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Mapped: 30 Years of Deforestation and Forest Growth, by Country

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map of deforestation around the world over 30 years

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Global Deforestation and Forest Growth over 30 Years

Forests are the great carbon capturers of our planet, and they are a key source of wildlife habitats and vital resources for people around the world.

But deforestation is threatening this natural infrastructure, releasing carbon into the atmosphere while simultaneously reducing wildlife diversity and making our environment more susceptible to environmental disasters.

This graphic looks at global deforestation and forest growth over the past 30 years, mapping out the net forest change by country and region using data from the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

The State of Deforestation by Region

Today, forests make up around 31% of the Earth’s total land area, spanning 15.68 million square miles (40.6 million km²). Over the past three decades, the world lost a bit more than 4% (685,300 square miles) of its forests, which equates to an area about half the size of India.

Europe and Asia were the only two regions which had significant overall forest growth during this time period, while Oceania saw no significant change and North and Central America saw a slight reduction.

RegionForest area change (1990-2020)Percentage change in forest area
Asia+146,718 sq mi+6.64%
Europe+88,803 sq mi+2.34%
Oceania+1,057 sq mi+0.0015%
North America and Central America-7,722 sq mi-0.34%
South America and the Caribbean-501,932 sq mi-13.30%
Africa-409,268 sq mi-14.29%
Global total-685,401 sq mi-4.19%

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

Africa along with South America and the Caribbean were the regions with the greatest amount of net forest loss, both losing more than 13% of their forests over the past 30 years. This is largely because these two regions have large amounts of forest area available, with the underlying land in high demand for agriculture and cattle-raising.

Although the overall forest loss around the world is massive, the rate of forest loss has slowed down over the past three decades. While an average of 30,116 square miles were lost each year between 1990 to 2000, between 2010 to 2020 that number has dropped to 18,146 square miles, showing that the rate of overall loss has fallen by almost 40%.

The Countries and Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Growth

Despite an overall slowing down of forest loss, certain countries in South America along with the entirety of Africa are still showing an increase in the rate of forest loss. It’s in these regions where most of the countries with the largest reduction in forest area are located:

CountryNet change in forest area (1990-2020)Percentage change in forest area
Brazil-356,287 sq mi-15.67%
Indonesia-101,977 sq mi-22.28%
Democratic Republic of the Congo-94,495 sq mi-16.25%
Angola-48,865 sq mi-15.97%
Tanzania-44,962 sq mi-20.29%
Myanmar-41,213 sq mi-27.22%
Paraguay-36,463 sq mi-36.97%
Bolivia-26,915 sq mi-12.06%
Mozambique-25,614 sq mi-15.29%
Argentina-25,602 sq mi-18.84%

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

Brazil, home to most of the Amazon rainforest, saw 356,287 square miles of net forest loss, largely fueled by farmers using the land to raise cattle for beef. It’s estimated that 80% of the deforested land area of the Amazon has been replaced with pastures, with the resulting beef production known to be among the worst meats for the environment in terms of carbon emissions.

The other great driver of deforestation is seed and palm oil agriculture. These oils account for about 20% of the world’s deforestation carbon emissions, and their production concentrated in Indonesia and Malaysia is now expanding to other Asian countries along with Africa.

While the demand for beef and palm oils drives deforestation, initiatives like the Central African Forest Initiative (CAFI) are providing incentives to protect forest land.

Select countries in the European Union along with the United Kingdom and South Korea have committed $494.7 million to six central African nations (Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and the Republic of Congo) for them to preserve their forests and pursue low emission pathways for sustainable development. The initiative has seen $202 million transferred thus far and an anticipated reduction of 75 million tons of CO2 emissions.

Forests and the Climate Crisis

It’s estimated that forests absorb around 30% of the world’s carbon emissions each year, making them the greatest and most important carbon sinks we have on land. When you pair this with the fact that deforestation contributes around 12% of annual greenhouse gas emissions, the importance of forest preservation becomes even more clear.

But we often forget how much forests protect our environment by acting as natural buffers against extreme weather. Forests increase and ensure rainfall security, making nearby land areas significantly less susceptible to wildfires and natural droughts in hot and dry seasons along with flooding and landslides in wet seasons.

