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Explained: The 3 Major COVID-19 Variants

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3 Major COVID variants

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Explained: The 3 Major COVID-19 Variants

As billions of people gear up for widespread vaccination against COVID-19, another issue has reared its head. Three major COVID-19 variants have emerged across the globe—and preliminary research suggests these variants may be cause for concern.

But what makes them different from the original strain?

The following visualizations answer some key questions, including when these variants were first discovered, how far they’ve spread worldwide, and most importantly, their potential impact on the population.

Some Context: What is a Variant?

Before diving in, it’s important to understand why viruses mutate in the first place.

To infect someone, a virus takes over a host cell and uses it to replicate itself. But nature isn’t perfect, and sometimes, mistakes are made during the replication process—those mistakes are called mutations.

A virus with one or more mutations is referred to as a variant. Most of the time, variants do not affect a virus’s physical structure, and in those instances, they eventually disappear. However, there are certain cases when a mutation impacts part of a virus’s genetic makeup that does change its behavior.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) a change in behavior can alter:

  • Rate of transmission
  • Deadliness
  • Ability to potentially infect someone with natural or vaccine-induced immunity

Preliminary research has detected some of these changes in the three major COVID-19 variants—B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1.

The 3 Major COVID-19 Variants

The three major variants emerged at different times, and in different parts of the world. Here’s an overview of each variant, when they were discovered, and how far they’ve spread so far.

B.1.1.7

The B.1.1.7 variant was detected in the UK in the fall of 2020. By December 2020, it had spread across the globe, with cases emerging across Europe, North America, and Asia.

B117 COVID Variant

Currently, the variant has been reported in roughly 94 countries.

Early research suggests it’s 50% more transmissible than other variants, and potentially 35% more deadly than the standard virus. Luckily, studies suggest that some of the existing vaccines work well against it.

B.1.351

In October 2020, the second major variant was discovered—B.1.351. It was first identified in South Africa, but by end of the year, it had spread to the UK, Switzerland, Australia, and Japan.

B1351 COVID variant

There are approximately 48 countries with reported cases, and research suggests several of the existing COVID-19 vaccines may not be as effective against this variant.

P.1

The P.1 variant was the last to arrive on the scene.

It was first discovered in January 2021, when Japan reported four cases of the variant, which was found in travelers who had arrived from Brazil.

P1 COVID variant

Approximately 25 countries have reported cases of the P.1 variant, and early research suggests this variant is not only more contagious, but could also have the ability to infect people with natural immunity who had already recovered from the original strain.

Still Early Days

While there have been preliminary studies showing a dip in vaccine effectiveness, some experts emphasize that it’s too early to tell for certain. More data is needed to gain a deeper and more accurate understanding.

In the meantime, experts are emphasizing the importance of following our current public health strategies, which include physical distancing, vaccination, washing your hands, and using masks.

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Healthcare

Visualizing Daily Protein Sources by Region

Here, we break down how people around the world get their protein intake.

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Bar chart showing daily protein sources by region.

Visualizing Daily Protein Sources by Region

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Protein plays a vital role in creating and maintaining every cell in our bodies.

This graphic breaks down how people in different regions of the world get their protein intake. The figures come from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (UN FAO), accessed via Our World in Data.

The figures we present here reflect the distribution of daily protein intake across regions, with each region’s total adding up to 100%. It’s important to note that this is distinct from the actual amount of protein consumed per person, often measured in grams.

Developed Countries Have More Access to Meat and Dairy

Protein has many benefits for our bodies. It is a building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, and skin. Our hair and nails are comprised mostly of protein. It is also used to repair tissue, oxygenate the body, and make enzymes, which aid in digesting food.

People in more developed regions (like North America or Europe) get a larger share of their daily protein from meat and dairy.

RegionPlant protein (%)Meat (%)Dairy (%)Seafood (%)Eggs (%)
Africa77.212.15.44.21.1
Asia65.115.77.87.44.0
South America41.339.012.62.94.2
Europe40.429.520.75.53.9
Oceania39.538.813.56.12.1
North America37.238.416.03.94.5

When only considering meat, South America, with big producers like Brazil and Argentina, takes the lead as the most important protein source.

Meanwhile, Asia, with top fish producers China and India, leads in protein intake from seafood.

In Africa, where many developing countries in the world are located, plant protein is the most important protein source for the population.

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