Visualizing All of Earth's Satellites: Who Owns Our Orbit?
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Visualizing All of Earth’s Satellites: Who Owns Our Orbit?

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Visualizing All of Earth’s Satellites

For centuries, humans have looked to space and the stars for answers. The fascination is more than philosophical—it’s coupled with the need to solve problems here on Earth.

Today, there are seemingly countless benefits and applications of space technology. Satellites, for instance, are becoming critical for everything from internet connectivity and precision agriculture, to border security and archaeological study.

Space is Open for Business

Right now, there are nearly 6,000 satellites circling our tiny planet. About 60% of those are defunct satellites—space junk—and roughly 40% are operational.

As highlighted in the chart above, The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), determined that 2,666 operational satellites circled the globe in April of 2020.

Over the coming decade, it’s estimated by Euroconsult that 990 satellites will be launched every year. This means that by 2028, there could be 15,000 satellites in orbit.

With SpaceX’s planned Starlink constellation of 12,000 satellites and Amazon’s proposed constellation in the works, the new space race continues its acceleration.

Let’s take a closer look at who operates those satellites and how they apply their technology.

Technology with a Purpose

Humans have long used space for navigation. While sailors once relied on the stars, today we use satellites for GPS, navigation, and various other applications.

More than half of Earth’s operational satellites are launched for commercial purposes. About 61% of those provide communications, including everything from satellite TV and Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity to global internet.

Commercial Satellites by PurposeNumber of Satellites
Communications1007
Earth Observation446
Navigation / GPS97
Tech Demonstration & Development87
Other9
All Commercial Satellites
(including combination)
1646

Second to communications, 27% of commercial satellites have been launched for Earth Observation (EO) purposes, including environmental monitoring and border security.

Commercial satellites, however, can serve multiple purposes. One week, a satellite may be ‘tasked’ to image a contested border. It could later be tasked to monitor the reclamation of a mining site or even the aftermath of a natural disaster.

Operational Satellites by TypeNumber of SatellitesPercentage of Operational Satellites
Commercial144054%
Government43616%
Military33913%
Civil1335%
Combination (Other)1124%
Combination (Commercial)2068%
Defunct Satellites
3200

Government and civil purposes make up 21% of all of Earth’s operational satellites, and military purposes come in at 13%.

Who Owns Earth’s Orbit? Space Operators

SpaceX—founded by Elon Musk—is not only a disruptive launch provider for missions to the International Space Station (saving NASA millions). It’s also the largest commercial operator of satellites on the planet.

With 358 satellites launched as of April, part of SpaceX’s mission is to boost navigation capabilities and supply the world with space-based internet.

While the company operated 22% of the world’s operational satellites as of April, it went on to launch an additional 175 satellites in the span of one month, from August to September 2020.

Following its series of summer launches, SpaceX announced that it had deployed enough satellites to support the beta version of its satellite-based internet service, Starlink.

Every Commercial Satellite in One Table

Since December 2005, the UCS has compiled data on every operational satellite in Earth’s orbit. In the table below, you’ll find every commercial satellite in orbit, as of April 2020.

