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Interactive Map: U.S. Property Taxes by State

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Mapped: U.S. Property Taxes by State

Almost $600 billion in revenue was generated from U.S. state and local property tax revenue in 2020, a figure that has gradually risen over the last several decades.

Yet these taxes, and how much people feel their effects, vary meaningfully across states based on factors like median incomes, effective property tax rates, and home values.

The above interactive graphic from USAFacts shows the states with the highest and lowest property tax burdens as a percentage of personal income in 2020.

Which U.S. States Have the Highest Property Tax Burdens?

Overall, Maine collects the most burdensome property taxes, at 5.21% of personal income. That means that, for every $100,000 in annual salary earned by a Maine resident, $5,210 would go towards property taxes on average.

Below, we show how much people pay in property tax as a portion of their personal income, based on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Economic Analysis as of 2020:

RankStateProperty Tax
(% Personal Income)
1Maine5.21%
2Vermont4.82%
3New Jersey4.80%
4New Hampshire4.79%
5District of Columbia4.73%
6New York4.36%
7Connecticut4.20%
8Rhode Island4.09%
9Texas3.99%
10Illinois3.65%
11Nebraska3.64%
12Alaska3.63%
13Iowa3.39%
14Massachusetts3.37%
15Montana3.34%
16Wyoming3.29%
17Wisconsin3.07%
18Kansas3.06%
19Oregon3.04%
20 (tie)Colorado2.99%
20 (tie)Michigan2.99%
22Virginia2.94%
23Minnesota2.85%
24California2.77%
25Mississippi2.73%
26 (tie)Ohio2.72%
26 (tie)Hawaii2.72%
28Pennsylvania2.71%
29Florida2.69%
30South Carolina2.68%
31 (tie)South Dakota2.66%
31 (tie)Maryland2.66%
33Georgia2.57%
34 (tie)North Dakota2.53%
34 (tie)Washington2.53%
36Utah2.32%
37Arizona2.31%
38Idaho2.28%
39West Virginia2.22%
40Indiana2.19%
41Missouri2.14%
42 (tie)North Carolina2.08%
42 (tie)Nevada2.08%
44New Mexico1.92%
45Kentucky1.91%
46Delaware1.86%
47Louisiana1.80%
48Oklahoma1.75%
49Arkansas1.69%
50Tennessee1.61%
51Alabama1.37%

At third, people living in New Jersey pay 4.8% of their income on property tax. The state not only has high property tax rates but some of the most expensive housing in the country, causing property taxes to feel elevated.

Falling in the middle of the pack is Hawaii, with 2.7% of personal income paid to property taxes. While the state has the lowest effective property tax rate at 0.3%, soaring home prices have led the actual tax costs to increase.

The lowest tax costs were seen in Alabama, making up 1.4% of a person’s income.

The Highest Property Taxes per Person

Breaking down the property tax revenues of different states by person, instead of by income, reveals a slightly different ranking:

On a per-capita basis, many populous Northeastern states rank higher. At the top, New Jersey had the highest per capita property tax revenues at $3,580 in 2020, followed by New Hampshire and Connecticut at $3,300.

Once again falling at the end of the pack are Southern states with smaller populations. Alabama saw $647 paid per person in property taxes—or less than a fifth of New Jersey’s tax costs.

Role in Education Funding

Today, the vast majority of public education funding comes from local property tax revenue.

It’s no surprise that higher local tax revenues have been tied with improved levels of public education including better access to advanced curriculum, higher quality buildings, stronger student achievement, and a decrease in disciplinary problems.

Meanwhile, residents in lower-income neighborhoods have been shown to pay higher effective property tax rates than residents in affluent ones. For instance, Silicon Valley's Palo Alto had the lowest effective property tax rate in California in 2015 thanks to soaring property values, since houses in California are taxed on assessed values from when homes are sold.

Overall, we can see that wide disparities in property taxes exist by each state. This is seen not only in their percent of personal income, but on total tax collected, and local tax rates.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Money

How Debt-to-GDP Ratios Have Changed Since 2000

See how much the debt-to-GDP ratios of advanced economies have grown (or shrank) since the year 2000.

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How Debt-to-GDP Ratios Have Changed Since 2000

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on Apple or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Government debt levels have grown in most parts of the world since the 2008 financial crisis, and even more so after the COVID-19 pandemic.

To gain perspective on this long-term trend, we’ve visualized the debt-to-GDP ratios of advanced economies, as of 2000 and 2024 (estimated). All figures were sourced from the IMF’s World Economic Outlook.

Data and Highlights

The data we used to create this graphic is listed in the table below. “Government gross debt” consists of all liabilities that require payment(s) of interest and/or principal in the future.

Country2000 (%)2024 (%)Change (pp)
🇯🇵 Japan135.6251.9+116.3
🇸🇬 Singapore82.3168.3+86.0
🇺🇸 United States55.6126.9+71.3
🇬🇧 United Kingdom36.6105.9+69.3
🇬🇷 Greece104.9160.2+55.3
🇫🇷 France58.9110.5+51.6
🇵🇹 Portugal54.2104.0+49.8
🇪🇸 Spain57.8104.7+46.9
🇸🇮 Slovenia25.966.5+40.6
🇫🇮 Finland42.476.5+34.1
🇭🇷 Croatia35.461.8+26.4
🇨🇦 Canada80.4103.3+22.9
🇨🇾 Cyprus56.070.9+14.9
🇦🇹 Austria65.774.0+8.3
🇸🇰 Slovak Republic50.556.5+6.0
🇩🇪 Germany59.364.0+4.7
🇧🇪 Belgium109.6106.8-2.8
🇮🇱 Israel77.456.8-20.6
🇮🇸 Iceland75.854.6-21.2

The debt-to-GDP ratio indicates how much a country owes compared to the size of its economy, reflecting its ability to manage and repay debts. Percentage point (pp) changes shown above indicate the increase or decrease of these ratios.

Countries with the Biggest Increases

Japan (+116 pp), Singapore (+86 pp), and the U.S. (+71 pp) have grown their debt as a percentage of GDP the most since the year 2000.

All three of these countries have stable, well-developed economies, so it’s unlikely that any of them will default on their growing debts. With that said, higher government debt leads to increased interest payments, which in turn can diminish available funds for future government budgets.

This is a rising issue in the U.S., where annual interest payments on the national debt have surpassed $1 trillion for the first time ever.

Only 3 Countries Saw Declines

Among this list of advanced economies, Belgium (-2.8 pp), Iceland (-21.2 pp), and Israel (-20.6 pp) were the only countries that decreased their debt-to-GDP ratio since the year 2000.

According to Fitch Ratings, Iceland’s debt ratio has decreased due to strong GDP growth and the use of its cash deposits to pay down upcoming maturities.

See More Debt Graphics from Visual Capitalist

Curious to see which countries have the most government debt in dollars? Check out this graphic that breaks down $97 trillion in debt as of 2023.

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