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Incredible Map of Pangea With Modern-Day Borders

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pangea with modern borders

Incredible Map of Pangea With Modern-Day Borders

As volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occasionally remind us, the earth beneath our feet is constantly on the move.

Continental plates only move around 1-4 inches per year, so we don’t notice the tectonic forces that are continually reshaping the surface of our planet. But on a long enough timeline, those inches add up to big changes in the way landmasses on Earth are configured.

Today’s map, by Massimo Pietrobon, is a look back to when all land on the planet was arranged into a supercontinent called Pangea. Pietrobon’s map is unique in that it overlays the approximate borders of present day countries to help us understand how Pangea broke apart to form the world that we know today.

Pangea: The World As One

Pangea was the latest in a line of supercontinents in Earth’s history.

Pangea began developing over 300 million years ago, eventually making up one-third of the earth’s surface. The remainder of the planet was an enormous ocean known as Panthalassa.

As time goes by, scientists are beginning to piece together more information on the climate and patterns of life on the supercontinent. Similar to parts of Central Asia today, the center of the landmass is thought to have been arid and inhospitable, with temperatures reaching 113ºF (45ºC). The extreme temperatures revealed by climate simulations are supported by the fact that very few fossils are found in the modern day regions that once existed in the middle of Pangea. The strong contrast between the Pangea supercontinent and Panthalassa is believed to have triggered intense cross-equatorial monsoons.

By this unique point in history, plants and animals had spread across the landmass, and animals (such as dinosaurs) were able to wander freely across the entire expanse of Pangea.

Breaking Up is Hard to Do

Around 200 million years ago, magma began to swell up through a weakness in the earth’s crust, creating the volcanic rift zone that would eventually cleave the supercontinent into pieces. Over time, this rift zone would become the Atlantic Ocean. The most visible evidence of this split is in the similar shape of the coastlines of modern-day Brazil and West Africa.

Present-day North America broke away from Europe and Africa, and as the map highlights, Atlantic Canada was once connected to Spain and Morocco.

The concept of plate tectonics is behind some of modern Earth’s most striking features. The Himalayas, for example, were formed after the Indian subcontinent broke off the eastern side of Africa and crashed directly into Asia. Many of the world’s tallest mountains were formed by this process of plate convergence – a process that, as far as we know, is unique to Earth.

What the Very Distant Future Holds

Since the average continent is only moving about 1 foot (0.3m) every decade, it’s unlikely you’ll ever be alive to see an epic geographical revision to the world map.

However, for whatever life exists on Earth roughly 300 million years in the future, they may have front row seats in seeing the emergence of a new supercontinent: Pangea Proxima.

As the above video from the Paleomap Project shows, Pangea Proxima is just one possible supercontinent configuration that occurs in which Australia slams into Indonesia, and North and South America crash into Africa and Antarctica, respectively.

Interestingly, Pangea Proxima could have a massive inland sea, mainly made up of what is the Indian Ocean today. Meanwhile, the other oceans would combine into one superocean that would take up the majority of the Earth’s surface.

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Demographics

Map: The World’s Oldest and Youngest Countries, by Median Age

The median age is a single indicator of the age distribution of a population, useful for policy planning for the world’s oldest and youngest countries.

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A cropped map of the world’s oldest and youngest countries by median age, per 2024 estimates.

Mapped: The World’s Oldest and Youngest Countries

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

We visualize the world’s oldest and youngest countries by median age, based on 2024 estimates from the CIA World Factbook.

ℹ️ The median age is a single indicator of the age distribution of a population—where half the population is older and half is younger than the listed age.

It can help government and private companies plan for age-specific demand for goods and services from the resident population.

Ranked: Countries by Median Age in 2024

Monaco and Japan—two countries with high life expectancies and low birth rates—have some of the highest median ages (50+) in the world.

A high median age is indicative of an aging population. Without policy support, this can lead to economic ramifications.

Here are the median ages of 200+ countries and territories in the world.

