The Geography of the World’s 50 Top Billionaires
The business world has undergone considerable change in the last two decades.
While some fortunes are always reliably passed on to their respective heirs and heiresses, there are also entirely new industries that rise out of nowhere to shape the landscape of global wealth.
As the wealth landscape shifts, so does its geographical distribution.
The 2019 List of Billionaires
Today’s chart uses data from the most recent edition of the Forbes Billionaires List to map the distribution of the world’s richest people, and then compare that to data from 20 years prior.
We’ll start here by looking at the most recent data from 2019:
|Rank||Name||Net Worth ($B)||Citizenship||Industry|
|#1||Jeff Bezos||131||🇺🇸 USA||Tech, eCommerce|
|#2||Bill Gates||96.5||🇺🇸 USA||Tech|
|#3||Warren Buffett||82.5||🇺🇸 USA||Investments|
|#4||Bernard Arnault||76||🇫🇷 France||Luxury Goods, Cosmetics|
|#5||Carlos Slim Helu||64||🇲🇽 Mexico||Telecommunications|
|#6||Amancio Ortega||62.7||🇪🇸 Spain||Apparel|
|#7||Larry Ellison||62.5||🇺🇸 USA||Tech|
|#8||Mark Zuckerberg||62.3||🇺🇸 USA||Tech|
|#9||Michael Bloomberg||55.5||🇺🇸 USA||Media|
|#10||Larry Page||50.8||🇺🇸 USA||Tech|
|#11||Charles Koch||50.5||🇺🇸 USA||Diversified|
|#12||David Koch||50.5||🇺🇸 USA||Diversified|
|#13||Mukesh Ambani||50||🇮🇳 India||Oil & Gas, Telecoms|
|#14||Sergey Brin||49.8||🇺🇸 USA||Tech|
|#15||Francoise Bettencourt||49.3||🇫🇷 France||Cosmetics|
|#16||Jim Walton||44.6||🇺🇸 USA||Retail|
|#17||Alice Walton||44.4||🇺🇸 USA||Retail, Art|
|#18||Rob Walton||44.3||🇺🇸 USA||Retail|
|#19||Steve Ballmer||41.2||🇺🇸 USA||Tech|
|#20||Ma Huateng (Pony)||38.8||🇨🇳 China||Tech|
|#21||Jack Ma||37.3||🇨🇳 China||Tech, eCommerce|
|#22||Hui Ka Yan||36.2||🇨🇳 China||Real Estate|
|#23||Beate Heister & Karl Albrecht Jr.||36.1||🇩🇪 Germany||Retail|
|#24||Sheldon Adelson||35.1||🇺🇸 USA||Casinos|
|#25||Michael Dell||34.3||🇺🇸 USA||Tech|
|#26||Phil Knight||33.4||🇺🇸 USA||Apparel|
|#27||David Thomson||32.5||🇨🇦 Canada||Media|
|#28||Li Ka-shing||31.7||🇨🇳 China||Developer|
|#29||Lee Shau Kee||30.1||🇨🇳 China||Developer|
|#30||François Pinault||29.7||🇫🇷 France||Luxury Goods|
|#31||Joseph Safra||25.2||🇧🇷 Brazil||Diversified|
|#32||Leonid Mikhelson||24||🇷🇺 Russia||Oil & Gas|
|#33||Jacqueline Mars||23.4||🇺🇸 USA||Food|
|#34||John Mars||23.9||🇺🇸 USA||Food|
|#35||Jorge Paulo Lemann||22.8||🇧🇷 Brazil||Diversified|
|#36||Azim Premji||22.6||🇮🇳 India||Tech|
|#37||Dieter Schwarz||22.6||🇩🇪 Germany||Retail|
|#38||Wang Jianlin||22.6||🇨🇳 China||Real Estate|
|#39||Giovanni Ferrero||22.4||🇮🇹 Italy||Food|
|#40||Elon Musk||22.4||🇺🇸 USA||Automotive, Tech|
|#41||Tadashi Yanai||22.2||🇯🇵 Japan||Apparel|
|#42||Yang Huiyan||22.1||🇨🇳 China||Real Estate|
|#43||Masayoshi Son||21.6||🇯🇵 Japan||Banking, Investments|
|#44||Jim Simons||21.5||🇺🇸 USA||Investments|
|#45||Vladimir Lisin||21.3||🇷🇺 Russia||Steel, Transportation|
|#46||Susanne Klatten||21||🇩🇪 Germany||Automotive, Pharma|
|#47||Vagit Alekperov||20.7||🇷🇺 Russia||Oil & Gas|
|#48||Alexey Mordashov||20.5||🇷🇺 Russia||Steel, Investments|
|#49||Gennady Timchenko||20.1||🇷🇺 Russia||Oil & Gas|
|#50||Leonardo Del Vecchio||19.8||🇮🇹 Italy||Eyewear|
The most recent billionaires list features Jeff Bezos at the top with $131 billion, although it’s likely his recent divorce announcement will provide an upcoming shakeup to the Bezos Empire.
