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Mapped: Food Unaffordability Across the World



Mapped: Food Unaffordability Across the World

Food is the palate’s poetry, the body’s fuel, and a shared language transcending cultures—when people can afford it.

The World Health Organization found that the COVID-19 pandemic and war in Ukraine pushed 122 million more people into food insecurity between 2019 and 2022. Higher food prices, combined with increasing poverty, have resulted in rising food unaffordability, especially in certain regions of the world.

ℹ️ A person is food insecure when they lack regular access to enough safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life.

Our World in Data uses statistics gathered by the World Bank to map the share of the population that cannot afford a healthy diet in every country it has data for.

Ranked: Food Unaffordability as a Share of Population

A healthy diet—in this case, one that meets government dietary guidelines—is considered unaffordable in a country when its cost exceeds 52% of per capita income per day.

Immediate trends in food unaffordability are discoverable from a glance at the map. The wash of red in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia indicates the regions where the majority of the population cannot afford a healthy diet.

Ranking the countries by pure percentages in the table below allows us to get a closer look at country-level issues.

RankCountryCan't Afford Healthy Diet
1🇲🇬 Madagascar97.8%
2🇧🇮 Burundi95.9%
3🇲🇼 Malawi95.9%
4🇨🇫 Central African Republic94.6%
5🇳🇬 Nigeria93.5%
6🇱🇷 Liberia92.8%
7🇭🇹 Haiti92.6%
8🇲🇿 Mozambique92.5%
9🇳🇪 Niger92.0%
10🇨🇬 Congo91.5%
11🇿🇲 Zambia90.0%
12🇬🇳 Guinea89.1%
13🇦🇴 Angola88.0%
14🇱🇸 Lesotho87.9%
15🇨🇩 DRC85.5%
16🇸🇩 Sudan85.4%
17🇹🇿 Tanzania85.0%
18🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau84.6%
19🇪🇹 Ethiopia83.8%
20🇸🇱 Sierra Leone83.5%
21🇹🇩 Chad83.1%
22🇵🇰 Pakistan82.8%
23🇧🇯 Benin82.6%
24🇷🇼 Rwanda82.0%
25🇺🇬 Uganda81.7%
26🇸🇹 Sao Tome & Principe78.2%
27🇧🇫 Burkina Faso77.6%
28🇬🇭 Ghana77.4%
29🇳🇵 Nepal76.4%
30🇮🇳 India74.1%
31🇰🇪 Kenya74.0%
32🇱🇦 Laos74.0%
33🇵🇭 Philippines74.0%
34🇸🇿 Eswatini73.8%
35🇲🇲 Myanmar73.8%
36🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire72.9%
37🇬🇲 Gambia72.2%
38🇲🇱 Mali72.0%
39🇮🇩 Indonesia70.8%
40🇿🇦 South Africa66.7%
41🇧🇩 Bangladesh66.1%
42🇩🇯 Djibouti65.3%
43🇲🇳 Mongolia64.1%
44🇫🇯 Fiji63.7%
45🇯🇲 Jamaica62.6%
46🇲🇷 Mauritania62.4%
47🇪🇬 Egypt61.6%
48🇨🇲 Cameroon60.5%
49🇧🇼 Botswana60.3%
50🇳🇦 Namibia59.5%
51🇸🇷 Suriname58.6%
52🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan58.2%
53🇱🇰 Sri Lanka55.5%
54🇧🇿 Belize53.0%
55🇧🇹 Bhutan45.2%
56🇸🇳 Senegal45.0%
57🇭🇳 Honduras44.8%
58🇹🇯 Tajikistan44.3%
59🇦🇲 Armenia41.4%
60🇨🇻 Cape Verde41.2%
61🇳🇮 Nicaragua34.2%
62🇩🇿 Algeria32.4%
63🇨🇴 Colombia31.3%
64🇮🇷 Iran30.0%
65🇬🇦 Gabon29.9%
66🇱🇨 Saint Lucia27.2%
67🇩🇴 Dominican Republic25.8%
68🇵🇪 Peru25.7%
69🇧🇷 Brazil22.4%
70🇻🇳 Vietnam21.0%
71🇵🇾 Paraguay20.4%
72🇲🇽 Mexico20.2%
73🇪🇨 Ecuador19.7%
74🇬🇾 Guyana18.5%
75🇮🇶 Iraq18.4%
76🇹🇭 Thailand18.0%
77🇹🇳 Tunisia17.1%
78🇵🇦 Panama17.0%
79🇦🇱 Albania15.9%
80🇲🇦 Morocco15.5%
81🇲🇰 North Macedonia15.5%
82🇵🇸 Palestine15.4%
83🇧🇴 Bolivia15.1%
84🇲🇪 Montenegro14.9%
85🇨🇷 Costa Rica14.2%
86🇲🇺 Mauritius14.0%
87🇨🇳 China10.9%
88🇷🇸 Serbia10.9%
89🇹🇹 Trinidad & Tobago9.9%
90🇸🇨 Seychelles7.3%
91🇷🇴 Romania7.2%
92🇯🇴 Jordan7.1%
93🇹🇷 Turkey6.0%
94🇺🇾 Uruguay5.2%
95🇧🇬 Bulgaria4.2%
96🇲🇩 Moldova3.8%
97🇨🇱 Chile3.5%
98🇧🇦 Bosnia & Herzegovina3.0%
99🇷🇺 Russia2.6%
100🇲🇾 Malaysia2.5%
101🇰🇿 Kazakhstan2.3%
102🇸🇰 Slovakia2.3%
103🇬🇷 Greece2.2%
104🇯🇵 Japan2.0%
105🇭🇷 Croatia1.8%
106🇪🇸 Spain1.8%
107🇭🇺 Hungary1.5%
108🇮🇹 Italy1.5%
109🇱🇻 Latvia1.5%
110🇰🇷 South Korea1.5%
111🇮🇱 Israel1.2%
112🇲🇻 Maldives1.2%
113🇵🇹 Portugal1.2%
114🇺🇸 U.S.1.2%
115🇦🇹 Austria0.9%
116🇪🇪 Estonia0.8%
117🇲🇹 Malta0.8%
118🇦🇺 Australia0.7%
119🇱🇹 Lithuania0.7%
120🇸🇪 Sweden0.6%
121🇧🇾 Belarus0.5%
122🇵🇱 Poland0.5%
123🇨🇦 Canada0.4%
124🇬🇧 UK0.4%
125🇳🇴 Norway0.3%
126🇩🇰 Denmark0.2%
127🇫🇷 France0.2%
128🇩🇪 Germany0.2%
129🇧🇪 Belgium0.1%
130🇨🇿 Czechia0.1%
131🇮🇸 Iceland0.1%
132🇮🇪 Ireland0.1%
133🇳🇱 Netherlands0.1%
134🇦🇪 UAE0.1%
135🇦🇿 Azerbaijan0.0%
136🇨🇾 Cyprus0.0%
137🇫🇮 Finland0.0%
138🇱🇺 Luxembourg0.0%
139🇸🇮 Slovenia0.0%
140🇨🇭 Switzerland0.0%

