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How Americans Make and Spend Their Money, by Education Level

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Months ago, we showed you a set of data visualizations that highlighted how people make and spend their money based on income groups.

Today’s post follows a similar theme, and it visualizes differences based on education levels.

Below, we’ll tackle the breakdowns of several educational groupings, ranging from high school dropouts to those in the highest education bracket, which is defined as having achieved a master’s, professional, or doctorate degree.

Income and Spending, by Education

The data visualizations in today’s post come to us from Engaging Data and they use Sankey diagrams to display data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) that shows income and expenditure differences between varying levels of education in America.

The four charts below will show data from the following categories:

  1. Less than high school graduate
  2. High school graduate
  3. Bachelor’s degree
  4. Master’s, professional, or doctorate degree
    1. It should be noted that the educational level listed pertains to the person the BLS defines as the primary household member. Further, people in households can be at different ages and at different stages in their career – for example, someone with a Master’s degree could be 72 years old and collecting pension payments, and this impacts the data.

      Less than High School Graduate – $28,245 in spending (98.5% of total income)

      These contain an average of 2.2 people (0.7 income earners, 0.6 children, and 0.5 seniors)
      Less than High School Graduate

      The average household in this category brings in $17,979 of salary income, as well as an additional $7,503 from social security programs.

      Almost all money (98.5%) is spent, and on average these households are actually pulling money from savings (or taking out loans) to make ends meet. The biggest expenditure categories include: housing (23.5%), foot at home (12.3%), household expenses (8.4%), and gas/insurance (8.2%).

      High School Graduate – $35,036 in spending (87.3% of total income)

      These contain an average of 2.3 people (1.0 income earners, 0.6 children, and 0.4 seniors)
      High School Graduate

      The average household here brings in $29,330 of salary, as well as $9,008 from social security.

      These households spend 87.3% of their income, while putting $3,113 (7.8%) away in savings each year. The biggest expenditure categories include housing (21.7% of spending), food at home (10.1%), gas/insurance (10.0%), and vehicles (7.7%).

      Bachelor’s Degree – $63,373 in spending (68.6% of total income)

      These contain an average of 2.5 people (1.5 income earners, 0.6 children, and 0.4 seniors)
      Bachelor's Degree

      Households with at least one person with a Bachelor’s degree earn $81,629 per year in salary, as well as nearly $11,000 stemming from a combination of social security, dividends, property, and other income.

      Roughly 68.6% of income is spent, with 16.6% going to savings. Top expenditures include housing (22.4%), gas/insurance (8.8%), household expenses (7.9%), and food at home (7.6%).

      Graduate Degree – $83,593 in spending (62.9% of total income)

      These contain an average of 2.6 people (1.5 income earners, 0.6 children, and 0.4 seniors)
      Graduate Degree

      Finally, in the most educated category available, the average amount of salary coming into households is $116,018, with roughly an additional $17,000 coming in from other sources such as social security, dividends, property, and other income.

      Here, 62.9% of income gets spent, and 17.3% gets put towards savings. The most significant expenditure categories are housing (23.3%), household expenses (8.4%), gas and insurance (7.2%), and food at home (6.9%).

      A Changing Role for Education?

      For now, there is a clear link between certain types of college degrees and higher salaries.

      However, as total student debt continues to hit record highs of $1.5 trillion and as more remote educational options proliferate online, it will be interesting to see how these charts are impacted in the coming years.

      By the year 2030, do you think education will still have the same strength of correlation with income levels?

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Markets

Animation: The Basics of the Stock Market

This video highlights the basics of the stock market, how they work, and also the history of how the first markets got started.

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Since its inception, the stock market has been one of the most powerful and consistent sources of wealth creation available.

Although stocks see more volatility than other assets, they have also averaged a real return of 6.7% per year between 1925 and 2014, compared to just 2.7% for bonds and 0.5% for cash.

And over long periods of time, the extraordinary power of compounding can turn this differential into a wealth generation machine.

But What is a Stock Market?

There is no denying the stock market’s unparalleled ability to create wealth, but that doesn’t mean it’s always an easy sell to newcomers.

For most people, the very mention of the stock market conjures up images of a frantic floor at a busy stock exchange, people in suits yelling “Buy!” or “Sell!”, or even the sensational media coverage that can dominate the news cycle.