Bezos is just one of 21 Americans that find themselves in the top 50 list, which means that 42% of the world’s top billionaires hail from the United States.
Billionaire Geography Over Time
If we compare the top 50 list to that from 1999, it’s interesting to see what has changed over time in terms of geographical distribution.
Here’s the distribution of top countries on both lists, compared:
|Citizenship||Top Billionaires (1999)||Top Billionaires (2019)||Change|
|🇺🇸 United States||18||21||+3|
|🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia||2||0||-2|
In the last 20 years, Russia and China have stockpiled the most top billionaires, adding five and four to the top 50 list respectively. The United States added three, going from 18 to 21 billionaires over the timeframe.
On the other end of the spectrum, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland have lost the most billionaires from the top 50 ranking.
This Simple Chart Reveals the Distribution Of Global Wealth
Global wealth at the end of 2020 was about $418 trillion. Here’s a breakdown of the global wealth distribution among the adult population.
The Global Wealth Distribution in One Chart
The pandemic resulted in global wealth taking a significant dip in the first part of 2020. By the end of March, global household wealth had already declined by around 4.4%.
Interestingly, after much monetary and fiscal stimulus from governments around the world, global household wealth was more than able to recover, finishing up the year at $418.3 trillion, a 7.4% gain from the previous year.
Using data from Credit Suisse, this graphic looks at how global wealth is distributed among the adult population.
How is Global Wealth Distributed?
While individuals worth more than $1 million constitute just 1.1% of the world’s population, they hold 45.8% of global wealth.
|Wealth Range||Wealth||Global Share (%)||Adult Population|
|Over $1M||$191.6 trillion||45.8%||Held by 1.1%|
|$100k-$1M||$163.9 trillion||39.1%||Held by 11.1%|
|$10k-$100k||$57.3 trillion||13.7%||Held by 32.8%|
|Less than $10k||$5.5 trillion||1.3%||Held by 55.0%|
|Total||$418.3 trillion||100.0%||Held by 100.0%|
On the other end of the spectrum, 55% of the population owns only 1.3% of global wealth.
And between these two extreme wealth distribution cases, the rest of the world’s population has a combined 52.8% of the wealth.
Global Wealth Distribution by Region
While wealth inequality is especially evident within the wealth ranges mentioned above, these differences can also be seen on a more regional basis between countries.
In 2020, total wealth rose by $12.4 trillion in North America and $9.2 trillion in Europe. These two regions accounted for the bulk of the wealth gains, with China adding another $4.2 trillion and the Asia-Pacific region (excluding China and India) another $4.7 trillion.
Here is a breakdown of global wealth distribution by region:
|Change in Total Wealth |
|Change %||Wealth Per Adult |
India and Latin America both recorded losses in 2020.
Total wealth fell in India by $594 billion, or 4.4%. Meanwhile, Latin America appears to have been the worst-performing region, with total wealth dropping by 11.4% or $1.2 trillion.
Post-COVID Global Outlook 2020-2025
Despite the burden of COVID-19 on the global economy, the world can expect robust GDP growth in the coming years, especially in 2021. The latest estimates by the International Monetary Fund in April 2021 suggest that global GDP in 2021 will total $100.1 trillion in nominal terms, up by 4.1% compared to last year.
The link in normal times between GDP growth and household wealth growth, combined with the expected rapid return of economic activity to its pre-pandemic levels, suggests that global wealth could grow again at a fast pace. According to Credit Suisse estimates, global wealth may rise by 39% over the next five years.
