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Incredible Map of Pangea With Modern-Day Borders



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pangea with modern borders

Incredible Map of Pangea With Modern-Day Borders

As volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occasionally remind us, the earth beneath our feet is constantly on the move.

Continental plates only move around 1-4 inches per year, so we don’t notice the tectonic forces that are continually reshaping the surface of our planet. But on a long enough timeline, those inches add up to big changes in the way landmasses on Earth are configured.

Today’s map, by Massimo Pietrobon, is a look back to when all land on the planet was arranged into a supercontinent called Pangea. Pietrobon’s map is unique in that it overlays the approximate borders of present day countries to help us understand how Pangea broke apart to form the world that we know today.

Pangea: The World As One

Pangea was the latest in a line of supercontinents in Earth’s history.

Pangea began developing over 300 million years ago, eventually making up one-third of the earth’s surface. The remainder of the planet was an enormous ocean known as Panthalassa.

As time goes by, scientists are beginning to piece together more information on the climate and patterns of life on the supercontinent. Similar to parts of Central Asia today, the center of the landmass is thought to have been arid and inhospitable, with temperatures reaching 113ºF (45ºC). The extreme temperatures revealed by climate simulations are supported by the fact that very few fossils are found in the modern day regions that once existed in the middle of Pangea. The strong contrast between the Pangea supercontinent and Panthalassa is believed to have triggered intense cross-equatorial monsoons.

By this unique point in history, plants and animals had spread across the landmass, and animals (such as dinosaurs) were able to wander freely across the entire expanse of Pangea.

Breaking Up is Hard to Do

Around 200 million years ago, magma began to swell up through a weakness in the earth’s crust, creating the volcanic rift zone that would eventually cleave the supercontinent into pieces. Over time, this rift zone would become the Atlantic Ocean. The most visible evidence of this split is in the similar shape of the coastlines of modern-day Brazil and West Africa.

Present-day North America broke away from Europe and Africa, and as the map highlights, Atlantic Canada was once connected to Spain and Morocco.

The concept of plate tectonics is behind some of modern Earth’s most striking features. The Himalayas, for example, were formed after the Indian subcontinent broke off the eastern side of Africa and crashed directly into Asia. Many of the world’s tallest mountains were formed by this process of plate convergence – a process that, as far as we know, is unique to Earth.

What the Very Distant Future Holds

Since the average continent is only moving about 1 foot (0.3m) every decade, it’s unlikely you’ll ever be alive to see an epic geographical revision to the world map.

However, for whatever life exists on Earth roughly 300 million years in the future, they may have front row seats in seeing the emergence of a new supercontinent: Pangea Proxima.

As the above video from the Paleomap Project shows, Pangea Proxima is just one possible supercontinent configuration that occurs in which Australia slams into Indonesia, and North and South America crash into Africa and Antarctica, respectively.

Interestingly, Pangea Proxima could have a massive inland sea, mainly made up of what is the Indian Ocean today. Meanwhile, the other oceans would combine into one superocean that would take up the majority of the Earth’s surface.

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Mapped: The U.S. State that Each Country Trades With the Most

This map identifies the biggest U.S. export markets by state, showing the top partner of each country by value of goods imported.



This map identifies the biggest export destinations for products from every U.S. state.

The U.S. State that Each Country Trades With the Most

The U.S. is the world’s second-largest exporter, just behind China. In 2022 alone, America exported some $2.1 trillion, accounting for 8.4% of global exports.

In this graphic by OnDeck, we show the U.S. state that each country receives the most exports from, using data from the U.S. International Trade Administration.

Texas is the Top Exporter

Texas is the leading U.S. exporter to major global economies. The state leads in 94 countries, including Canada, China, the U.K., and Germany. Texas is followed by California (25 countries) and Florida (24 countries).

State2023 Exports (Millions)
New York$97,828
New Jersey$43,334
North Carolina$42,223
South Carolina$37,297
Puerto Rico$22,493
New Hampshire$7,638
North Dakota$7,520
West Virginia$5,652
New Mexico$4,940
Virgin Islands$3,403
Rhode Island$3,016
South Dakota$2,399
District of Columbia$1,746

Exports from Texas to Mexico have an annual value of $144.29 billion—the highest value of exports from a U.S. state to any country. From this total, Texas exports $33.63 billion in Petroleum & Coal Products to Mexico yearly, the highest value of any single product category from a state to another country.

While oil-producing states like Texas, New Mexico, and North Dakota dominate America’s export market, other states have established unique trade relationships in some regions.

Michigan, for example, exports $15.37 billion in Transportation Equipment to Canada. These include passenger vehicles and trucks, as well as parts.

Australia imports $4.56 billion in goods from Illinois each year, more than from any other U.S. state.

New York State’s exports to Switzerland reached $23.56 billion in 2022. Over three-quarters of this trade is in the category of Primary Metal Manufactures, which includes upstream metal products such as closures, castings, pipes, tubes, wires, and springs.

Hong Kong also counts New York as the state from which it imports the most.

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