Visualizing the Importance of Fire Safety in High-rise Buildings
Connect with us

Sponsored

Visualizing the Importance of Fire Safety in High-rise Buildings

Published

on

The following content is sponsored by the North American Modern Building Alliance.

Fire Safety in High-rise Buildings

More than half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas. As a result, tall buildings, which can host a large number of occupants, have become a common feature in modern cities.

Over the last two decades, the global number of buildings taller than 656 feet (200 meters) has increased by 567%, up from 260 in 2000 to 1,733 in 2020. Considering the towering increase of skyscrapers globally, the safety of the people that occupy them is more crucial than ever.

The above infographic from the North American Modern Building Alliance (NAMBA) highlights the need for fire safety in high-rise buildings and shows how the U.S. is leading the way for facade fire testing and safety regulations.

The Importance of Building Fire Safety

With more tall buildings filling the sky, the number of high-rise fires has also risen.

Fire safety is a critical feature of any building, especially for high-rises in densely populated urban areas, for two key reasons:

  • Higher number of occupants can slow down evacuation times in the event of a fire
  • Fires can spread faster vertically and in smaller spaces

Fires are most dangerous when they cannot be contained, and the structural components of a building play a critical role in limiting the spread of a fire—including its exterior shell, known as the facade.

What is a Facade?

As an integral part of a building’s exterior, the facade not only determines its appearance but also its energy efficiency, fire safety, and weather resistance.

The strength and safety of a facade depend on what materials it’s made of. These can range from stainless steel and aluminum to glass and concrete. A country’s building codes and regulations often influence facade assemblies, and builders in countries with adequate fire safety testing measures are more likely to construct higher-quality facades.

The Leader in High-rise Fire Safety

China, the U.S., and the UAE are the top three nations for number of buildings taller than 656 feet, respectively. Among these, the U.S. stands out with an exceptional fire safety record.

The U.S. is home to 220 buildings taller than 656 feet, but there have been only four high-rise facade fires in the country since 1990, and none since the Monte Carlo Hotel fire in Las Vegas in 2008.

The U.S. record is partly due to facade assembly testing that includes the NFPA 285, a standardized test for flame propagation on or within building exterior walls. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) developed the NFPA 285 in the 1980s to ensure that builders use tested and code-compliant facade assemblies, which are safe, secure, and suitable.

The Rising Need for Fire Safety

Our World in Data projects that the world’s urban population will be twice the size of the rural population by 2050. As more people move to cities, skylines will only get taller.

Fire safety will always be a critical component of modern buildings—especially tall buildings that host a large number of occupants. As shown by the U.S., stringent testing, code enforcement, and compliance can be key to improving safety.

Click for Comments

Sponsored

Visualizing the Economic Impact of British Columbia’s Golden Triangle

British Columbia’s Golden Triangle generates massive revenue and investments for the province, but where did it all begin?

Published

on

BCRMA Golden Triangle

The Economic Impact of British Columbia’s Golden Triangle

At the heart of British Columbia’s mining industry lies the Golden Triangle. This region has helped transform the province’s mining industry into a significant source of revenue and investment.

In 2020, the Golden Triangle accounted for roughly 44% of the $422 million in mineral exploration expenditures in British Columbia. In 2019, the Red Chris and Brucejack mines contributed around $1 billion to the province’s estimated annual gross mining revenues.

This infographic is sponsored by the B.C. Regional Mining Alliance (BCRMA) which brings the best of this region to the world through a partnership between indigenous groups, industry, and provincial government representatives.

Here is how the Golden Triangle began.

The Golden Triangle’s Unique Geology

Between 220 and 175 million years ago, the Golden Triangle’s wealth was forming deep in the Earth for the world to discover. Most metal deposits form from superheated water that cycle over many kilometers, collecting metal atoms as they rise to the surface of the Earth’s crust and settle into deposits.

Industry, government, and university geologists have worked for over a century to understand the Golden Triangle’s unique geology to uncover its mineral wealth. This unique geology cradles the world-class deposits that define the legendary “Golden Triangle” of British Columbia.

A History of Discovery and Mining in the Golden Triangle

Historical gold rushes brought mining to the area, but the region’s vast copper deposits will deliver the key mineral for B.C.’s green future. More than 150 mines have operated in the area since prospectors first arrived at the end of the 19th century.