With every dollar invested in landscape restoration yielding up to $30 in benefits, reducing deforestation and investing in reforestation is considered an effective way to reduce the difficulty and costs of meeting climate and environmental protection goals. This is without even considering the benefits of maintaining the world’s largest wildlife habitat and source of species diversity, the home of the nearly 70 million indigenous people who live in forests, and the livelihood of 1.6 billion people who rely on forests every day.

Preserving and Regrowing Forests for the Future

Despite the short-term acceleration in forest loss seen in 2020, there have been positive signs about forest regrowth coming to light. A recent study found that previously deforested land can recuperate its soil fertility in about a decade, and layered plants, trees, and species diversity can recover in around 25-60 years.

Along with this, in some instances these regrowing “secondary forests” can absorb more carbon dioxide than “primary forests”, giving hope that a global reforestation effort can absorb more emissions than previously thought possible.

From better financial incentives for local farmers and ranchers to preserve forest area to larger scale policies and initiatives like CAFI, curbing deforestation and promoting reforestation requires a global effort. Reversing forest loss in the coming decades is a daunting but necessary step towards stabilizing the climate and preserving the environment that billions of animals and people rely on.

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Ranked: Per Capita Carbon Emissions by Country

Which countries rank the highest in per capita carbon emissions, and how do they impact the world’s total carbon emissions?

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A cropped chart ranking per capita carbon emissions of countries

Want to see total CO₂ emissions by country? Click here to see our graphic.

Ranked: Per Capita Carbon Emissions by Country

The world’s biggest carbon emitters are dominated by the biggest economies, but what happens when we account for population?

Using information gathered by Our World in Data, we chart out the top 15 countries with the highest per capita carbon emissions (measured in tonnes of CO₂) in 2021.

Which Country Has the Highest Per Capita Carbon Emissions?

Qatar, ranked first, produced nearly 36 tonnes of CO₂ per resident in the country in 2021, well ahead of its peers in the top ranks.

Here’s the full list of per capita emissions by country, ranked from highest to lowest.