At the top of the list, nearly 98% of Madagascar’s population cannot afford a healthy diet. The country is facing a prolonged drought in the southern region since 2019, affecting agriculture. A series of cyclones in 2021–2022 destroyed rice fields and damaged critical infrastructure, like road networks, putting further pressure on food prices. Finally, the rising price of oil due to the Russian invasion has pushed up transport costs. All these factors have resulted in food prices jumping nearly 20% in three years.

As a result, food insecurity in Madagascar has risen dramatically—by nearly one million people every year since 2019, of which 250,000 are classified under a “famine situation.”

A mix of similar factors affect the next five countries with the highest share of population unable to afford food—Burundi, Malawi, Central African Republic, Nigeria, and Liberia.

In Haiti, ranked 7th, a reliance on food imports makes the country vulnerable to inflation and price volatility, which has been markedly worse in the last two years.

On the other hand, predictably, the top five countries with the least food unaffordability—Cyprus, Finland, Luxembourg, Slovenia, and Switzerland—are all from Europe with 0% of the population unable to afford a healthy diet.

RegionCan't Afford a Healthy Diet
Sub-Saharan Africa83.5%
South Asia74.2%
Middle East & North Africa34.0%
East Asia & the Pacific22.8%
Latin America & the Caribbean22.7%
Europe & Central Asia3.1%
North America1.1%

Geographically, eight out of 10 people in sub-Saharan Africa and seven out of 10 people in South Asia cannot afford a healthy diet versus three out of 10 in Europe and one out of 10 in North America.