  • 1861: Alexander Choquette kicked off the Stikine Gold Rush after finding gold at the confluence of the Stikine and Anuk Rivers.
  • 1918 – 1952: The first big discovery in the Golden Triangle was at the Premier Gold Mine, which started operations in 1918. It produced 2 million ounces of gold and 45 million ounces of silver. Today, Ascot Resources is re-starting processing from this gold mine.
  • 1964: The Snip Mine was discovered by Cominco but the deposit stayed dormant until 1986. The mine produced approximately 1 million ounces of gold from 1991 until 1999. Today, Skeena Resources is advancing the Snip Project.
  • 1994: Eskay became Canada’s highest-grade gold mine and the world’s fifth largest silver producer, with production above 3 million ounces of gold and 160 million ounces of silver. Skeena Resources is also bringing the Eskay mining back into production.
  • 2009: The discovery of the Brucejack gold and silver deposit led to the development of an underground mine. The mine has produced 1,230,644 ounces of gold since it began operations in 2017.
  • 2013: The KSM Project is one of the largest undeveloped gold projects in the world. A Preliminary Feasibility Study estimates proven and probable reserves total 38.8 million ounces of gold and 10.2 billion pounds of copper.
  • 2015: The Red Chris shipped its first load of copper concentrate. In 2020 metals production was 88.3 million pounds copper and 73,787 ounces gold. Imperial Metals and Newcrest jointly operate the mine.

This long tradition of discovery and mining is laying the foundations for the next generation of investment.

Today’s Golden Age for Exploration and Development

Continued exploration is necessary for new discoveries and advancing projects to new mines. More importantly, the minerals discovered today will be needed in the low carbon economy and British Columbia—in particular, the Golden Triangle will play its part in delivering metals for renewable technology.

 British ColumbiaNorthwest Mining RegionThe Golden Triangle
2020 Projects2596726
Total Expenditures$422M$255M$184M
Drilling (meters)991,319470,058352,247
Average Expenditure Per Project$1.6M$3.4M$7.09M

Source: Based on data collected for the EY LLP, 2020 British Columbia Mineral and Coal Exploration Survey

Gold and copper account for most of the exploration in the Golden Triangle, but other commodities for the low-carbon economy such as silver, nickel, and zinc also attract interest. A strong exploration industry is the beginning for future investment, new jobs, and community development.

A Bright Future: Investing in Community

The Golden Triangle continues to attract exploration activity as infrastructure and community development lays the success for future generations and industries.

Community:

  • Agreements with First Nations (Tahltan and Nisga’a Nations)
  • 38% of expenditures stays in the region
  • 97% stays in British Columbia
  • 150+ communities benefit

Infrastructure:

  • The paving of the Stewart-Cassiar highway
  • The opening of ocean port facilities for concentrate export at Stewart
  • The completion of a $700-million high-voltage transmission line bringing power into the region

This is a new beginning for the continued economic impact of British Columbia’s Golden Triangle.

Continue Reading

Sponsored

A Geographic Breakdown of the MSCI ACWI IMI

The MSCI ACWI Investable Market Index (IMI) covers 99% of the investable global equity market. Here, we show its region and market breakdown.

Published

on

MSCI ACWI

A Geographic Breakdown of the MSCI ACWI IMI Index

How can investors track stock markets around the world?

Using the MSCI All Countries World Index Investable Market Index (MSCI ACWI IMI), investors can benchmark their portfolios to a comprehensive group of developed and emerging markets. With over $4.2 trillion in assets benchmarked to the ACWI—about 4% of all managed assets globally—the index is widely quoted.

In this graphic from MSCI, we explore a geographic breakdown of the MSCI ACWI IMI index, and how it has changed over time.

What is the MSCI ACWI IMI?

The MSCI ACWI IMI is a leading global equity index. It tracks the performance of a basket of securities that are intended to represent the entire global stock market. Altogether, it covers:

  • 9,200 securities
  • 23 developed markets
  • 27 emerging markets
  • 99% of the investable global equity market

Using a standardized approach, the index includes businesses of all sizes from small to large market capitalization.

Market Weights

The MSCI ACWI IMI Index is broken down into broad regions and specific markets, such as North America and the U.S. respectively. Below, we show the specific market weights of the index as of July 31, 2011 and July 31, 2021. We also show how much these weights have increased or decreased over the last 10 years.