Satellite Owner/OperatorNumber of SatellitesCountry of Operator/Owner
SpaceX358USA
Planet Labs, Inc.246USA
Spire Global Inc.89USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.78USA
OneWeb Satellites74United Kingdom
SES S.A.51Luxembourg
Intelsat S.A.51USA
ORBCOMM Inc.35USA
DoD/US Air Force33USA
EUTELSAT Americas33Multinational
Ministry of Defense33Egypt
Globalstar32USA
European Space Agency (ESA)26ESA
O3b Networks Ltd.20United Kingdom
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.15China
Gonets Satcom15Russia
Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation15Japan
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)14Canada
Echostar Corporation (entire payload leased from Telesat Canada Ltd.)9USA
INMARSAT, Ltd.13United Kingdom
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.13China
Aerospace Corporation12USA
DirecTV Latin America/Intelsat12Brazil
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)11USA
Aprize Satellite10Canada
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)10Russia
Swarm Technologies9USA
Satellogic S.A.8Argentina
Spacety Aerospace Co.8China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.7China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)7China
GeoOptics Inc.7USA
Riyadh Space Research Institute7Saudi Arabia
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.6Multinational
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.6China
Embratel Star One6Brazil
Guodian Gaoke6China
Sirius XM Holdings6USA
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.6United Kingdom
Beijing Space View Technology5China
BlackSky Global5USA
Gazprom Space Systems5Russia
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.5China
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)5Australia
RapidEye AG5Germany
APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.4China
Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.4Japan
exactEarth4Canada
Fleet Space Technologies4Australia
Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat - Spain)4Spain
Hispasat4Spain
ICEYE Ltd.4Finland
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)4South Korea
KT Corporation4South Korea
Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT)3United Arab Emirates
Astro Digital3USA
Avanti Communications, PLC3United Kingdom
Dauria Aerospace3Russia
German Orbital Systems3Germany
HawkEye 3603USA
HEAD Aerospace3China
Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd.3Greece
Maxar Technologies Inc.3USA
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd.3Malaysia
Nagoya University and Daido University3Japan
PT Telkomunikasi3Indonesia
Russian Federal Space Agency3Russia
Samara State Aerospace University, SGAU3Russia
Sky and Space Global, UK3United Kingdom
Space-Communication Ltd.3Israel
Telenor Satellite Broadcasting3Norway
Thaicom Public Company Ltd.3Thailand
Turksat3Turkey
Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc.3USA
AISTech2Spain
Arab Satellite Communications Org. (ASCO)2Multinational
ArSat2Argentina
Astrocast2Switzerland
Bigelow Aerospace2USA
China Electronic Technology Group2China
Elbit Systems2Israel
German Aerospace Center (DLR)2Germany
Ghalam LLP2Kazakhstan
Hiber Global2Netherlands
Hughes Space and Communications Co.3USA
Innovation Academy for Microsatellites, Chinese Academy of Sciences/unnamed German firm2China/Germany
JSC KazSat2Kazakhstan
Kepler Communications2Canada
Mobile Satellite Ventures2USA/Canada
NanoAvionics2Lithuania
NBN Co (operated by Optus)2Australia
SpaceQuest2USA
Spot Image2France/Belgium/Sweden
SRI International2USA
Thuraya Satellite Communications2United Arab Emirates
Tiger Innovations2USA
University of California2USA
ViaSat, Inc.2USA
Weathernews, Inc.2Japan
XM Satellite Radio USA2USA
1Worldspace1USA
ACME AtronOmatic (MyRadar)1Germany
Aerospace Corporation1USA
AgilSpace1Singapore
Airbus1ESA
Alibaba1China
Astranis1USA
Astro Live Experiences1Japan
ATL (Advanced Technology of Laser)1Hungary
Axelspace1Japan
Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI)1Indonesia
Beijing Future Navigation Technology Co. Ltd.1China
Beijing Landview Mapping Information Technology Co. Ltd (BLMIT)1China
Beijing ZeroG Technology Co. Ltd.1China
Bulsatcom1Bulgaria
Canon Electronics1Japan
Capella Space1USA
Changchun Institute of Optics1China
Chengdu Guoxing Aerospace Technology Co. Ltd.1China
China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC)1China
Ciel Satellite Group1Canada
DigitalGlobe Corporation1USA
Earthi/Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.1United Kingdom
Es’hailSat1Qatar
Exseed Space1India
Fossa Systems1Spain
GalaxySpace1China
GasTianta and GZH-HNJ BDS AGR Co., Ltd.1China
General Atomics - Electromagnetic Systems Group1USA
GHGSat, Inc.1Canada
Global Eagle Entertainment1USA
GomSpace ApS1Denmark
Harris Corporation1USA
Helios Wire1USA
Hera Systems1USA
Hisdesat1Spain
Horizons 2 Satellite, LLC (Intelsat, Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation)1USA/Japan
Horizons 2 Satellite, LLC (Intelsat, Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation)1USA/Japan
ImageSat International, NV/Ministry of Defense1Israel
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)1India
iQPS1Japan
iSky Technology1Czech Republic
Italian Defense Ministry/Telespazio1Italy
LightSquared1USA
Link Space Aerospace Technology1China
MDA Corporation1Canada
Microspace Rapid Pvt Ltd.1Singapore
