9 Things Cannabis Investors Should Know
The swift regulatory changes taking place in the global cannabis sector are almost without modern precedent.
While some find the situation analogous to the repeal of Prohibition in the United States, it’s also fair to point out that such events happened 85 years ago in the midst of the Great Depression. It was a long time ago, and in a very different economic climate.
Today’s infographic comes to us from Evolve ETFs, and it shows what investors should know as the legal cannabis sector comes out of the dark.
What Cannabis Investors Should Know
Since there is so much happening at once with little precedent for what such a market will look like, it’s worth summing up the sector’s potential in broad strokes:
1. Global Size
According to research from The Brightfield Group, the size of the legal cannabis sector is expected to surge from $7.7 billion to $31.4 billion between 2017 and 2021.
Currently the recreational market makes up only 37% of the global total – but by 2021, that will rise to 57%.
2. Versatile Uses
Cannabis comes in different forms. One gram of dried cannabis is roughly equivalent to:
- 5g of fresh cannabis
- 15g of edible product
- 70g of liquid product
- 0.25g of concentrates
- 1 cannabis plant seed
These can be used in various medical applications, including to fight chronic pain, migraines, anxiety, multiple sclerosis, and nausea. Cannabis can also be used to treat Alzheimer’s, PTSD, and cancer.
3. North American Growth
By 2021, it’s estimated that North American sales will make up 86% of the global market. Specifically, the U.S. legal market is projected to hit $18.1 billion by that time, while the Canadian legal market is expected to be $8.9 billion in that same year.
4. A Shifting Legal Landscape
Canada will be the first G7 country to legalize cannabis at a federal level.
In the United States, recreational cannabis is already legalized in nine states – but this could change swiftly as various states undergo referendums.
5. European Markets
In 2017, the legal market for cannabis is estimated to be just $0.11 billion, but by 2021 it will have expanded to $3.8 billion.
According to The Brightfield Group, growth will be quite impressive in Western Europe: Germany’s market will grow at a 284% annual rate, the Netherlands at 364%, and Spain at 334%.
6. Rest of the World
Although markets outside of North America and Europe will not see the same growth in absolute dollar terms, the legal cannabis market will still expand from $80 million to $350 million, led by activity in Latin America.
7. Pharmaceutical Research
Israel has a special place in the cannabis world – the country is world leader in medical cannabis research, and industry expects that it will eventually translate into a $1 billion export opportunity. That said, export plans have hit a recent road bump.
8. Investment Activity
Compare the start of 2018 to that of 2017, and you’ll see an impressive difference in investment activity.
For this we use Canada with its impending recreational legalization as an example: in the first six weeks of 2018, investment was up nearly 7x over the previous year. Further, the average deal size increased from $5.6 million to $18.7 million.
Meanwhile, the Canadian Cannabis Index rose 201% between January 2017 and January 2018.
9. How to Invest?
There are a variety of ways to gain exposure to the sector, including:
- Licensed producer stocks
- Biotech stocks
- Ancillary services stocks
- Licensed retailer stocks
- Cannabis ETFs
Regardless of how you play it, the legal cannabis sector is coming out of the dark – and it will be interesting to see how the industry takes shape.
Mapped: The World’s Nuclear Reactor Landscape
Which countries are turning to nuclear energy, and which are turning away? Mapping and breaking down the world’s nuclear reactor landscape.
The World’s Changing Nuclear Reactor Landscape
View a more detailed version of the above map by clicking here
Following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, the most severe nuclear accident since Chernobyl, many nations reiterated their intent to wean off the energy source.
However, this sentiment is anything but universal—in many other regions of the world, nuclear power is still ramping up, and it’s expected to be a key energy source for decades to come.
Using data from the Power Reactor Information System, maintained by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the map above gives a comprehensive look at where nuclear reactors are subsiding, and where future capacity will reside.
Increasing Global Nuclear Use
Despite a dip in total capacity and active reactors last year, nuclear power still generated around 10% of the world’s electricity in 2019.
Part of the increased capacity came as Japan restarted some plants and European countries looked to replace aging reactors. But most of the growth is driven by new reactors coming online in Asia and the Middle East.
China is soon to have more than 50 nuclear reactors, while India is set to become a top-ten producer once construction on new reactors is complete.
Decreasing Use in Western Europe and North America
The slight downtrend from 450 operating reactors in 2018 to 443 in 2019 was the result of continued shutdowns in Europe and North America. Home to the majority of the world’s reactors, the two continents also have the oldest reactors, with many being retired.
At the same time, European countries are leading the charge in reducing dependency on the energy source. Germany has pledged to close all nuclear plants by 2022, and Italy has already become the first country to completely shut down their plants.
Despite leading in shutdowns, Europe still emerges as the most nuclear-reliant region for a majority of electricity production and consumption.
In addition, some countries are starting to reassess nuclear energy as a means of fighting climate change. Reactors don’t produce greenhouse gases during operation, and are more efficient (and safer) than wind and solar per unit of electricity.