Low and middle-income countries will also play an essential role in the coming year. They are responsible for 42% of the growth, even though they account for just 33% of current wealth.
Mapped: GDP per Capita Worldwide
GDP per capita is one of the best measures of a country’s standard of living. This map showcases the GDP per capita in every country globally.
Mapped: Visualizing GDP per Capita Worldwide
View the high-resolution of the infographic by clicking here.
GDP per capita has steadily risen globally over time, and in tandem, the standard of living worldwide has increased immensely.
This map using data from the IMF shows the GDP per capita (nominal) of nearly every country and territory in the world.
GDP per capita is one of the best measures of a country’s wealth as it provides an understanding of how each country’s citizens live on average, showing a representation of the quantity of goods and services created per person.
The Standard of Living Over Time
Looking at history, our standard of living has increased drastically. According to Our World in Data, from 1820 to 2018, the average global GDP per capita increased by almost 15x.
Literacy rates, access to vaccines, and basic education have also improved our quality of life, while things like child mortality rates and poverty have all decreased.
For example, in 1990, 1.9 billion people lived in extreme poverty, which was 36% of the world’s population at the time. Over the last 30 years, the number has been steadily decreasing — by 2030, an estimated 479 million people will be living in extreme poverty, which according to UN population estimates, will represent only 6% of the population.
That said, economic inequality between different regions is still prevalent. In fact, the richest country today (in terms of nominal GDP per capita), Luxembourg, is over 471x more wealthy than the poorest, Burundi.
Here’s a look at the 10 countries with the highest GDP per capita in 2021:
However, not all citizens in Luxembourg are extremely wealthy. In fact:
- 29% of people spend over 40% of their income on housing costs
- 31% would be at risk of falling into poverty if they had to forgo 3 months of income
The cost of living is expensive in Luxembourg — but the standard of living in terms of goods and services produced is the highest in the world. Additionally, only 4% of the population reports low life satisfaction.
Emerging Economies and Developing Countries
Although we have never lived in a more prosperous period, and poverty rates have been declining overall, this year global extreme poverty rose for the first time in over two decades.
About 120 million additional people are living in poverty as a result of the pandemic, with the total expected to rise to about 150 million by the end of 2021.
Many of the poorest countries in the world are also considered Least Developed Countries (LDCs) by the UN. In these countries, more than 75% of the population live below the poverty line.
Here’s a look at the 10 countries with the lowest GDP per capita:
Life in these countries offers a stark contrast compared to the top 10. Here’s a glance at the quality of life in the poorest country, Burundi:
- 80% of the population works in agriculture
- 1 in 3 Burundians are in need of urgent humanitarian assistance
- Average households spend up to two-thirds of their income on food
However, many of the world’s poorest countries can also be classified as emerging markets with immense economic potential in the future.
In fact, China has seen the opportunity in emerging economies. Their confidence in these regions is best exemplified in the Belt and Road initiative which has funneled massive investments into infrastructure projects across multiple African countries.
Continually Raising the Bar
Prosperity is a very recent reality only characterizing the last couple hundred years. In pre-modern societies, the average person was living in conditions that would be considered extreme poverty by today’s standards.
Overall, the standard of living for everyone today is immensely improved compared to even recent history, and some countries will be experiencing rapid economic growth in the future.
GDP per Capita in 2021: Full Dataset
|Country||GDP per Capita (Nominal, 2021, USD)|
|🇺🇸 United States||$66,144|
|Hong Kong SAR||$47,990|
|United Arab Emirates||$32,686|
|Trinidad and Tobago||$16,622|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||$16,491|
|Antigua and Barbuda||$14,748|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||$7,401|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||$6,536|
|West Bank and Gaza||$3,060|
|Papua New Guinea||$2,596|
|Republic of Congo||$2,271|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||$2,133|
|Central African Republic||$522|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||$478|
Editor’s note: Readers have rightly pointed out that Monaco is one of the world’s richest countries in GDP per capita (nominal) terms. This is true, but the IMF dataset excludes Monaco and lists it as “No data” each year. As a result, it is excluded from the visualization(s) above.
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