Momentus1USA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/SES Americom (SES [Société Européenne des Satellites (SES)])1USA
National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (JPN)1Japan
NigComSat1Nigeria
Northwest Nazarene University1USA
NSLComm1Israel
OHB Italia1Italy
Orbital Micro Systems Ltd.1USA
Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)/PakSat International1Pakistan
Planetary Resources1USA
PT Indosat1Indonesia
PT Pasifik Satelit Nusantara1Indonesia
Qiansheng Exploration Technology Co. Ltd.1China
Reaktor Space Lab1Finland
Regional African Satellite Communications Organization (RASCOM)1Multinational
SatRevolution1Poland
Shanghai Lizheng Satellite Application Technology1China
Singapore Telecommunications Ltd. (SingTel)/Chunghwa Telecom Co. Ltd.1Singapore/Taiwan
Sky Mexico1Mexico
SkyFox Labs1Czech Republic
Space Logistics LLC1USA
Space OK (Shanghai Ok Space Co Ltd.)1China
SpacePharma1Switzerland
Sputnix Ltd.1Russia
Stara Space1USA
Surrey Space Center1United Kingdom
Telebras/Brazilian Air Force1Brazil
TerraStar Corporation1USA
Turkmenistan Ministry of Communications/SSI-Monaco1Turkmenistan/Monaco
UK Government/Surrey Satellite Technologies1United Kingdom
University of Vigo/Alén Space1Spain
UnseenLabs1France
Utah State University1USA
WildBlue Communications1USA
Xinwei Telecom Technology Company1China
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
Aerospace CorporationUSA
AISTechSpain
Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT)United Arab Emirates
Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT)United Arab Emirates
Aprize SatelliteCanada
Aprize SatelliteUSA/Argentina
Aprize SatelliteUSA/Argentina
Aprize SatelliteUSA/Argentina
Aprize SatelliteUSA/Argentina
Aprize Satellite ArgentinaArgentina
Aprize Satellite ArgentinaArgentina
Aprize Satellite ArgentinaArgentina
Aprize Satellite ArgentinaArgentina
APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.China
APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.China
APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.China
Arab Satellite Communications Org. (ASCO)Multinational
ArSatArgentina
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd.Multinational
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd.China
Astro DigitalUSA
Astro DigitalUSA
AstrocastSwitzerland
Avanti Communications, PLCUnited Kingdom
Avanti Communications, PLCUnited Kingdom
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd.China
Beijing Space View TechnologyChina
Beijing Space View TechnologyChina
Beijing Space View TechnologyChina
Bigelow AerospaceUSA
BlackSky GlobalUSA
BlackSky GlobalUSA
BlackSky GlobalUSA
BlackSky GlobalUSA
Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.Japan
Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.Japan
Broadcasting Satellite System Corp./Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.China
China Electronic Technology GroupChina
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom)China
Dauria AerospaceRussia/USA
Dauria AerospaceRussia/USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DirecTV, Inc.USA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
DoD/US Air ForceUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLCUSA
Echostar Satellite Services, LLC/IntelsatUSA
Elbit SystemsIsrael
Embratel Star OneBrazil
Embratel Star OneBrazil
Embratel Star OneBrazil
Embratel Star OneBrazil
Embratel Star OneBrazil
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA
EUTELSAT AmericasMultinational
EUTELSAT AmericasMultinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A.Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A. -- leased from Loral Skynet Satellite Services (Loral Global Alliance)Multinational
EUTELSAT S.A./Es'hailSatMultinational
EUTELSAT S.A./NilesatMultinational
EUTELSAT S.A./NilesatMultinational
exactEarthCanada
exactEarthCanada
exactEarthCanada
Fleet Space TechnologiesAustralia
Fleet Space TechnologiesAustralia
Fleet Space TechnologiesAustralia
Gazprom Space SystemsRussia
Gazprom Space SystemsRussia
Gazprom Space SystemsRussia
Gazprom Space SystemsRussia
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
GeoOptics Inc.USA
German Aerospace Center (DLR)/InfoterraGermany
German Orbital SystemsGermany
German Orbital SystemsGermany
Ghalam LLPKazakhstan
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
GlobalstarUSA
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Gonets SatcomRussia
Guodian GaokeChina
Guodian GaokeChina
Guodian GaokeChina
Guodian GaokeChina
Guodian GaokeChina
HawkEye 360USA
HawkEye 360USA
HEAD AerospaceChina
HEAD AerospaceChina
Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd.Greece
Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd./INMARSATGreece/United Kingdom
Hiber GlobalNetherlands
Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat - Spain)Spain
Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat - Spain)Spain
Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat - Spain)Spain
HispasatSpain
HispasatSpain
HispasatSpain
HughesNet leased from Echostar Technologies, LLCUSA
ICEYE Ltd.Finland
ICEYE Ltd.Finland
ICEYE Ltd.Finland
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd.United Kingdom
INMARSAT, Ltd./European Space Agency (ESA)United Kingdom/ESA
Innovation Academy for Microsatellites, Chinese Academy of Sciences/unnamed German firmChina/Germany
Intelsat S.A./Sky Perfect JSAT Corp.USA