Today’s animation provides an easier reference point for potential newcomers – it comes to us from TED-Ed and it highlights the basics of the stock market, as well as how it works.

By understanding the original purpose of the stock market and also its history, we can better understand how the modern market applies to wealth creation.

In a nutshell, it provides a way for investors and companies to share the profit (and risks) of bold new endeavors, such as trying to invent a new cancer cure, discovering natural resource deposits, disrupting old business models, or innovating advanced technologies.

The stock market has allowed companies ranging from Amazon to Starbucks to succeed, and for investors to share in that success.

Basics of the Stock Market

Here are some other key questions that the animation helps to answer about the basics of the stock market:

How does a company get on the market?
A company needs to have an Initial Public Offering (IPO). This is traditionally done through big investment banks that help advise companies on the potential value of their company, and the market for their stock. More recently, companies like Slack and Spotify have IPO’d using a less traditional route.

How does going public help a company grow?
In the right scenario, listing on a stock market gives a company access to more capital. With more money, the company can make investments into new products and markets.

How is a stock price determined by the market?
By allowing millions of people to buy and sell shares of the company using the same set of information, it creates transparency and liquidity. Over time, this pushing and pulling creates a “fair” price for the stock.

What else influences stock prices?
Stock prices are not only influenced by what a company does – they are also influenced by external factors such as government regulations, market forces, competition, and changes in technology. Investor sentiment also plays a role.

Why invest for the long term?
Because short-term noise in the market can be hard to predict, most professionals promote long-term, reliable investment methods.

Some examples of this in practice would include low-cost index funds, mutual funds, or simply building your own diverse portfolio of stocks, bonds, and other investments for the long haul.

Past and Future

The stock market is very different today than it was when the first shares of the Dutch East India Company started trading in the 17th century.

Although the financial industry has increased in sophistication since those times, it still has the same general purpose – and it’s easier to get started investing than ever before.

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Chart of the Week

How the Modern Consumer is Different

We all have a stereotypical image of the average consumer – but is it an accurate one? Meet the modern consumer, and what it means for business.

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How the Modern Consumer is Different

How the Modern Consumer is Different

There is a prevailing wisdom that says the stereotypical American consumer can be defined by certain characteristics.

Based on what popular culture tells us, as well as years of experiences and data, we all have an idea of what the average consumer might look for in a house, car, restaurant, or shopping center.

But as circumstances change, so do consumer tastes – and according to a recent report by Deloitte, the modern consumer is becoming increasingly distinct from those of years past. For us to truly understand how these changes will affect the marketplace and our investments, we need to rethink and update our image of the modern consumer.

A Changing Consumer Base

In their analysis, Deloitte leans heavily on big picture demographic and economic factors to help in summarizing the three major ways in which consumers are changing.

Here are three ways the new consumer is different than in years past:

1. Increasingly Diverse
In terms of ethnicity, the Baby Boomers are 75% white, while the Millennial generation is 56% white. This diversity also transfers to other areas as well, such as sexual and gender identities.

Not surprisingly, future generations are expected to be even more heterogeneous – Gen Z, for example, identifies as being 49% non-white.

2. Under Greater Financial Pressure
Today’s consumers are more educated than ever before, but it’s come at a stiff price. In fact, the cost of education has increased by 65% between 2007 and 2017, and this has translated to a record-setting $1.5 trillion in student loans on the books.

Other costs have mounted as well, leaving the bottom 80% of consumers with effectively no increase in discretionary income over the last decade. To make matters worse, if you single out just the bottom 40% of earners, they actually have less discretionary income to spend than they did back in 2007.

3. Delaying Key Life Milestones
Getting married, having children, and buying a house all have one major thing in common: they can be expensive.

The average person under 35 years old has a 34% lower net worth than they would have had in the 1990s, making it harder to tackle typical adult milestones. In fact, the average couple today is marrying eight years later than they did in 1965, while the U.S. birthrate is at its lowest point in three decades. Meanwhile, homeownership for those aged 24-32 has dropped by 9% since 2005.

A New Landscape for Business?

The modern consumer base is more diverse, but also must deal with increased financial pressures and a delayed start in achieving traditional milestones of adulthood. These demographic and economic factors ultimately have a ripple effect down to businesses and investors.

How do these big picture changes impact your business or investments?

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