Cities are constantly evolving, and urban populations respond to a number of push–pull factors, including economic opportunity, lifestyle trends, land values, and natural disasters.
Beyond the headlines and raw census numbers, it can be difficult to take population patterns into perspective. The talented team over at The Pudding has created an amazing, granular map that shows these patterns as 3D stacks.
Our focus today will be on growth between 1990 and 2015, as urban settlement patterns across Canada and the U.S. shifted dramatically over this relatively short timeframe. Let’s take a look.
One of the most dramatic examples of robust growth is Toronto.
Canada’s largest city nearly doubled its population since 1990, and growth was distributed throughout the region. This city is a rare example of both extra-urban and downtown residential growth.
Vancouver is another Canadian city with a swelling urban population base. The city’s recent population growth has been heavily concentrated along transit lines and the downtown core, resulting in a “spiky” visualization which resembles the condo towers now dotting the city’s skyline.
Nearby, Seattle has added over a million people to its population since 1990. With one of the strongest economies in the country, it’s unlikely that momentum will slow any time soon.
Only recently have some cities begun to see urban residential construction. For much of the ’90s and ’00s, America’s growth was in peripheral suburbs, where land was plentiful and cheap.
This sprawl effect is particularly easy to spot in the Texas Triangle – which encompasses the cities of San Antonio, Austin, Dallas–Fort Worth, and Houston – and Atlanta.
While Los Angeles did see a modest amount of growth over the past 25 years, it was the Inland Empire – anchored by San Bernardino and Riverside – that saw the most dramatic population growth in the region. The construction boom is only intensifying. The region added 50,000 new residents between 2016 and 2017.
In general, smaller towns either lost population or remained relatively static. The exception is in places where resource extraction caused a growth spurt. Two prime examples are in Gillette, Wyoming, and Fort McMurray, Alberta. In the latter town, oil sands extraction added tens of thousands of new residents in a short amount of time.
Mixed growth and Static Cities
Chicago experienced one of the most striking growth patterns over the past 25 years. The contrast between urban decline and growth in the exurbs is clearly revealed in this visualization.
Contrast is also clear when looking at divergent patterns of Washington D.C. and Baltimore. The nation’s capital and surrounding areas have been growing steadily in recent years, whereas the neighboring city’s population is declining towards a 100-year low.
While a number of urban areas experienced dramatic shifts in the last couple of decades, some cities sidestepped wild population swings. For example, much of Philadelphia’s population pattern remains similar to what it was in 1990.
Scranton, Pennsylvania, and Springfield, Massachusetts, are examples of smaller cities that remained in stasis.
Decline and Disaster
A number of cities in America’s “Rust Belt” experienced declining populations. The visualizations of cities like Cleveland and Detroit show just how pronounced the exodus was.
The shrinking tax base and glut of vacant homes is causing a number of problems in the two cities, and with mixed economic prospects, it’s unclear what the next 25 years will bring in terms of population changes.
Often, population declines are the result of economic reasons such as a decline in manufacturing or general stagnation. On occasion though, the raw power of nature changes the course of a city’s history. This is the case in New Orleans, were Hurricane Katrina’s legacy is clearly seen in this visualization.
New Orleans did recover in the years after the hurricane. However, as of 2015, the city was still far below its pre-Katrina population. Resettlement has been patchy as well, which is reflected in the towering red peaks of the population map.
To explore your city or other parts of the world, visit The Pudding’s interactive map.
Ranked: The Best and Worst Pension Plans, by Country
As the global population ages, pension reform is more important than ever. Here’s a breakdown of how key countries rank in terms of pension plans.
Ranked: Countries with the Best and Worst Pension Plans
The global population is aging—by 2050, one in six people will be over the age of 65.
As our aging population nears retirement and gets closer to cashing in their pensions, countries need to ensure their pension systems can withstand the extra strain.
This graphic uses data from the Melbourne Mercer Global Pension Index (MMGPI) to showcase which countries are best equipped to support their older citizens, and which ones aren’t.
Each country’s pension system has been shaped by its own economic and historical context. This makes it difficult to draw precise comparisons between countries—yet there are certain universal elements that typically lead to adequate and stable support for older citizens.
MMGPI organized these universal elements into three sub-indexes:
- Adequacy: The base-level of income, as well as the design of a region’s private pension system.