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik)Russia
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
Iridium Communications, Inc.USA
JSC KazSatKazakhstan
Kepler CommunicationsUnited Kingdom
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)South Korea
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)South Korea
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)South Korea
KT CorporationSouth Korea
KT CorporationSouth Korea
KT Corporation/Korean Agency for Defense Development (ADD)South Korea
Maxar Technologies Inc.USA
Maxar Technologies Inc.USA
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd.Malaysia
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd.Malaysia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Ministry of DefenseRussia
Mobile Satellite VenturesUSA/Canada
Nagoya University and Daido UniversityJapan
Nagoya University and Daido UniversityJapan
NanoAvionicsLithuania
NBN Co (operated by Optus)Australia
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.China
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.China
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.China
Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd.China
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
O3b Networks Ltd.United Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
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OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
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OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
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OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
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OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
OneWeb SatellitesUnited Kingdom
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)Australia
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)Australia
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)Australia
Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)/Australian Ministry of DefenseAustralia
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
ORBCOMM Inc.USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)/DirecTV, Inc.USA
PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)/Sky Perfect JSAT Corp.USA/Japan
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
Planet Labs, Inc.USA
PT TelkomunikasiIndonesia
PT TelkomunikasiIndonesia
RapidEye AGGermany
RapidEye AGGermany
RapidEye AGGermany
RapidEye AGGermany
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Riyadh Space Research InstituteSaudi Arabia
Russian Federal Space AgencyRussia
Russian Federal Space AgencyRussia
Samara State Aerospace University, SGAURussia
Samara State Aerospace University, SGAURussia
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
Satellogic S.A.Argentina
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Luxembourg
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Netherlands
SES S.A.Sweden
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A.USA
SES S.A. -- total capacity leased to subsidiary of EchoStar Corp.USA
SES S.A./EchoStar Satellite Services, LLCLuxembourg
SES S.A./GogoUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sirius XM HoldingsUSA
Sky and Space Global, UKUnited Kingdom
Sky and Space Global, UKUnited Kingdom
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT CorporationJapan
Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation/DSN Corp.Japan
Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation/KacificJapan/Singapore
Space-Communication Ltd.Israel
Space-Communication Ltd.Israel
SpaceQuest, Ltd.USA
Spacety Aerospace Co.China
Spacety Aerospace Co.China
Spacety Aerospace Co.China
Spacety Aerospace Co.China
Spacety Aerospace Co./Changsha Gaoxinqu Tianyi Research InstituteChina
Spacety Aerospace Co./Changsha Gaoxinqu Tianyi Research InstituteChina
Spacety Aerospace Co./ThrustMeChina/France
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
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SpaceXUSA
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SpaceXUSA
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SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
SpaceXUSA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spire Global Inc.USA
Spot ImageFrance/Belgium/Sweden
SRI InternationalUSA
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.United Kingdom
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Swarm TechnologiesUSA
Telenor Satellite BroadcastingNorway
Telenor Satellite BroadcastingNorway
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)Canada
Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)/APT Satellite Holdings Ltd.Canada
Thaicom Public Company Ltd.Thailand
Thaicom Public Company Ltd.Thailand
Thuraya Satellite CommunicationsUnited Arab Emirates
Tiger InnovationsUSA
TurksatTurkey
TurksatTurkey
Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc.USA
Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc.USA
University of CaliforniaUSA
ViaSat, Inc.USA
Weathernews, Inc.Japan
XM Satellite Radio USAUSA
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.China
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.China
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.China
Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China
Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd.China