Healthy Diet vs. Nutrient and Calorie Sufficiency

When reducing the quality of diet, food becomes a little more affordable.

For example, in Indonesia, nearly 71% of the population cannot afford a healthy diet. However this drops to 64% for a nutrient-sufficient diet, and only 3% for a calorie-sufficient diet.

CountryCan't Afford a
Healthy Diet
Can't Afford a
Can't afford a
Calorie-Sufficient Diet
🇦🇱 Albania15.9%8.9%0.0%
🇩🇿 Algeria32.4%6.2%0.1%
🇦🇴 Angola88.0%71.1%36.0%
🇦🇷 ArgentinaN/A4.0%0.2%
🇦🇲 Armenia41.4%14.3%0.5%
🇦🇺 Australia0.7%0.5%0.2%
🇦🇹 Austria0.9%0.5%0.2%
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan0.0%0.0%0.0%
🇧🇩 Bangladesh66.1%48.6%0.6%
🇧🇾 Belarus0.5%0.2%0.0%
🇧🇪 Belgium0.1%0.3%0.1%
🇧🇿 Belize53.0%57.0%19.6%
🇧🇯 Benin82.6%81.9%13.7%
🇧🇹 Bhutan45.2%26.2%0.7%
🇧🇴 Bolivia15.1%19.1%6.8%
🇧🇦 Bosnia & Herzegovina3.0%2.4%0.0%
🇧🇼 Botswana60.3%44.3%1.3%
🇧🇷 Brazil22.4%18.1%3.5%
🇧🇬 Bulgaria4.2%6.3%0.3%
🇧🇫 Burkina Faso77.6%76.2%5.4%
🇧🇮 Burundi95.9%84.1%41.5%
🇨🇲 Cameroon60.5%48.6%15.7%
🇨🇦 Canada0.4%0.5%0.0%
🇨🇻 Cape Verde41.2%29.7%0.3%
🇨🇫 Central African Republic94.6%83.3%67.0%
🇹🇩 Chad83.1%60.6%11.3%
🇨🇱 Chile3.5%1.6%0.2%
🇨🇳 China10.9%9.7%0.2%
🇨🇴 Colombia31.3%20.3%3.5%
🇨🇬 Congo91.5%80.8%39.9%
🇨🇷 Costa Rica14.2%7.8%0.7%
🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire72.9%39.6%8.4%
🇭🇷 Croatia1.8%3.3%0.3%
🇨🇾 Cyprus0.0%0.1%0.0%
🇨🇿 Czechia0.1%0.1%0.0%
🇨🇩 DRC85.5%86.9%27.9%
🇩🇰 Denmark0.2%0.2%0.1%
🇩🇯 Djibouti65.3%59.0%5.6%
🇩🇴 Dominican
🇪🇨 Ecuador19.7%14.8%4.4%
🇪🇬 Egypt61.6%33.5%1.0%
🇪🇪 Estonia0.8%0.8%0.2%
🇸🇿 Eswatini73.8%64.4%26.6%
🇪🇹 Ethiopia83.8%62.7%7.7%
🇫🇯 Fiji63.7%21.3%0.2%
🇫🇮 Finland0.0%0.1%0.1%
🇫🇷 France0.2%0.0%0.0%
🇬🇦 Gabon29.9%16.3%1.3%
🇬🇲 Gambia72.2%63.9%10.6%
🇩🇪 Germany0.2%0.7%0.2%
🇬🇭 Ghana77.4%62.9%14.9%
🇬🇷 Greece2.2%2.5%0.5%
🇬🇳 Guinea89.1%61.6%8.6%
🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau84.6%59.7%18.3%
🇬🇾 Guyana18.5%31.7%4.4%
🇭🇹 Haiti92.6%73.8%23.5%
🇭🇳 Honduras44.8%49.9%14.3%
🇭🇺 Hungary1.5%1.9%0.3%
🇮🇸 Iceland0.1%0.0%0.0%
🇮🇳 India74.1%64.0%3.2%
🇮🇩 Indonesia70.8%7.0%4.3%
🇮🇷 Iran30.0%5.0%0.2%
🇮🇶 Iraq18.4%5.8%0.1%
