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Mapped: Food Unaffordability Across the World

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Mapped: Food Unaffordability Across the World

Food is the palate’s poetry, the body’s fuel, and a shared language transcending cultures—when people can afford it.

The World Health Organization found that the COVID-19 pandemic and war in Ukraine pushed 122 million more people into food insecurity between 2019 and 2022. Higher food prices, combined with increasing poverty, have resulted in rising food unaffordability, especially in certain regions of the world.

ℹ️ A person is food insecure when they lack regular access to enough safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life.

Our World in Data uses statistics gathered by the World Bank to map the share of the population that cannot afford a healthy diet in every country it has data for.

Ranked: Food Unaffordability as a Share of Population

A healthy diet—in this case, one that meets government dietary guidelines—is considered unaffordable in a country when its cost exceeds 52% of per capita income per day.

Immediate trends in food unaffordability are discoverable from a glance at the map. The wash of red in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia indicates the regions where the majority of the population cannot afford a healthy diet.

Ranking the countries by pure percentages in the table below allows us to get a closer look at country-level issues.

RankCountryCan't Afford Healthy Diet
1🇲🇬 Madagascar97.8%
2🇧🇮 Burundi95.9%
3🇲🇼 Malawi95.9%
4🇨🇫 Central African Republic94.6%
5🇳🇬 Nigeria93.5%
6🇱🇷 Liberia92.8%
7🇭🇹 Haiti92.6%
8🇲🇿 Mozambique92.5%
9🇳🇪 Niger92.0%
10🇨🇬 Congo91.5%
11🇿🇲 Zambia90.0%
12🇬🇳 Guinea89.1%
13🇦🇴 Angola88.0%
14🇱🇸 Lesotho87.9%
15🇨🇩 DRC85.5%
16🇸🇩 Sudan85.4%
17🇹🇿 Tanzania85.0%
18🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau84.6%
19🇪🇹 Ethiopia83.8%
20🇸🇱 Sierra Leone83.5%
21🇹🇩 Chad83.1%
22🇵🇰 Pakistan82.8%
23🇧🇯 Benin82.6%
24🇷🇼 Rwanda82.0%
25🇺🇬 Uganda81.7%
26🇸🇹 Sao Tome & Principe78.2%
27🇧🇫 Burkina Faso77.6%
28🇬🇭 Ghana77.4%
29🇳🇵 Nepal76.4%
30🇮🇳 India74.1%
31🇰🇪 Kenya74.0%
32🇱🇦 Laos74.0%
33🇵🇭 Philippines74.0%
34🇸🇿 Eswatini73.8%
35🇲🇲 Myanmar73.8%
36🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire72.9%
37🇬🇲 Gambia72.2%
38🇲🇱 Mali72.0%
39🇮🇩 Indonesia70.8%
40🇿🇦 South Africa66.7%
41🇧🇩 Bangladesh66.1%
42🇩🇯 Djibouti65.3%
43🇲🇳 Mongolia64.1%
44🇫🇯 Fiji63.7%
45🇯🇲 Jamaica62.6%
46🇲🇷 Mauritania62.4%
47🇪🇬 Egypt61.6%
48🇨🇲 Cameroon60.5%
49🇧🇼 Botswana60.3%
50🇳🇦 Namibia59.5%
51🇸🇷 Suriname58.6%
52🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan58.2%
53🇱🇰 Sri Lanka55.5%
54🇧🇿 Belize53.0%
55🇧🇹 Bhutan45.2%
56🇸🇳 Senegal45.0%
57🇭🇳 Honduras44.8%
58🇹🇯 Tajikistan44.3%
59🇦🇲 Armenia41.4%
60🇨🇻 Cape Verde41.2%
61🇳🇮 Nicaragua34.2%
62🇩🇿 Algeria32.4%
63🇨🇴 Colombia31.3%
64🇮🇷 Iran30.0%
65🇬🇦 Gabon29.9%
66🇱🇨 Saint Lucia27.2%
67🇩🇴 Dominican Republic25.8%
68🇵🇪 Peru25.7%
69🇧🇷 Brazil22.4%
70🇻🇳 Vietnam21.0%
71🇵🇾 Paraguay20.4%
72🇲🇽 Mexico20.2%
73🇪🇨 Ecuador19.7%
74🇬🇾 Guyana18.5%
75🇮🇶 Iraq18.4%
76🇹🇭 Thailand18.0%
77🇹🇳 Tunisia17.1%
78🇵🇦 Panama17.0%
79🇦🇱 Albania15.9%
80🇲🇦 Morocco15.5%
81🇲🇰 North Macedonia15.5%
82🇵🇸 Palestine15.4%
83🇧🇴 Bolivia15.1%
84🇲🇪 Montenegro14.9%
85🇨🇷 Costa Rica14.2%
86🇲🇺 Mauritius14.0%
87🇨🇳 China10.9%
88🇷🇸 Serbia10.9%
89🇹🇹 Trinidad & Tobago9.9%
90🇸🇨 Seychelles7.3%
91🇷🇴 Romania7.2%
92🇯🇴 Jordan7.1%
93🇹🇷 Turkey6.0%
94🇺🇾 Uruguay5.2%
95🇧🇬 Bulgaria4.2%
96🇲🇩 Moldova3.8%
97🇨🇱 Chile3.5%
98🇧🇦 Bosnia & Herzegovina3.0%
99🇷🇺 Russia2.6%
100🇲🇾 Malaysia2.5%
101🇰🇿 Kazakhstan2.3%
102🇸🇰 Slovakia2.3%
103🇬🇷 Greece2.2%
104🇯🇵 Japan2.0%
105🇭🇷 Croatia1.8%
106🇪🇸 Spain1.8%
107🇭🇺 Hungary1.5%
108🇮🇹 Italy1.5%
109🇱🇻 Latvia1.5%
110🇰🇷 South Korea1.5%
111🇮🇱 Israel1.2%
112🇲🇻 Maldives1.2%
113🇵🇹 Portugal1.2%
114🇺🇸 U.S.1.2%
115🇦🇹 Austria0.9%
116🇪🇪 Estonia0.8%
117🇲🇹 Malta0.8%
118🇦🇺 Australia0.7%
119🇱🇹 Lithuania0.7%
120🇸🇪 Sweden0.6%
121🇧🇾 Belarus0.5%
122🇵🇱 Poland0.5%
123🇨🇦 Canada0.4%
124🇬🇧 UK0.4%
125🇳🇴 Norway0.3%
126🇩🇰 Denmark0.2%
127🇫🇷 France0.2%
128🇩🇪 Germany0.2%
129🇧🇪 Belgium0.1%
130🇨🇿 Czechia0.1%
131🇮🇸 Iceland0.1%
132🇮🇪 Ireland0.1%
133🇳🇱 Netherlands0.1%
134🇦🇪 UAE0.1%
135🇦🇿 Azerbaijan0.0%
136🇨🇾 Cyprus0.0%
137🇫🇮 Finland0.0%
138🇱🇺 Luxembourg0.0%
139🇸🇮 Slovenia0.0%
140🇨🇭 Switzerland0.0%