- Sustainability: The state pension age, the level of advanced funding from government, and the level of government debt.
- Integrity: Regulations and governance put in place to protect plan members.
These three measures were used to rank the pension system of 37 different countries, representing over 63% of the world’s population.
Here’s how each country ranked:
The Importance of Sustainability
While all three sub-indexes are important to consider when ranking a country’s pension system, sustainability is particularly significant in the modern context. This is because our global population is increasingly skewing older, meaning an influx of people will soon be cashing in their retirement funds. As a consequence, countries need to ensure their pension systems are sustainable over the long-term.
There are several factors that affect a pension system’s sustainability, including a region’s private pension system, the state pension age, and the balance between workers and retirees.
The country with the most sustainable pension system is Denmark. Not only does the country have a strong basic pension plan—it also has a mandatory occupational scheme, which means employers are obligated by law to provide pension plans for their employees.
Adequacy versus Sustainability
Several countries scored high on adequacy but ranked low when it came to sustainability. Here’s a comparison of both measures, and how each country scored:
Ireland took first place for adequacy, but scored relatively low on the sustainability front at 27th place. This can be partly explained by Ireland’s low level of occupational coverage. The country also has a rapidly aging population, which skews the ratio of workers to retirees. By 2050, Ireland’s worker to retiree ratio is estimated to go from 5:1 to 2:1.
Similar to Ireland, Spain ranks high in adequacy but places extremely low in sustainability.
There are several possible explanations for this—while occupational pension schemes exist, they are optional and participation is low. Spain also has a low fertility rate, which means their worker-to-retiree ratio is expected to decrease.
Steps Towards a Better System
All countries have room for improvement—even the highest-ranking ones. Some general recommendations from MMGPI on how to build a better pension system include:
- Increasing the age of retirement: Helps maintain a more balanced worker-to-retiree ratio.
- Enforcing mandatory occupational schemes: Makes employers obligated to provide pension plans for their employees.
- Limiting access to benefits: Prevents people from dipping into their savings preemptively, thus preserving funds until retirement.
- Establishing strong pension assets to fund future liabilities: Ideally, these assets are more than 100% of a country’s GDP.
Pension systems across the globe are under an increasing amount of pressure. It’s time for countries to take a hard look at their pension systems to make sure they’re ready to support their aging population.
Animated Map: What America Searched for on Google, Over the Last Decade
This fascinating animated map provides an overview of the top trending Google searches in every state over the last decade.
What America Searched for on Google, in the Last Decade
Cultural shifts come in many shapes and forms, and some are harder to measure than others.
Thankfully, Google search volume provides an easy avenue for measuring large-scale cultural trends. And because Google makes up more than 90% of all internet searches in the U.S., looking at what’s trending on Google is a great way to understand the shifting questions and interests that are captivating society at any given time.
This animated map by V1 Analytics provides an overview of the top trending Google searches in every state over the last decade. It sheds light on what types of new information, events, and stories received the most attention in the last ten years—and more generally, it shows us what the U.S. population has been thinking about.
Trending Searches versus Top Searches
Before diving into the top trends of the decade, it’s worth taking a moment to distinguish between “trending searches” and “top searches”:
- Trending Searches: Keywords that had the largest increase in traffic, in a specific period of time
- Top Searches: The most searched keywords in a given time frame
This video would look a lot different, and a lot less interesting, if it showed Google’s top searches. To give some perspective, here are the Top 10 Searches in the U.S. (as of 2020):
Understanding the difference between trending searches and top searches is important because it gives us insight into why certain keywords trend in some places, but not others. For instance, in March 2020, the word “coronavirus” was trending throughout a majority of the U.S., with a few exceptions—it wasn’t trending in Massachusetts, California, Texas, Nevada, or Arizona.
It’s easy to make the assumption that people in these states were not concerned about COVID-19—however, that’s not necessarily the case.
It’s important to remember that trending searches are measured by the increase of traffic, not just the overall amount of searches. Therefore, in states where it wasn’t trending, the word “coronavirus” may have already been a popular search term for a while, so the keyword didn’t see a sudden spike in interest like it did in other places.
In the last decade, there were moments when the entire country was googling the same thing. Some keyword trends lasted a day, while others lasted over a week.