MarketRegion2011 Weight2021 WeightPercentage Point Change
CanadaNorth America4.74%2.91%-1.8 p.p.
U.S.North America43.34%58.61%15.3 p.p.
AustriaEMEA0.16%0.08%-0.1 p.p.
BelgiumEMEA0.39%0.27%-0.1 p.p.
DenmarkEMEA0.42%0.68%0.3 p.p.
FinlandEMEA0.37%0.33%0.0 p.p.
FranceEMEA3.50%2.73%-0.8 p.p.
GermanyEMEA3.24%2.31%-0.9 p.p.
IrelandEMEA0.13%0.18%0.1 p.p.
IsraelEMEA0.29%0.26%0.0 p.p.
ItalyEMEA0.99%0.67%-0.3 p.p.
NetherlandsEMEA0.92%1.11%0.2 p.p.
NorwayEMEA0.42%0.24%-0.2 p.p.
PortugalEMEA0.10%0.05%-0.1 p.p.
SpainEMEA1.21%0.61%-0.6 p.p.
SwedenEMEA1.20%1.20%0.0 p.p.
SwitzerlandEMEA3.09%2.47%-0.6 p.p.
United KingdomEMEA8.28%3.99%-4.3 p.p.
ArgentinaEM0.00%0.02%0.0 p.p.
BrazilEM1.86%0.65%-1.2 p.p.
ChileEM0.21%0.06%-0.2 p.p.
ChinaEM2.32%3.76%1.4 p.p.
ColombiaEM0.10%0.02%-0.1 p.p.
Czech RepublicEM0.05%0.01%0.0 p.p.
EgyptEM0.05%0.01%0.0 p.p.
GreeceEM0.10%0.03%-0.1 p.p.
HungaryEM0.05%0.03%0.0 p.p.
IndiaEM1.01%1.40%0.4 p.p.
IndonesiaEM0.39%0.14%-0.2 p.p.
KoreaEM2.07%1.67%-0.4 p.p.
KuwaitEM0.00%0.07%0.1 p.p.
MalaysiaEM0.44%0.18%-0.3 p.p.
MexicoEM0.55%0.23%-0.3 p.p.
PakistanEM0.00%0.01%0.0 p.p.
PeruEM0.06%0.02%0.0 p.p.
PhilippinesEM0.09%0.07%0.0 p.p.
PolandEM0.23%0.10%-0.1 p.p.
QatarEM0.00%0.08%0.1 p.p.
RussiaEM0.85%0.38%-0.5 p.p.
Saudi ArabiaEM0.00%0.36%0.4 p.p.
South AfricaEM1.00%0.44%-0.6 p.p.
TaiwanEM1.63%1.85%0.2 p.p.
ThailandEM0.28%0.22%-0.1 p.p.
TurkeyEM0.20%0.05%-0.1 p.p.
United Arab EmiratesEM0.00%0.09%0.1 p.p.
AustraliaAsia Pacific3.34%1.94%-1.4 p.p.
Hong KongAsia Pacific1.11%0.79%-0.3 p.p.
JapanAsia Pacific8.37%6.22%-2.2 p.p.
New ZealandAsia Pacific0.07%0.09%0.0 p.p.
SingaporeAsia Pacific0.74%0.32%-0.4 p.p.

Note: numbers may not sum to 100 due to rounding. EM stands for Emerging Markets, and EMEA stands for Europe, Middle East, and Africa.

Over the last decade, the UK’s index weighting has halved. Brexit uncertainty caused British stocks to underperform relative to other markets. In addition, the UK’s public equity marketing has been shrinking, with the number of listed companies falling by 21% in just eight years.

Japan saw its weighting decline by more than two percentage points. The country has faced a very slow recovery since the asset price bubble in 1989, and the stock market has yet to surpass its previous peak.

On the other hand, China’s weighting in the MSCI ACWI IMI has increased over the last 10 years. This is primarily due to two factors:

  • China A shares, shares of mainland China based companies that are quoted in the local renminbi currency, were previously only available to domestic investors. China’s market reforms made them more widely accessible to international investors.
  • As accessibility and growth increased in the region, foreign investors expressed increased interest in the Chinese market. This drove up demand for the country’s stocks.

Perhaps the biggest takeaway from this data is the increasing dominance of the U.S. stock market, which now makes up almost 60% of the index. What implications does this have on the MSCI ACWI IMI index’s diversification?

Revenue Exposure of the MSCI ACWI IMI

As it turns out, the index is more diversified than it may seem at first glance. American companies have international operations, and earn revenue from many different markets. This makes the revenue exposure of the index much more spread out across each region.

Region% of Revenue Exposure
EM36.4%
North America31.9%
EMEA16.7%
Asia Pacific12.0%
Other3.1%

Note: numbers may not sum to 100 due to rounding. Countries included in Other are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Bulgaria, Bahrain, Benin, Botswana, Cote D’Ivoire, Estonia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Croatia, Iceland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Lithuania, Morocco, Mali, Mauritius, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Palestine, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, Vietnam and Zimbabwe.

On a revenue exposure basis, North America—where the U.S. is by far the largest market—has a weighting of just over 30%. Emerging markets take the top spot, making up over a third of the index’s revenue exposure. This presents an opportunity for investors, as these markets are projected to have higher GDP growth compared to North America.

Broad Exposure

For investors looking to capture the world’s stock market performance, the MSCI ACWI IMI can be a good benchmark. The index offers comprehensive and diversified exposure to various markets. Through regular reviews and rebalancing, it also adjusts to market movements. This ensures it continues to accurately reflect the composition of the global stock market over time.

While investors can’t invest in the index itself, they can invest in a product that tracks the index—and be poised to take advantage of opportunities around the globe.

Continue Reading

Subscribe

Popular