At the top of the list, nearly 98% of Madagascar’s population cannot afford a healthy diet. The country is facing a prolonged drought in the southern region since 2019, affecting agriculture. A series of cyclones in 2021–2022 destroyed rice fields and damaged critical infrastructure, like road networks, putting further pressure on food prices. Finally, the rising price of oil due to the Russian invasion has pushed up transport costs. All these factors have resulted in food prices jumping nearly 20% in three years.

As a result, food insecurity in Madagascar has risen dramatically—by nearly one million people every year since 2019, of which 250,000 are classified under a “famine situation.”

A mix of similar factors affect the next five countries with the highest share of population unable to afford food—Burundi, Malawi, Central African Republic, Nigeria, and Liberia.

In Haiti, ranked 7th, a reliance on food imports makes the country vulnerable to inflation and price volatility, which has been markedly worse in the last two years.

On the other hand, predictably, the top five countries with the least food unaffordability—Cyprus, Finland, Luxembourg, Slovenia, and Switzerland—are all from Europe with 0% of the population unable to afford a healthy diet.

RegionCan't Afford a Healthy Diet
Sub-Saharan Africa83.5%
South Asia74.2%
Middle East & North Africa34.0%
East Asia & the Pacific22.8%
Latin America & the Caribbean22.7%
Europe & Central Asia3.1%
North America1.1%
World42.2%

Geographically, eight out of 10 people in sub-Saharan Africa and seven out of 10 people in South Asia cannot afford a healthy diet versus three out of 10 in Europe and one out of 10 in North America.

Healthy Diet vs. Nutrient and Calorie Sufficiency

When reducing the quality of diet, food becomes a little more affordable.