Here’s a look at keywords that took over the whole U.S, and when they were trending unanimously:
|Date Range||Category||Search Term|
|Feb 4, 2011||Music||Adele|
|Feb 6 - Feb 23, 2011||Music||Born This Way|
|Feb 28, 2011||Music||Born This Way|
|March 22 - Apr 1, 2011||Pop Culture||Rebecca Black|
|June 12 - June 27, 2011||TV & Film||Game of Thrones|
|Nov 9, 2012||Current Events||Abortion|
|Jan 10 - Jan 27, 2014||TV & Film||Frozen|
|Feb 28 - March 2, 2014||Electronics||Samsung Galaxy s5|
|Jan 11 - Jan 13, 2015||Music||Blank Space|
|Feb 26 - Mar 30, 2015||Music||Uptown Funk|
|June 5, 2015||Pop Culture||Caitlyn Jenner|
|June 16 - June 19, 2015||TV & Film||Jurassic World|
|Feb 26, 2016||Pop Culture||Damn Daniel|
|June 3, 2016||Pop Culture||Harambe|
|June 20, 2016||TV & Film||Finding Dory|
|June 30, 2016||TV & Film||Finding Dory|
|July 6, 2016||TV & Film||Finding Dory|
|Aug 4 - Aug 7, 2016||TV & Film||Suicide Squad|
|Aug 24 - Sept 8, 2016||Pop Culture||Harambe|
|Sept 23 - Sept 26, 2016||Pop Culture||Brad Pitt|
|Oct 21, 2016||Electronics||Google Pixel|
|Nov 24, 2016||Electronics||Google Pixel|
|Dec 14 - Dec 20, 2016||Current Events||Aleppo|
|Jan 7 - Jan 10, 2017||TV & Film||This Is Us|
|Jan 23 - Feb 2, 2017||TV & Film||This Is Us|
|Feb 8 - Feb 12, 2017||Sports||Super bowl|
|Feb 22 - Feb 24, 2017||TV & Film||This Is Us|
|March 7 - March 11, 2017||Electronics||Nintendo Switch|
|March 21 - Apr 1, 2017||TV & Film||Beauty and the Beast|
|May 7 - May 16, 2017||Pop Culture||Fidget Spinner|
|June 17 - July 18, 2017||Music||Despacito|
|Sept 22, 2017||TV & Film||It|
|Oct 13, 2017||Current Events||Harvey Weinstein|
|Nov 3, 2017||Current Events||Kevin Spacey|
|Jan 12 - Jan 23, 2018||Current Events||Logan Paul|
|Feb 6 - Feb 11, 2018||TV & Film||Altered Carbon|
|March 15 - March 29, 2018||Video Games||Fortnite|
|May 4, 2018||Video Games||Fortnite|
|July 21, 2018||Video Games||Fortnite|
|Aug 5 - Aug 22, 2018||Video Games||Fortnite|
|Jan 17 - Feb 3, 2019||Music||7 Rings|
|Feb 21 - Feb 23, 2019||Current Events||Jussie Smollett|
|March 12 - March 22, 2019||TV & Film||Captain Marvel|
|March 27, 2019||Music||Billie Eilish|
|March 30, 2019||Music||Billie Eilish|
|Aug 24 - Aug 27, 2019||Music||Billie Eilish|
|Oct 9 - Oct 29, 2019||TV & Film||Joker|
|Nov 20 - Nov 24, 2019||TV & Film||The Mandalorian|
|Dec 5 - Dec 14, 2019||Pop Culture||Baby Yoda|
|Jan 15, 2020||Current Events||Prince Harry|
|Jan 20, 2020||Current Events||Prince Harry|
|Feb 13 - Feb 15, 2020||TV & Film||Jojo Rabbit|
|May 5 - May 14, 2020||Current Events||Elon Musk|
|June 24, 2020||Current Events||Bubba Wallace|
It’s interesting to look at the variety of topics that dominate the population’s collective thoughts. There’s a unique mix of popular culture, entertainment, electronics, prominent figures, and public scandals.
Something else worth noting is how country-wide trends became a lot more common in the latter part of the decade—in 2019 for example, 9 keywords trended unanimously. This was more than in the entire first half of the decade.
While the secret to going viral remains a mystery, one thing remains clear—the public certainly has a broad range of interests. So really, it’s anyone’s game.
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