🇮🇪 Ireland0.1%0.3%0.2%
🇮🇱 Israel1.2%1.2%0.2%
🇮🇹 Italy1.5%2.1%1.0%
🇯🇲 Jamaica62.6%36.6%0.9%
🇯🇵 Japan2.0%1.4%1.2%
🇯🇴 Jordan7.1%0.1%0.0%
🇰🇿 Kazakhstan2.3%0.5%0.0%
🇰🇪 Kenya74.0%57.0%11.6%
🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan58.2%38.9%0.7%
🇱🇦 Laos74.0%61.1%0.8%
🇱🇻 Latvia1.5%1.7%0.2%
🇱🇸 Lesotho87.9%63.3%10.7%
🇱🇷 Liberia92.8%82.7%20.2%
🇱🇹 Lithuania0.7%1.6%0.8%
🇱🇺 Luxembourg0.0%0.4%0.1%
🇲🇬 Madagascar97.8%96.0%78.3%
🇲🇼 Malawi95.9%83.2%2.4%
🇲🇾 Malaysia2.5%0.9%0.0%
🇲🇻 Maldives1.2%0.6%0.0%
🇲🇱 Mali72.0%57.5%1.9%
🇲🇹 Malta0.8%0.3%0.1%
🇲🇷 Mauritania62.4%48.3%2.7%
🇲🇺 Mauritius14.0%4.4%0.0%
🇲🇽 Mexico20.2%17.2%0.7%
🇲🇩 Moldova3.8%0.3%0.0%
🇲🇳 Mongolia64.1%14.4%0.1%
🇲🇪 Montenegro14.9%9.1%1.6%
🇲🇦 Morocco15.5%6.5%0.0%
🇲🇿 Mozambique92.5%83.3%13.2%
🇲🇲 Myanmar73.8%42.7%0.7%
🇳🇦 Namibia59.5%33.6%13.9%
🇳🇵 Nepal76.4%51.0%2.6%
🇳🇱 Netherlands0.1%0.3%0.0%
🇳🇮 Nicaragua34.2%21.2%5.7%
🇳🇪 Niger92.0%77.1%13.6%
🇳🇬 Nigeria93.5%69.4%44.4%
🇲🇰 North Macedonia15.5%16.8%2.6%
🇳🇴 Norway0.3%0.5%0.3%
🇵🇰 Pakistan82.8%40.9%0.3%
🇵🇸 Palestine15.4%2.4%0.6%
🇵🇦 Panama17.0%12.1%2.2%
🇵🇾 Paraguay20.4%24.4%0.5%
🇵🇪 Peru25.7%16.5%2.7%
🇵🇭 Philippines74.0%53.1%6.9%
🇵🇱 Poland0.5%0.1%0.0%
🇵🇹 Portugal1.2%0.7%0.1%
🇷🇴 Romania7.2%8.0%0.9%
🇷🇺 Russia2.6%0.8%0.0%
🇷🇼 Rwanda82.0%61.3%28.1%
🇱🇨 Saint Lucia27.2%16.7%4.6%
🇸🇹 Sao Tome & Principe78.2%63.4%8.0%
🇸🇳 Senegal45.0%43.2%3.3%
🇷🇸 Serbia10.9%14.3%3.2%
🇸🇨 Seychelles7.3%2.5%0.1%
🇸🇱 Sierra Leone83.5%73.3%34.9%
🇸🇰 Slovakia2.3%1.4%0.1%
🇸🇮 Slovenia0.0%0.0%0.0%
🇿🇦 South Africa66.7%60.3%24.2%
🇰🇷 South Korea1.5%1.5%0.0%
🇪🇸 Spain1.8%1.0%0.5%
🇱🇰 Sri Lanka55.5%22.8%0.6%
🇸🇩 Sudan85.4%58.7%15.3%
🇸🇷 Suriname58.6%34.2%15.8%
🇸🇪 Sweden0.6%0.4%0.2%
🇨🇭 Switzerland0.0%0.0%0.0%
🇹🇼 TaiwanN/A0.2%0.0%
🇹🇯 Tajikistan44.3%33.3%2.3%
🇹🇿 Tanzania85.0%75.6%36.8%
🇹🇭 Thailand18.0%7.0%0.0%
🇹🇹 Trinidad & Tobago9.9%3.4%0.2%
🇹🇳 Tunisia17.1%1.9%0.0%
🇹🇷 Turkey6.0%3.1%0.0%
🇺🇬 Uganda81.7%68.9%13.9%
🇦🇪 UAE0.1%0.0%0.0%
🇬🇧 UK0.4%0.5%0.2%
🇺🇸 U.S.1.2%1.5%1.2%
🇺🇾 Uruguay5.2%0.8%0.0%
🇻🇳 Vietnam21.0%11.7%0.7%
🇿🇲 Zambia90.0%82.5%65.1%
🇿🇼 ZimbabweN/A10.6%0.0%
🌐 World42.20%31.90%4.90%