RankCountry/TerritoryCO₂ per capita (t)
1🇶🇦 Qatar35.6
2🇧🇭 Bahrain26.7
3🇰🇼 Kuwait25.0
4🇹🇹 Trinidad
& Tobago
23.7
5🇧🇳 Brunei23.5
6🇦🇪 UAE21.8
7🇳🇨 New Caledonia19.1
8🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia18.7
9🇴🇲 Oman17.9
10🇦🇺 Australia15.1
11🇲🇳 Mongolia15.0
12🇺🇸 U.S.14.9
13🇸🇽 Sint Maarten
(Dutch part)
14.7
14🇰🇿 Kazakhstan14.4
15🇨🇦 Canada14.3
16🇵🇼 Palau13.2
17🇫🇴 Faroe Islands13.2
18🇹🇲 Turkmenistan13.1
19🇱🇺 Luxembourg13.1
20🇷🇺 Russia12.1
21🇰🇷 South Korea11.9
22🇹🇼 Taiwan11.9
23🇱🇾 Libya11.1
24🇵🇲 Saint Pierre
& Miquelon
10.5
25🇨🇼 Curacao9.7
26🇨🇿 Czechia9.2
27🇦🇮 Anguilla9.2
28🇮🇸 Iceland9.1
29🇬🇱 Greenland9.1
30🇵🇱 Poland8.6
31🇯🇵 Japan8.6
32🇧🇲 Bermuda8.5
33🇮🇷 Iran8.5
34🇧🇪 Belgium8.2
35🇩🇪 Germany8.1
36🇳🇱 Netherlands8.1
37🇦🇼 Aruba8.1
38🇨🇳 China8.0
39🇪🇪 Estonia7.9
40🇲🇾 Malaysia7.6
41🇳🇴 Norway7.6
42🇹🇨 Turks &
Caicos Islands
7.6
43🇮🇪 Ireland7.5
44🇿🇦 South Africa7.3
45🇦🇹 Austria7.2
46🇫🇮 Finland6.8
47🇳🇿 New Zealand6.6
48🇸🇰 Slovakia6.5
49🇧🇾 Belarus6.2
50🇧🇬 Bulgaria6.2
51🇮🇱 Israel6.1
52🇨🇾 Cyprus6.1
53🇳🇺 Niue6.1
54🇸🇮 Slovenia5.9
55🇧🇸 Bahamas5.9
56🇬🇵 Guadeloupe5.8
57🇦🇩 Andorra5.7
58🇲🇶 Martinique5.7
59🇮🇹 Italy5.5
60🇸🇬 Singapore5.5
61🇬🇷 Greece5.4
62🇨🇰 Cook Islands5.4
63🇸🇨 Seychelles5.3
64🇹🇷 Turkey5.3
65🇬🇧 UK5.2
66🇻🇬 British Virgin Islands5.1
67🇩🇰 Denmark5.1
68🇦🇬 Antigua
& Barbuda
5.0
69🇰🇳 Saint Kitts
& Nevis
5.0
70🇭🇺 Hungary5.0
71🇱🇹 Lithuania5.0
72🇪🇸 Spain4.9
73🇳🇷 Nauru4.8
74🇫🇷 France4.7
75🇲🇸 Martinique4.7
76🇺🇦 Ukraine4.6
77🇸🇷 Suriname4.6
78🇱🇧 Lebanon4.5
79🇨🇱 Chile4.4
80🇭🇷 Croatia4.4
81🇮🇶 Iraq4.3
82🇷🇪 Reunion4.2
83🇷🇸 Serbia4.2
84🇭🇰 Hong Kong4.2
85🇧🇦 Bosnia &
Herzegovina
4.1
86🇦🇷 Argentina4.1
87🇷🇴 Romania4.1
88🇲🇻 Maldives4.1
89🇨🇭 Switzerland4.0
90🇧🇧 Barbados4.0
91🇩🇿 Algeria4.0
92🇵🇹 Portugal4.0
93🇹🇭 Thailand3.9
94🇱🇻 Latvia3.9
95🇧🇶 Bonaire Sint
Eustatius and Saba
3.9
96🇱🇮 Liechtenstein3.9
97🇬🇾 Guyana3.8
98🇲🇭 Marshall Islands3.8
99🇦🇿 Azerbaijan3.7
100🇺🇿 Uzbekistan3.6
101🇲🇺 Mauritius3.4
102🇸🇪 Sweden3.4
103🇽🇰 Kosovo3.4
104🇻🇳 Vietnam3.3
105🇲🇹 Malta3.3
106🇲🇰 North Macedonia3.3
107🇲🇽 Mexico3.2
108🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea3.2
109🇵🇫 French Polynesia3.1
110🇵🇦 Panama3.0
111🇬🇪 Georgia2.9
112🇻🇪 Venezuela2.8
113🇱🇦 Laos2.8
114🇲🇪 Montenegro2.8
115🇯🇲 Jamaica2.7
116🇱🇨 Saint Lucia2.7
117🇩🇴 Dominican Republic2.6
118🇹🇳 Tunisia2.6
119🇬🇩 Grenada2.6
120🇸🇭 Saint Helena2.5
121🇧🇼 Botswana2.5
122🇬🇦 Gabon2.4
123🇦🇲 Armenia2.4
124🇼🇫 Wallis & Futuna2.4
125🇪🇨 Ecuador2.3
126🇯🇴 Jordan2.3
127🇪🇬 Egypt2.3
128🇧🇷 Brazil2.3
129🇮🇩 Indonesia2.3
130🇬🇫 French Guiana2.2
131🇩🇲 Dominica2.2
132🇰🇵 North Korea2.2
133🇻🇨 Saint Vincent
& the Grenadines
2.0
134🇺🇾 Uruguay2.0
135🇨🇺 Cuba2.0
136🇧🇹 Bhutan2.0
137🇧🇴 Bolivia1.9
138🇮🇳 India1.9
139🇲🇦 Morocco1.9
140🇲🇴 Macao1.9
141🇲🇩 Moldova1.8
142🇨🇴 Colombia1.8
143🇧🇿 Belize1.7