Cubesats, microsats, nanosats, and more—the new space race is all about small satellites.

With its flock of small EO satellites, or “doves”, Planet Labs now has more than 150 satellites in operation (however, in April 2020, the number exceeded 250, as per above data).

Even Amazon is preparing for space. In July of 2020, the FCC granted approval for Jeff Bezos’s tech empire to launch and operate an internet constellation of 3,236 satellites.

Nations that Dominate Earth’s Orbit

It may be no surprise that the United States, China, and Russia top the list of countries with operational satellites.

The U.S. and Russia (then the USSR) piloted the space race throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Both nations are found in the top three of current satellite operators, with the U.S. operating nearly half of all satellites—1,308 as of April 2020.

China trails the U.S. with approximately 356 satellites. Taking third spot, Russia has 167 satellites in operation, and the UK comes in at a close fourth with 130 satellites.

Collectively, the above five countries operate roughly 76% of the world’s satellites.

The New Space Race

Where the original space race was a nationalistic competition between Cold War rivals, the new space race is collaborative and commercialized.

Today, international cooperation allows for the deployment of satellites, as well as space-based science. Before SpaceX, NASA and the other space agencies that operate the International Space Station had been reliant on Russian Soyuz rockets for hundreds of missions.

With the success of its famed reusable rockets, SpaceX is on track to reduce launch costs by as much as US$6 million per flight—which is likely to support the proliferation of satellites in the coming years.

With improved technology and commercial partnerships, all signs point to a crowded orbit.

Correction: In the table, Intelsat was listed as having 36 owned satellites in operation. The correct number is 51.

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Technology

Visualizing the World’s Top Social Media and Messaging Apps

From Twitter to TikTok, this infographic compares the universe of social media and messaging platforms by number of monthly active users.

Published

on

The Social Media Universe in 2022

For a time, life in the social media universe was mostly uneventful. Consider these spicy (at the time) headlines:

In hindsight, the years leading up to 2016 were downright sleepy in comparison with what would follow. Donald Trump’s meteoric, tweet-powered rise to the presidency. The Cambridge Analytica scandal. Congressional hearings on privacy and bias. TikTok at the center of souring U.S.–China relations. Each new day brought a fresh wave of controversy the shores of once infallible social media platforms.

Today, the honeymoon phase is long over and the messiness of running a global social platform is now on full display. Nowhere is this more evident than Twitter during the current Elon Musk transitional period—but more details on that later.

For now, let’s explore the social media universe in 2022.

Mapping the Social Media and Messaging Universe

In 2022, the social universe is looking more crowded than in previous years.

The scale of Meta’s platforms still dominate thanks to their global reach, but there are a number of smaller networks fighting for market share. Here’s a look at popular platforms, organized from largest to smallest active userbase:

Visualisation showing the largest social media platforms by monthly active users

Meanwhile, here are the top 10 social media and messaging platforms by publicly-available monthly active users:

RankPlatform NameParent CompanyPrimary FunctionMonthly Active Users
#1FacebookMeta PlatformsSocial network2.9 billion
#2YouTubeAlphabetVideo content2.3 billion
#3WhatsAppMeta PlatformsMessaging2.0 billion
#4MessengerMeta PlatformsMessaging1.3 billion
#5InstagramMeta PlatformsVideo content1.2 billion
#6WeChat TencentMessaging1.2 billion
#7TikTokByteDanceVideo content732 million
#8Telegramn/aMessaging700 million
#9DouyinByteDanceVideo content600 million
#10QQTencentMessaging 595 million

YouTube is the only true competition for Meta’s scale and reach. Alphabet’s video content hub with social features boasts more than two billion monthly active users. YouTube’s embrace of the creator economy is nudging the platform further into pure social media territory with the introduction of “handles”.

As seen in the visualization above, China has its own ecosystem of large social and messaging platforms—the largest of these being WeChat.

The only platform in the top 20 that is not based in either the U.S. or China is the privacy-focused messaging app, Telegram. The Dubai-based company has a unique backstory. It was created after the founders of Russian social network VK left the country after resisting government pressure to release data on the social network’s users in Ukraine.

Today, there are also a number of smaller, special interest platforms. OnlyFans, for example, is focused on adult content creators. Parler and Truth Social appeal to users who want fewer constraints on the content they post and consume. BeReal aims to create more authentic moments by prompting users to post a photo at a random time each day.