For example, in Indonesia, nearly 71% of the population cannot afford a healthy diet. However this drops to 64% for a nutrient-sufficient diet, and only 3% for a calorie-sufficient diet.

CountryCan't Afford a
Healthy Diet
Can't Afford a
Nutrient-Sufficient
Diet
Can't afford a
Calorie-Sufficient Diet
🇦🇱 Albania15.9%8.9%0.0%
🇩🇿 Algeria32.4%6.2%0.1%
🇦🇴 Angola88.0%71.1%36.0%
🇦🇷 ArgentinaN/A4.0%0.2%
🇦🇲 Armenia41.4%14.3%0.5%
🇦🇺 Australia0.7%0.5%0.2%
🇦🇹 Austria0.9%0.5%0.2%
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan0.0%0.0%0.0%
🇧🇩 Bangladesh66.1%48.6%0.6%
🇧🇾 Belarus0.5%0.2%0.0%
🇧🇪 Belgium0.1%0.3%0.1%
🇧🇿 Belize53.0%57.0%19.6%
🇧🇯 Benin82.6%81.9%13.7%
🇧🇹 Bhutan45.2%26.2%0.7%
🇧🇴 Bolivia15.1%19.1%6.8%
🇧🇦 Bosnia & Herzegovina3.0%2.4%0.0%
🇧🇼 Botswana60.3%44.3%1.3%
🇧🇷 Brazil22.4%18.1%3.5%
🇧🇬 Bulgaria4.2%6.3%0.3%
🇧🇫 Burkina Faso77.6%76.2%5.4%
🇧🇮 Burundi95.9%84.1%41.5%
🇨🇲 Cameroon60.5%48.6%15.7%
🇨🇦 Canada0.4%0.5%0.0%
🇨🇻 Cape Verde41.2%29.7%0.3%
🇨🇫 Central African Republic94.6%83.3%67.0%
🇹🇩 Chad83.1%60.6%11.3%
🇨🇱 Chile3.5%1.6%0.2%
🇨🇳 China10.9%9.7%0.2%
🇨🇴 Colombia31.3%20.3%3.5%
🇨🇬 Congo91.5%80.8%39.9%
🇨🇷 Costa Rica14.2%7.8%0.7%
🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire72.9%39.6%8.4%
🇭🇷 Croatia1.8%3.3%0.3%
🇨🇾 Cyprus0.0%0.1%0.0%
🇨🇿 Czechia0.1%0.1%0.0%
🇨🇩 DRC85.5%86.9%27.9%
🇩🇰 Denmark0.2%0.2%0.1%
🇩🇯 Djibouti65.3%59.0%5.6%
🇩🇴 Dominican
Republic
25.8%15.8%1.3%
🇪🇨 Ecuador19.7%14.8%4.4%
🇪🇬 Egypt61.6%33.5%1.0%
🇪🇪 Estonia0.8%0.8%0.2%
🇸🇿 Eswatini73.8%64.4%26.6%
🇪🇹 Ethiopia83.8%62.7%7.7%
🇫🇯 Fiji63.7%21.3%0.2%
🇫🇮 Finland0.0%0.1%0.1%
🇫🇷 France0.2%0.0%0.0%
🇬🇦 Gabon29.9%16.3%1.3%
🇬🇲 Gambia72.2%63.9%10.6%
🇩🇪 Germany0.2%0.7%0.2%
🇬🇭 Ghana77.4%62.9%14.9%
🇬🇷 Greece2.2%2.5%0.5%
🇬🇳 Guinea89.1%61.6%8.6%
🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau84.6%59.7%18.3%
🇬🇾 Guyana18.5%31.7%4.4%
🇭🇹 Haiti92.6%73.8%23.5%
🇭🇳 Honduras44.8%49.9%14.3%
🇭🇺 Hungary1.5%1.9%0.3%
🇮🇸 Iceland0.1%0.0%0.0%
🇮🇳 India74.1%64.0%3.2%
🇮🇩 Indonesia70.8%7.0%4.3%
🇮🇷 Iran30.0%5.0%0.2%
🇮🇶 Iraq18.4%5.8%0.1%
🇮🇪 Ireland0.1%0.3%0.2%
🇮🇱 Israel1.2%1.2%0.2%
🇮🇹 Italy1.5%2.1%1.0%
🇯🇲 Jamaica62.6%36.6%0.9%
🇯🇵 Japan2.0%1.4%1.2%
🇯🇴 Jordan7.1%0.1%0.0%
🇰🇿 Kazakhstan2.3%0.5%0.0%