144🇵🇪 Peru1.7
145🇹🇴 Tonga1.6
146🇦🇱 Albania1.6
147🇫🇯 Fiji1.6
148🇳🇦 Namibia1.6
149🇨🇷 Costa Rica1.5
150🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan1.4
151🇫🇲 Micronesia1.4
152🇼🇸 Samoa1.3
153🇵🇾 Paraguay1.3
154🇨🇬 Congo1.3
155🇵🇭 Philippines1.3
156🇸🇾 Syria1.3
157🇬🇹 Guatemala1.2
158🇰🇭 Cambodia1.1
159🇸🇻 El Salvador1.1
160🇨🇻 Cape Verde1.1
161🇭🇳 Honduras1.1
162🇹🇯 Tajikistan1.1
163🇱🇸 Lesotho1.0
164🇵🇰 Pakistan1.0
165🇱🇰 Sri Lanka1.0
166🇸🇿 Eswatini0.9
167🇲🇷 Mauritania0.9
168🇾🇹 Mayotte0.9
169🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea0.9
170🇸🇳 Senegal0.8
171🇳🇮 Nicaragua0.7
172🇹🇻 Tuvalu0.7
173🇿🇼 Zimbabwe0.7
174🇲🇲 Myanmar0.7
175🇬🇭 Ghana0.6
176🇳🇬 Nigeria0.6
177🇦🇴 Angola0.6
178🇵🇸 Palestine0.6
179🇧🇯 Benin0.6
180🇸🇹 Sao Tome
& Principe
0.6
181🇹🇱 East Timor0.6
182🇰🇮 Kiribati0.6
183🇧🇩 Bangladesh0.6
184🇻🇺 Vanuatu0.5
185🇳🇵 Nepal0.5
186🇸🇩 Sudan0.5
187🇸🇧 Solomon Islands0.4
188🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire0.4
189🇿🇲 Zambia0.4
190🇾🇪 Yemen0.4
191🇰🇪 Kenya0.4
192🇰🇲 Comoros0.4
193🇬🇳 Guinea0.4
194🇩🇯 Djibouti0.3
195🇨🇲 Cameroon0.3
196🇦🇫 Afghanistan0.3
197🇹🇬 Togo0.3
198🇧🇫 Burkina Faso0.3
199🇭🇹 Haiti0.3
200🇬🇲 Gambia0.2
201🇱🇷 Liberia0.2
202🇪🇷 Eritrea0.2
203🇲🇿 Mozambique0.2
204🇹🇿 Tanzania0.2
205🇲🇱 Mali0.2
206🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau0.2
207🇸🇱 Sierra Leone0.2
208🇪🇹 Ethiopia0.1
209🇸🇸 South Sudan0.1
210🇲🇬 Madagascar0.1
211🇷🇼 Rwanda0.1
212🇺🇬 Uganda0.1
213🇹🇩 Chad0.1
214🇳🇪 Niger0.1
215🇲🇼 Malawi0.1
216🇧🇮 Burundi0.1
217🇨🇫 Central
African Republic
0.0
218🇸🇴 Somalia0.0
219🇨🇩 DRC0.0

Bahrain (26.7 tonnes), and Kuwait (25 tonnes), rank second and third respectively. The top three together signal a running theme: countries whose economies rely on fossil fuel exports heavily feature in the top 10 per capita carbon emitters including: Brunei (5th), UAE (6th), Saudi Arabia (8th), and Oman (9th).

Meanwhile, island nations and territories like New Caledonia (7th), Sint Maarten (13th), and Palau (16th) are also highly represented. Their smaller populations’ still-significant energy needs—usually met from burning fossil fuels—increase their per capita emissions. Trinidad & Tobago (4th) has another factor that contributes, as the Caribbean’s largest natural gas producer and second-largest oil producer.

On the other hand, ranked 11th, Mongolia’s annual CO₂ emissions have grown nearly 600% since 2000, largely driven by its agriculture sector.

Per capita numbers are just one part of the picture. For example, Trinidad and Tobago contributed only 0.1% to global emissions in 2021. But they help illustrate that residents in higher income countries emit more than 30 times the emissions from those in lower income countries.

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