Facing steep emission reduction requirements, a variety of countries are looking to expand nuclear capacity or to begin planning for their first reactors.
A New Generation of Nuclear Reactors?
For those parties interested in the benefits of nuclear power, past accidents have also led towards a push for innovation in the field. That includes studies of miniature nuclear reactors that are easier to manage, as well as full-size reactors with robust redundancy measures that won’t physically melt down.
Additionally, some reactors are being designed with the intention of utilizing accumulated nuclear waste—a byproduct of nuclear energy and weapon production that often had to be stored indefinitely—as a fuel source.
With some regions aiming to reduce reliance on nuclear power, and others starting to embrace it, the landscape is certain to change.
How China’s Plastics Ban Threw Global Recycling into Disarray
For decades, developed countries outsourced their recyclables to China. Now, they’re on their own, and a multi-billion dollar opportunity has emerged.
Global Recycling: Reinventing a Broken System
First developed in the 20th century, plastics have become ubiquitous in our daily lives. Found in everything from food packaging to medical devices, this extremely versatile and cost-effective material has undoubtedly made our lives more convenient.
This convenience comes at a cost, however, and experts warn that plastics’ inability to biodegrade is taking a toll on the planet. To make matters worse, recycling infrastructure around the world is severely underdeveloped.
In this infographic from Swissquote, we recount the end of “easy” recycling, and examine the struggles that many countries are facing as they scale up their domestic capabilities.
The Single-Supplier Global Recycling Model
Since the early 1990s, developed countries have avoided the environmental costs of plastic by outsourcing their recycling to the developing world—more specifically, China.
At the time, this arrangement benefited both parties. On one hand, it was cheaper for developed countries to export their plastic waste rather than process it domestically. China, on the other hand, needed vast amounts of raw materials to fuel its burgeoning manufacturing industries. It also meant that Chinese container ships, which regularly delivered goods to countries like the U.S., would no longer return home empty-handed.
A system that relies heavily on one country can only handle so much, however, and by 2016 China was importing 7 million tonnes of recyclables and waste per year. To make matters worse, plastics production kept growing at a faster rate than the global population:
|Year||Growth in Global Plastics Production (%)||Growth in World Population (%)|
Source: PlasticsEurope, Worldometer
It was clear that this system would soon reach its tipping point, especially with the Chinese government largely committed to going green.
National Sword Policy
China’s solution to cutting down plastic imports was the National Sword policy, which at the start of 2018, implemented an import ban on 24 types of recyclables. The ban was extremely effective—plastic exports to China fell from 581,000 tonnes in February of 2017 to just 23,900 tonnes a year later.
All of this plastic did not simply disappear, though. Plastic-exporting countries scrambled for alternatives, and in some cases, diverted their shipments to nearby countries in Southeast Asia. Governments in the region were quick to respond, either refusing shipments or implementing bans of their own.
Richer countries are taking advantage of the looser regulations in poorer countries. They export the trash here because it’s more expensive for them to process [it] themselves back home due to the tighter laws.
—Lea Guerrero, Greenpeace Philippines
In one noteworthy case, Rodrigo Duterte, President of the Philippines, threatened to wage war on Canada if it did not take back its shipments of waste. An official later clarified this threat was not to be taken literally.
The End of “Easy” Recycling
Western countries tend to produce more plastics per capita than other countries, but are ill-prepared to begin processing their own plastic waste in a sustainable manner. One critical issue arises from their predominant method of recycling known as single-stream recycling.
Under this method, consumers place all of their recyclables into a single bin. This mixture of cardboard, plastics, and glass is then brought to a material recovery facility (MRF) to be sorted and processed. While this method makes it easier for consumers to recycle, it suffers from two weaknesses:
- Contamination: Mixing plastics, chemicals, and food waste adds extra costs to the recycling process. On average, one in four items that arrive at an MRF are too contaminated to be recycled.
- Sorting inefficiency: MRFs have a difficult time sorting through the wide variety of materials being placed into bins. Approximately one in six bottles and one in three cans are sorted incorrectly.
With outsourcing no longer an option, MRFs across the U.S. are now dealing with significantly larger volumes. To boost their capacity, some facilities have implemented artificial intelligence (AI) empowered robots that can sort items significantly faster than humans. An added bonus to reducing the human workforce is safety—MRFs frequently have some of the industry’s highest injury and illness incidence rates.
Investing in Domestic Solutions
China’s ban on foreign plastics has exposed the frailty of a single-supplier global recycling model, and is forcing many countries to begin developing their domestic infrastructure.
One emerging leader in this space is the EU, which has passed ambitious legislation to promote recycling industry investment. Recognizing the unsustainability of single-use plastics, the EU has mandated its member states to achieve a 90% collection rate for plastic bottles by 2029. It’s also set a target for all plastic packaging to be recyclable or reusable by 2030, an initiative that could create up to 200,000 new jobs.
Aside from the environmental benefits, the global recycling industry could also be a source of economic growth. It’s estimated that between 2018 and 2024 that it will grow at a CAGR of 8.6% to reach $63 billion.
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