Below, we dig into a few of these platforms into more depth.

zuckerberg meta 2022

Big Trouble in Little Metaverse

Having a figurehead CEO is a double-edged sword. When things are going well, the market rallies around the successful leader. Case in point, Mark Zuckerberg was named Time’s Person of the Year in 2010. Even as recently as 2016, Glassdoor named the Facebook founder the “most admired tech CEO”.

On the flip side, when the tide turns, it turns fast. After a series of controversies, Zuckerberg took a multi-billion-dollar gamble by renaming his entire company Meta and pivoting its focus to the burgeoning idea of a metaverse. Meta’s New Horizons platform is rumored to have plateaued at about 200,000 active users, which is underwhelming for a company that still reaches a sizable slice of humanity with its other services.

Part of Meta’s near-term success hinges on VR headsets being a hot gift this holiday season. Meta’s cheapest headset is $400, which could be a tough sell in today’s economic environment.

Chart showing falling consumer sentiment in the united states in 2022

Of course, it’s too early to know whether Zuckerberg’s gamble will pay off. As always, all is forgiven once a business unit takes off and becomes profitable.

elon musk twitter 2022

Microblogging with Macro Expectations

Twitter has a complicated history.

The company was launched in the shadow of Facebook’s massive growth, and was saddled with expectations that were tough to meet. Although Twitter has an engaged and influential audience, it hasn’t managed to monetize them at the level of Meta’s platforms (for better or worse). The introduction of Twitter Blue in 2021 did not resonate with users at the scale the company hoped, and “fleets” were essentially written off as a failed experiment.

In addition, Twitter is a magnet for criticism and debate around free speech, in part because of its central place in political discourse.

These issues are directly related to the company’s recent sale to Elon Musk. At the time of this article, Twitter finds itself in the midst of a painful, and very public, internal restructuring.

If reports of an exodus of talent and advertising dollars are to be believed, then the future of one of world’s most influential social media platforms could be at risk.

social media TikTok Douyin 2022

TikTok

Social media has always been dominated by Facebook and its related apps. When a new challenger came along, Facebook either acquired it (Instagram, WhatsApp), or “acquired” their features (Snapchat). TikTok is the first challenger to keep its momentum and growth, even as Instagram rolled out very similar features.

TikTok is also a rare case of a Chinese tech product crossing over into Western markets. The ascendancy of TikTok was not without controversy though. Suspicion over Chinese access to user data continues to be an issue both in the U.S., and in other large markets around the world. TikTok has been banned in India since 2020.

Despite these headwinds, TikTok remains wildly popular. The short-form video platform was the number one downloaded app on the planet, and it remains a favorite of the all-important Gen Z demographic.

nextdoor neighbors citizen 2022

We Shall Surveil

In recent years, neighborhood-based social networks have sprung up and gained traction. NextDoor used physical letters sent to adjacent addresses to supercharge its growth, while Neighbors piggybacked off the popularity of Ring’s doorbell cameras. Although members post about more benign topics such as lost cats and where to find a good plumber, crime is an increasingly common theme as well.

Apps like Neighbors and Citizen have a more overt focus on crime and safety. While the growth of these apps reflects an obvious interest preventing crime, critics point out that the ubiquity of personal surveillance equipment and forums built purely around public safety promote a culture of suspicion in communities.

This type of social network is still quite new, so it remains to be seen if they remain niche communities, or grow into something bigger.

Chaos and Opportunity

It was Sun Tzu who famously said, “In the midst of chaos, there is also opportunity”.

This is the risk and opportunity in the social media universe today. With their massive networks and high switching costs (e.g. personalization, library of existing posts), the largest platforms have created moats that make life hard for upstart brands looking to replace established platforms. On the other hand, controversy on platforms like Twitter and Facebook may cause some users to consider new options.

The multi-billion-dollar question—is dissatisfaction with major platforms temporary, or will emerging networks like Mastodon or BeReal hit critical mass and become new staples for people connecting online. Time will tell.

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Visualized: FTX’s Leaked Balance Sheet

As Sam Bankman-Fried’s crypto exchange FTX files for bankruptcy, this graphic visualizes FTX’s balance sheet leaked by the Financial Times.

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Visualizing FTX’s Balance Sheet Before Bankruptcy

In a difficult year for the crypto space that has been full of hacks, failing funds, and decentralized stablecoins going to zero, nothing has compared to FTX and Sam Bankman-Fried’s (SBF) rapid implosion.