🇰🇪 Kenya74.0%57.0%11.6%
🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan58.2%38.9%0.7%
🇱🇦 Laos74.0%61.1%0.8%
🇱🇻 Latvia1.5%1.7%0.2%
🇱🇸 Lesotho87.9%63.3%10.7%
🇱🇷 Liberia92.8%82.7%20.2%
🇱🇹 Lithuania0.7%1.6%0.8%
🇱🇺 Luxembourg0.0%0.4%0.1%
🇲🇬 Madagascar97.8%96.0%78.3%
🇲🇼 Malawi95.9%83.2%2.4%
🇲🇾 Malaysia2.5%0.9%0.0%
🇲🇻 Maldives1.2%0.6%0.0%
🇲🇱 Mali72.0%57.5%1.9%
🇲🇹 Malta0.8%0.3%0.1%
🇲🇷 Mauritania62.4%48.3%2.7%
🇲🇺 Mauritius14.0%4.4%0.0%
🇲🇽 Mexico20.2%17.2%0.7%
🇲🇩 Moldova3.8%0.3%0.0%
🇲🇳 Mongolia64.1%14.4%0.1%
🇲🇪 Montenegro14.9%9.1%1.6%
🇲🇦 Morocco15.5%6.5%0.0%
🇲🇿 Mozambique92.5%83.3%13.2%
🇲🇲 Myanmar73.8%42.7%0.7%
🇳🇦 Namibia59.5%33.6%13.9%
🇳🇵 Nepal76.4%51.0%2.6%
🇳🇱 Netherlands0.1%0.3%0.0%
🇳🇮 Nicaragua34.2%21.2%5.7%
🇳🇪 Niger92.0%77.1%13.6%
🇳🇬 Nigeria93.5%69.4%44.4%
🇲🇰 North Macedonia15.5%16.8%2.6%
🇳🇴 Norway0.3%0.5%0.3%
🇵🇰 Pakistan82.8%40.9%0.3%
🇵🇸 Palestine15.4%2.4%0.6%
🇵🇦 Panama17.0%12.1%2.2%
🇵🇾 Paraguay20.4%24.4%0.5%
🇵🇪 Peru25.7%16.5%2.7%
🇵🇭 Philippines74.0%53.1%6.9%
🇵🇱 Poland0.5%0.1%0.0%
🇵🇹 Portugal1.2%0.7%0.1%
🇷🇴 Romania7.2%8.0%0.9%
🇷🇺 Russia2.6%0.8%0.0%
🇷🇼 Rwanda82.0%61.3%28.1%
🇱🇨 Saint Lucia27.2%16.7%4.6%
🇸🇹 Sao Tome & Principe78.2%63.4%8.0%
🇸🇳 Senegal45.0%43.2%3.3%
🇷🇸 Serbia10.9%14.3%3.2%
🇸🇨 Seychelles7.3%2.5%0.1%
🇸🇱 Sierra Leone83.5%73.3%34.9%
🇸🇰 Slovakia2.3%1.4%0.1%
🇸🇮 Slovenia0.0%0.0%0.0%
🇿🇦 South Africa66.7%60.3%24.2%
🇰🇷 South Korea1.5%1.5%0.0%
🇪🇸 Spain1.8%1.0%0.5%
🇱🇰 Sri Lanka55.5%22.8%0.6%
🇸🇩 Sudan85.4%58.7%15.3%
🇸🇷 Suriname58.6%34.2%15.8%
🇸🇪 Sweden0.6%0.4%0.2%
🇨🇭 Switzerland0.0%0.0%0.0%
🇹🇼 TaiwanN/A0.2%0.0%
🇹🇯 Tajikistan44.3%33.3%2.3%
🇹🇿 Tanzania85.0%75.6%36.8%
🇹🇭 Thailand18.0%7.0%0.0%
🇹🇹 Trinidad & Tobago9.9%3.4%0.2%
🇹🇳 Tunisia17.1%1.9%0.0%
🇹🇷 Turkey6.0%3.1%0.0%
🇺🇬 Uganda81.7%68.9%13.9%
🇦🇪 UAE0.1%0.0%0.0%
🇬🇧 UK0.4%0.5%0.2%
🇺🇸 U.S.1.2%1.5%1.2%
🇺🇾 Uruguay5.2%0.8%0.0%
🇻🇳 Vietnam21.0%11.7%0.7%
🇿🇲 Zambia90.0%82.5%65.1%
🇿🇼 ZimbabweN/A10.6%0.0%
🌐 World42.20%31.90%4.90%

While the aim is to have every single person able to afford a healthy diet, it is useful to track progress across diets to see which countries are making strides in food affordability, whether it comes from growing incomes or improved supply.