RankCountry/TerritoryMedian Age
1🇲🇨 Monaco57
2🇵🇲 Saint Pierre & Miquelon51
3🇯🇵 Japan50
4🇦🇩 Andorra49
5🇮🇹 Italy48
6🇧🇱 Saint Barthelemy47
7🇭🇰 Hong Kong47
8🇪🇸 Spain47
9🇩🇪 Germany47
10🇬🇷 Greece47
11🇵🇹 Portugal46
12🇸🇮 Slovenia46
13🇵🇷 Puerto Rico46
14🇸🇲 San Marino46
15🇰🇷 South Korea46
16🇷🇴 Romania46
17🇱🇻 Latvia46
18🇱🇹 Lithuania45
19🇧🇬 Bulgaria45
20🇭🇷 Croatia45
21🇸🇭 Saint Helena45
22🇪🇪 Estonia45
23🇬🇬 Guernsey45
24🇦🇹 Austria45
25🇺🇦 Ukraine45
26🇮🇲 Isle of Man45
27🇭🇺 Hungary45
28🇧🇦 Bosnia & Herzegovina45
29🇹🇼 Taiwan45
30🇱🇮 Liechtenstein44
31🇨🇿 Czechia44
32🇨🇭 Switzerland44
33🇷🇸 Serbia44
34🇧🇲 Bermuda44
35🇲🇹 Malta44
36🇫🇮 Finland43
37🇻🇮 Virgin Islands43
38🇵🇱 Poland43
39🇸🇰 Slovakia43
40🇨🇦 Canada43
41🇫🇷 France43
42🇨🇺 Cuba43
43🇲🇴 Macau43
44🇳🇱 Netherlands42
45🇩🇰 Denmark42
46🇧🇾 Belarus42
47🇧🇪 Belgium42
48🇷🇺 Russia42
49🇹🇭 Thailand42
50🇧🇧 Barbados41
51🇰🇾 Cayman Islands41
52🇸🇪 Sweden41
53🇨🇰 Cook Islands41
54🇲🇪 Montenegro41
55🇸🇽 Sint Maarten41
56🇦🇼 Aruba41
57🇳🇴 Norway41
58🇬🇧 UK41
59🇲🇰 North Macedonia41
60🇮🇪 Ireland40
61🇨🇳 China40
62🇨🇨 Cocos (Keeling) Islands40
63🇲🇩 Moldova40
64🇱🇺 Luxembourg40
65🇱🇨 Saint Lucia40
66🇲🇺 Mauritius40
67🇨🇾 Cyprus40
68🇸🇬 Singapore39
69🇺🇸 U.S.39
70🇦🇲 Armenia39
71🇸🇨 Seychelles39
72🇰🇳 Saint Kitts & Nevis39
73🇹🇹 Trinidad & Tobago39
74🇻🇬 British Virgin Islands39
75🇬🇪 Georgia38
76🇯🇪 Jersey38
77🇦🇺 Australia38
78🇨🇽 Christmas Island38
79🇮🇸 Iceland38
80🇳🇿 New Zealand38
81🇨🇼 Curacao38
82🇻🇨 Saint Vincent & the Grenadines38
83🇦🇮 Anguilla37
84🇩🇲 Dominica37
85🇨🇱 Chile37
86🇫🇴 Faroe Islands37
87🇲🇸 Montserrat37
88🇬🇮 Gibraltar37
89🇺🇾 Uruguay37
90🇱🇧 Lebanon36
91🇦🇱 Albania36
92🇼🇫 Wallis and Futuna36
93🇹🇨 Turks and Caicos Islands36
94🇰🇵 North Korea36
95🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates36
96🇨🇷 Costa Rica36
97🇬🇩 Grenada35
98🇵🇫 French Polynesia35
99🇵🇼 Palau35
100🇬🇱 Greenland35
101🇧🇷 Brazil35
102🇹🇳 Tunisia34
103🇳🇨 New Caledonia34
104🇦🇿 Azerbaijan34
105🇶🇦 Qatar34
106🇲🇫 Saint Martin34
107🇱🇰 Sri Lanka34
108🇹🇷 Türkiye34
109🇦🇬 Antigua and Barbuda34
110🇮🇷 Iran34
111🇧🇭 Bahrain33
112🇦🇷 Argentina33
113🇻🇳 Vietnam33
114🇨🇴 Colombia33
115🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia32
116🇲🇵 Northern Mariana Islands32
117🇧🇳 Brunei32
118🇸🇷 Suriname32
119🇽🇰 Kosovo32
120🇲🇻 Maldives32
121🇰🇿 Kazakhstan32
122🇲🇾 Malaysia32
123🇵🇾 Paraguay32
124🇫🇯 Fiji32
125🇮🇩 Indonesia32
126🇲🇳 Mongolia32
127🇵🇦 Panama32
128🇹🇲 Turkmenistan31
129🇻🇪 Venezuela31
130🇯🇲 Jamaica31
131🇲🇲 Burma31
132🇲🇽 Mexico31
133🇧🇸 Bahamas31
134🇧🇹 Bhutan31
135🇲🇦 Morocco31
136🇿🇦 South Africa30
137🇬🇺 Guam30
138🇰🇼 Kuwait30
139🇵🇪 Peru30
140🇮🇱 Israel30
141🇦🇸 American Samoa30