After an astronomical rise in the crypto space over the past three years, crypto exchange FTX and its founder and CEO SBF have come crashing back down to earth, largely unraveled by their misuse of customer funds and illicit relationship with trading firm Alameda Research.

This graphic visualizes FTX’s leaked balance sheet dated to November 10th, and published by the Financial Times on November 12th. The spreadsheet shows nearly $9 billion in liabilities and not nearly enough illiquid cryptocurrency assets to cover the hole.

How did FTX wind up in this position?

How FTX’s Bankruptcy Unfolded

FTX’s eventual bankruptcy was sparked by a report on November 2nd by CoinDesk citing Alameda Research’s balance sheet. The article reported Alameda’s assets to be $14.6 billion, including $3.66 billion worth of unlocked FTT and $2.16 billion of FTT collateral.

With more than one-third of Alameda’s assets tied up in FTX’s exchange token FTT (including loans backed by the token), eyebrows were raised among the crypto community.

Four days later on November 6th, Alameda Research’s CEO, Caroline Ellison, and Sam Bankman-Fried addressed the CoinDesk story as unfounded rumors. However, on the same day, Binance CEO Changpeng Zhao (CZ) announced that Binance had decided to liquidate all remaining FTT on their books, kicking off a -7.6% decline in the FTT token on the day.

Back and Forth with Binance’s CZ

While Ellison publicly offered to buy CZ’s FTT directly “over the counter” to avoid further price declines and SBF claimed in a now-deleted tweet that “FTX is fine. Assets are fine.”, FTX users were withdrawing their funds from the exchange.

Less than 24 hours later on November 7th, both SBF and CZ tweeted that Binance had signed a non-binding letter of intent for the acquisition of FTX, pending due diligence.

The next day, the acquisition fell apart as Binance cited corporate due diligence, leaving SBF to face a multi-directional liquidity crunch of users withdrawing funds and rapidly declining token prices that made up large amounts of FTX and Alameda’s assets and collateral for loans.

FTX’s Liabilities and Largely Illiquid Assets

In the final days before declaring bankruptcy, FTX CEO Sam Bankman-Fried attempted a final fundraising in order restore stability while billions in user funds were being withdrawn from his exchange.

The balance sheet he sent around to prospective investors was leaked by the Financial Times, and reveals the exchange had nearly $9 billion in liabilities while only having just over $1 billion in liquid assets. Alongside the liquid assets were $5.4 billion in assets labeled as “less liquid” and $3.2 billion labeled as “illiquid”.

When examining the assets listed, FTX’s accounting appears to be poorly done at best, and fraudulently deceptive at worst.

Of those “less liquid” assets, many of the largest sums were in assets like FTX’s own exchange token and cryptocurrencies of the Solana ecosystem, which were heavily supported by FTX and Sam Bankman-Fried. On top of this, for many of these coins the liquidity simply wouldn’t have been there if FTX had attempted to redeem these cryptocurrencies for U.S. dollars or stablecoin equivalents.

While the liquid and less liquid assets on the balance sheet amounted to $6.3 billion (still not enough to equal the $8.9 billion in liabilities), many of these “less liquid” assets may as well have been completely illiquid.

Relationship with Alameda Research

When looking at FTX’s financials in isolation, it’s impossible to understand how one of crypto’s largest exchanges ended up with such a lopsided and illiquid balance sheet. Many of the still unfolding details lie in the exchange’s relationship with SBF’s previous venture that he founded, trading firm Alameda Research.

Founded by SBF in 2017, Alameda Research primarily operated as a delta-neutral (a term that describes trading strategies like market making and arbitrage that attempt to avoid taking directional risk) trading firm. In the summer of 2021, SBF stepped down from Alameda Research to focus on FTX, however his influence and connection with the firm was still deeply ingrained.

A report from the Wall Street Journal cites how Alameda was able to amass crypto tokens ahead of their announced public FTX listings, which were often catalysts in price surges. Alongside this, a Reuters story has revealed how SBF secretly moved $10 billion in funds to Alameda, using a bookkeeping “back door” to avoid internal scrutiny at FTX.

While SBF responded to the Reuters story by saying they “had confusing internal labeling and misread it,” there are few doubts that this murky relationship between Alameda Research and FTX was a fatal one for the former billionaire’s empire.

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