While the aim is to have every single person able to afford a healthy diet, it is useful to track progress across diets to see which countries are making strides in food affordability, whether it comes from growing incomes or improved supply.

At a regional level, these nuances reveal geographic differences in food unaffordability.

RegionCan't Afford a
Healthy Diet
Can't Afford a
Can't afford a
Calorie-Sufficient Diet
East Asia & the Pacific22.8%16.4%1.1%
Europe & Central Asia3.1%2.0%0.2%
Latin America & the Caribbean22.7%17.9%3.0%
Middle East & North Africa34.0%13.4%0.4%
North America1.1%1.4%1.1%
South Asia74.2%59.0%2.6%
Sub-Saharan Africa83.5%67.6%24.9%

While sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have comparable shares of population unable to afford healthy and nutrient sufficient diets, the gap widens immensely when looking at just calorie-sufficient diets, nearly 25% versus 2.6%.

For countries in South Asia, this could help target efforts to improve affordability for more than the most basic of diets.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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How Much Do Americans Trust the Media?

Media trust among Americans has reached its lowest point since Trump won the 2016 presidential election.



How Much Do Americans Trust the Media?

Media trust among Americans has reached its lowest point in six years.

Gallup began its survey on media trust in 1972, repeating it in 1974 and 1976. After a long period, the public opinion firm restarted the polls in 1997 and has asked Americans about their confidence level in the mass media—newspapers, TV, and radio—almost every year since then.

The above graphic illustrates Gallup’s latest poll results, conducted in September 2023.

Americans’ Trust in Mass Media, 1972-2023

Americans’ confidence in the mass media has sharply declined over the last few decades.

Trust in the mass media% Great deal/Fair amount% Not very much% None at all

In 2016, the number of respondents trusting media outlets fell below the tally of those who didn’t trust the media at all. This is the first time that has happened in the poll’s history.

That year was marked by sharp criticism of the media from then-presidential candidate Donald Trump.

In 2017, the use of the term ‘fake news’ rose by 365% on social media, and the term was named the word of the year by dictionary publisher Collins.

The Lack of Faith in Institutions and Social Media

Although there’s no single reason to explain the decline of trust in the traditional media, some studies point to potential drivers.

According to Michael Schudson, a sociologist and historian of the news media and a professor at the Columbia Journalism School, in the 1970s, faith in institutions like the White House or Congress began to decline, consequently impacting confidence in the media.

“That may have been a necessary corrective to a sense of complacency that had been creeping in—among the public and the news media—that allowed perhaps too much trust: we accepted President Eisenhower’s lies about the U-2 spy plane, President Kennedy’s lies about the ‘missile gap,’ President Johnson’s lies about the war in Vietnam, President Nixon’s lies about Watergate,”
Michael Schudson – Columbia Journalism School

More recently, the internet and social media have significantly changed how people consume media. The rise of platforms such as X/Twitter and Facebook have also disrupted the traditional media status quo.

Partisans’ Trust in Mass Media

Historically, Democrats have expressed more confidence in the media than Republicans.

Democrats’ trust, however, has fallen 12 points over the past year to 58%, compared with 11% among Republicans and 29% among independents.


According to Gallup, Republicans’ low confidence in the media has little room to worsen, but Democrat confidence could still deteriorate and bring the overall national reading down further.

The poll also shows that young Democrats have less confidence in the media than older Democrats, while Republicans are less varied in their views by age group.

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