 Hungary$9.85
🇮🇸 Iceland$14.00
🇮🇳 India$5.98
🇮🇩 Indonesia$7.72
🇮🇷 Iran$9.99
🇮🇶 Iraq$7.99
🇮🇪 Ireland$16.15
🇮🇲 Isle of Man$13.79
🇮🇱 Israel$12.67
🇮🇹 Italy$14.00
🇯🇲 Jamaica$5.99
🇯🇵 Japan$10.28
🇯🇪 Jersey$13.79
🇯🇴 Jordan$7.99
🇰🇿 Kazakhstan$10.76
🇰🇪 Kenya$4.52
🇰🇮 Kiribati$7.99
🇰🇼 Kuwait$9.99
🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan$10.76
🇱🇦 Laos$7.99
🇱🇻 Latvia$10.76
🇱🇧 Lebanon$7.99
🇱🇸 Lesotho$7.99
🇱🇷 Liberia$7.99
🇱🇾 Libya$7.99
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein$21.48
🇱🇹 Lithuania$10.76
🇱🇺 Luxembourg$14.54
🇲🇴 Macau$9.99
🇲🇬 Madagascar$7.99
🇲🇼 Malawi$7.99
🇲🇾 Malaysia$9.65
🇲🇻 Maldives$11.99
🇲🇱 Mali$7.99
🇲🇹 Malta$14.00
🇲🇭 Marshall Islands$15.49
🇲🇶 Martinique$13.46
🇲🇷 Mauritania$7.99
🇲🇺 Mauritius$7.99
🇾🇹 Mayotte$13.46
🇲🇽 Mexico$12.62
🇫🇲 Micronesia$15.49
🇲🇩 Moldova$10.76
🇲🇨 Monaco$14.54
🇲🇳 Mongolia$7.99
🇲🇪 Montenegro$8.61
🇲🇸 Montserrat$12.99
🇲🇦 Morocco$6.41
🇲🇿 Mozambique$7.99
🇲🇲 Myanmar (Burma)$7.99
🇳🇦 Namibia$7.99
🇳🇷 Nauru$11.99
🇳🇵 Nepal$7.99
🇳🇱 Netherlands$12.92
🇳🇨 New Caledonia$11.99
🇳🇿 New Zealand$11.32
🇳🇮 Nicaragua$5.99
🇳🇪 Niger$7.99
🇳🇬 Nigeria$4.48
🇳🇺 Niue$11.32
🇳🇫 Norfolk Island$11.19
🇲🇰 North Macedonia$8.61
🇲🇵 Northern Mariana Islands$15.49
🇳🇴 Norway$9.99
🇴🇲 Oman$10.49
🇵🇰 Pakistan$2.82
🇵🇼 Palau$15.49
🇵🇸 Palestine$7.99
🇵🇦 Panama$8.99
🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea$7.99
🇵🇾 Paraguay$5.99
🇵🇪 Peru$9.28
🇵🇭 Philippines$7.19
🇵🇳 Pitcairn Islands$7.99
🇵🇱 Poland$10.68
🇵🇹 Portugal$12.92
🇵🇷 Puerto Rico$15.49
🇶🇦 Qatar$9.99
🇷🇪 Réunion$12.49
🇷🇴 Romania$10.76
🇷🇼 Rwanda$7.99
🇼🇸 Samoa$7.99
🇸🇲 San Marino$14.00
🇸🇹 São Tomé & Príncipe$7.99
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia$11.47
🇸🇳 Senegal$7.99
🇷🇸 Serbia$8.61
🇸🇨 Seychelles$7.99
🇸🇱 Sierra Leone$7.99
🇸🇬 Singapore$13.02
🇸🇽 Sint Maarten$12.99
🇸🇰 Slovakia$10.76
🇸🇮 Slovenia$8.61
🇸🇧 Solomon Islands$7.99
🇸🇴 Somalia$7.99
🇿🇦 South Africa$8.41
🇬🇸 South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands$9.99
🇰🇷 South Korea$10.25
🇸🇸 South Sudan$7.99
🇪🇸 Spain$14.00
🇱🇰 Sri Lanka$7.99
🇧🇱 St. Barthélemy$5.99
🇸🇭 St. Helena$7.99
🇰🇳 St. Kitts & Nevis$12.99
🇱🇨 St. Lucia$5.99
🇲🇫 St. Martin$5.99
🇵🇲 St. Pierre & Miquelon$14.54
🇻🇨 St. Vincent & Grenadines$5.99
🇸🇩 Sudan$7.99
🇸🇷 Suriname$5.99
🇸🇯 Svalbard & Jan Mayen$9.99
🇸🇪 Sweden$12.32
🇨🇭 Switzerland$21.48
🇹🇼 Taiwan$10.49
🇹🇯 Tajikistan$12.70
🇹🇿 Tanzania$7.99
🇹🇭 Thailand$9.90
🇹🇱 Timor-Leste$7.99
🇹🇬 Togo$7.99
🇹🇰 Tokelau$11.32
🇹🇴 Tonga$7.99
🇹🇹 Trinidad and Tobago$12.99
🇹🇳 Tunisia$7.99
🇹🇷 Türkiye$3.38
🇹🇲 Turkmenistan$10.76
🇹🇨 Turks & Caicos Islands$12.99
🇹🇻 Tuvalu$7.99
🇺🇸 U.S. Outlying Islands$9.99
🇻🇮 U.S. Virgin Islands$15.49
🇺🇬 Uganda$7.99
🇺🇦 Ukraine$8.07
🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates$10.62
🇬🇧 United Kingdom$13.79
🇺🇸 United States$15.49
🇺🇾 Uruguay$12.99
🇺🇿 Uzbekistan$10.76
🇻🇺 Vanuatu$7.99
🇻🇦 Vatican City$14.00
🇻🇪 Venezuela$5.99
🇻🇳 Vietnam$9.08
🇼🇫 Wallis & Futuna$7.99
🇪🇭 Western Sahara$9.99
🇾🇪 Yemen$7.99
🇿🇲 Zambia$7.99
🇿🇼 Zimbabwe$7.99

Other wealthy countries like Denmark, Ireland, and the U.S. were in the top five most expensive countries for Netflix subscriptions, ranging from $16.46 to $15.49.

On the opposite side of the pendulum, Pakistan had the lowest Netflix subscription cost at $2.82 per month. It was followed by Türkiye at $3.38 and Argentina at $3.57.

Several factors influence the flux in pricing of Netflix subscriptions across different nations. These include:

  • Economic Factors: Netflix tailors its prices to align with the purchasing power of consumers in each market. Countries with higher average incomes typically bear higher subscription costs.
  • Market Competition: The presence of strong local streaming services can exert downward pressure on Netflix prices, forcing it to adjust its offerings to remain competitive.
  • Content Licensing: The cost of acquiring content rights varies across regions, influencing the overall pricing structure. Countries with higher licensing fees may experience higher subscription costs.
  • Currency Fluctuations: Currency exchange rates can impact Netflix’s pricing model, leading to occasional adjustments or fluctuations in subscription costs.

While affordability remains a primary concern for consumers, Netflix’s pricing strategy also aims to balance accessibility with content acquisition and profitability.

As the streaming industry continues to evolve, it will be interesting to observe how Netflix adapts its pricing model to maintain its global dominance while catering to the diverse needs and preferences of its audience.

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