At a regional level, these nuances reveal geographic differences in food unaffordability.

RegionCan't Afford a
Healthy Diet
Can't Afford a
Nutrient-Sufficient
Diet
Can't afford a
Calorie-Sufficient Diet
East Asia & the Pacific22.8%16.4%1.1%
Europe & Central Asia3.1%2.0%0.2%
Latin America & the Caribbean22.7%17.9%3.0%
Middle East & North Africa34.0%13.4%0.4%
North America1.1%1.4%1.1%
South Asia74.2%59.0%2.6%
Sub-Saharan Africa83.5%67.6%24.9%
World42.2%31.9%4.9%

While sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have comparable shares of population unable to afford healthy and nutrient sufficient diets, the gap widens immensely when looking at just calorie-sufficient diets, nearly 25% versus 2.6%.

For countries in South Asia, this could help target efforts to improve affordability for more than the most basic of diets.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Misc

The Top 25 Nationalities of U.S. Immigrants

Mexico is the largest source of immigrants to the U.S., with almost 11 million immigrants.

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Bar chart showing the top 25 nationalities of US Immigrants.

The Top 25 Nationalities of U.S. Immigrants

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

The United States is home to more than 46 million immigrants, constituting approximately 14% of its total population.

This graphic displays the top 25 countries of origin for U.S. immigrants, based on 2022 estimates. The data is sourced from the Migration Policy Institute (MPI), which analyzed information from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2022 American Community Survey.

In this context, “immigrants” refer to individuals residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth.

Mexico Emerges as a Leading Source of Immigration

Mexico stands out as the largest contributor to U.S. immigration due to its geographical proximity and historical ties.

Various economic factors, including wage disparities and employment opportunities, motivate many Mexicans to seek better prospects north of the border.

CountryRegion# of Immigrants
🇲🇽 MexicoLatin America
& Caribbean
10,678,502
🇮🇳 IndiaAsia2,839,618
🇨🇳 ChinaAsia2,217,894
🇵🇭 PhilippinesAsia1,982,333
🇸🇻 El SalvadorLatin America
& Caribbean
1,407,622
🇻🇳 VietnamAsia1,331,192
🇨🇺 CubaLatin America
& Caribbean
1,312,510
🇩🇴 Dominican RepublicLatin America
& Caribbean
1,279,900
🇬🇹 GuatemalaLatin America
& Caribbean
1,148,543
🇰🇷 KoreaAsia1,045,100
🇨🇴 ColombiaLatin America
& Caribbean
928,053
🇭🇳 HondurasLatin America
& Caribbean
843,774
🇨🇦 CanadaNorthern America821,322
🇯🇲 JamaicaLatin America
& Caribbean
804,775
🇭🇹 HaitiLatin America
& Caribbean
730,780
🇬🇧 United KingdomEurope676,652
🇻🇪 VenezuelaLatin America
& Caribbean
667,664
🇧🇷 BrazilLatin America
& Caribbean
618,525
🇩🇪 GermanyEurope537,484
🇪🇨 EcuadorLatin America
& Caribbean
518,287
🇵🇪 PeruLatin America
& Caribbean
471,988
🇳🇬 NigeriaAfrica448,405
🇺🇦 UkraineEurope427,163
🇮🇷 IranMiddle East407,283
🇵🇰 PakistanAsia399,086
Rest of World11,637,634
Total46,182,089

Mexicans are followed in this ranking by Indians, Chinese, and Filipinos, though most immigrants on this list come from countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region.

On the other hand, only three European countries are among the top sources of U.S. immigrants: the UK, Germany, and Ukraine.

Immigration continues to be a significant factor contributing to the overall growth of the U.S. population. Overall population growth has decelerated over the past decade primarily due to declining birth rates.

Between 2021 and 2022, the increase in the immigrant population accounted for 65% of the total population growth in the U.S., representing 912,000 individuals out of nearly 1.4 million.

If you enjoyed this post, be sure to check out Visualized: Why Do People Immigrate to the U.S.? This visualization shows the different reasons cited by new arrivals to America in 2021.

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