142🇮🇳 India30
143🇸🇻 El Salvador30
144🇧🇩 Bangladesh30
145🇩🇴 Dominican Republic29
146🇩🇿 Algeria29
147🇳🇮 Nicaragua29
148🇺🇿 Uzbekistan29
149🇨🇻 Cabo Verde29
150🇬🇾 Guyana28
151🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan28
152🇫🇲 Micronesia, Federated States of28
153🇪🇨 Ecuador28
154🇰🇭 Cambodia28
155🇹🇻 Tuvalu28
156🇳🇷 Nauru28
157🇳🇵 Nepal28
158🇼🇸 Samoa27
159🇴🇲 Oman27
160🇰🇮 Kiribati27
161🇧🇼 Botswana27
162🇧🇿 Belize27
163🇧🇴 Bolivia27
164🇩🇯 Djibouti26
165🇱🇾 Libya26
166🇹🇴 Tonga26
167🇵🇭 Philippines26
168🇭🇳 Honduras26
169🇲🇭 Marshall Islands26
170🇱🇦 Laos25
171🇸🇧 Solomon Islands25
172🇯🇴 Jordan25
173🇭🇹 Haiti25
174🇬🇹 Guatemala25
175🇸🇿 Eswatini25
176🇻🇺 Vanuatu25
177🇪🇬 Egypt24
178🇸🇾 Syria24
179🇱🇸 Lesotho24
180🇵🇰 Pakistan23
181🇹🇯 Tajikistan23
182🇳🇦 Namibia23
183🇰🇲 Comoros23
184🇮🇶 Iraq22
185🇲🇷 Mauritania22
186🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea22
187🇬🇦 Gabon22
188🇾🇪 Yemen22
189🇵🇸 West Bank22
190🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea22
191🇬🇭 Ghana21
192🇪🇷 Eritrea21
193🇲🇬 Madagascar21
194🇿🇼 Zimbabwe21
195🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire21
196🇰🇪 Kenya21
197🇸🇹 Sao Tome & Principe21
198🇷🇼 Rwanda21
199🇹🇬 Togo21
200🇨🇬 Congo21
201🇹🇱 Timor-Leste21
202🇨🇫 Central African Republic20
203🇪🇹 Ethiopia20
204🇲🇼 Malawi20
205🇬🇲 Gambia20
206🇦🇫 Afghanistan20
207🇱🇷 Liberia20
208🇵🇸 Gaza20
209🇬🇳 Guinea19
210🇸🇱 Sierra Leone19
211🇳🇬 Nigeria19
212🇸🇩 Sudan19
213🇸🇳 Senegal19
214🇹🇿 Tanzania19
215🇸🇴 Somalia19
216🇨🇲 Cameroon19
217🇸🇸 South Sudan19
218🇧🇫 Burkina Faso19
219🇿🇲 Zambia18
220🇧🇮 Burundi18
221🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau18
222🇲🇿 Mozambique17
223🇧🇯 Benin17
224🇨🇩 DRC17
225🇹🇩 Chad17
226🇲🇱 Mali16
227🇦🇴 Angola16
228🇺🇬 Uganda16
229🇳🇪 Niger15

Note: Figures rounded.

Meanwhile, the presence of six European nations on the oldest countries list is a quick insight into the continent’s changing demographic. The UN estimates that one in four Europeans are currently aged 60 and over.

Conversely, many countries in Africa have low life expectancies and high birth rates. This results in the opposite phenomenon: lower median ages.

A low median age also has its own concerns. A higher proportion of children and adolescents can strain the education infrastructure. Without enough job growth, underemployment and unemployment can rise.

However, if managed well, low median ages can lead to a demographic dividend, where the workforce temporarily grows faster than the dependent population, increasing per capita income.

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