The starting place for developing an authentic leadership style is to make an extension of your best personality traits.
For example, if someone is a hard worker that likes to get in the trenches, this can be a key differentiator in how they run a particular organization. Likewise, abilities such as thinking big or being able to articulate a clear vision can also translate well in growing a successful team. Developing a leadership style this way is authentic and genuine, and it provides a helpful starting place for leading others.
However, good leaders know that they are not perfect, and that their own idiosyncrasies and insecurities also tend to shine through without them even recognizing it. In fact, often these shortcomings can even be amplified in unexpected ways within an organization, resulting in massive challenges and inefficiencies.
11 Ineffective Leadership Styles
A good leader knows that they must work hard to fix their own shortcomings, otherwise their team will never reach their full potential.
Today’s infographic comes to us from Colonial Life, and it shows 11 ineffective leadership styles that can have negative impacts on an organization’s productivity or culture.
Shortcomings aren’t always obvious, and it can take some serious self-reflection to see the weaknesses in one’s leadership style.
Styles to Recognize and Avoid
Here’s a summation of the 11 types of leadership styles to avoid:
1. Micro Managing
Helping employees is one thing, but it’s also important to know when to take a step back. Over-management leads to an unempowered team.
2. Anything Goes
The opposite of micro management is also problematic as well. By letting everything fly, there is no order and it can lead to missing deadlines or low expectations.
In many situations, having just one person making the decisions can lead to employees carrying out projects that they disagree with or do not think will work.
4. The Charge-Ahead General
Charging ahead on every new project usually comes with a key weakness: a lack of patience. If managers continually get impatient with employees, it affect trust and respect within the organization.
5. Complete Self-Reliance
If a manager can’t trust others, then the work will pile up for that manager until it becomes unbearable. Meanwhile, employees have a tough time becoming independent in their roles.
If decisions cannot be questioned, it leads to employees feeling like they are incapable or that they have no input.
7. Excessive Consistency
A manager with this leadership style has inflexible boundaries, and tends to be over-strict with employees. This can create resentment and lower motivation.
8. Mushroom Management
Severe lack of communications between management and employees leads to misunderstandings, confusion, and limited responsibility.
9. The Morale Buster
Criticism is important, but too much of it can hurt employee morale.
10. The Screamer
Too much expression of authority, or expressing it in unprofessional ways, can lead to a lack of respect between employees and management. There are other ways to articulate authority and constructive criticisms.
11. Seagull Management
Managers only interact with employees when there is a problem – this means employees never get praise or encouragement when it is needed.
Visualizing America’s Entrepreneurial Spirit During COVID-19
How have new business start-ups in the U.S. been impacted by COVID-19? New data reveals the resilience of the entrepreneurial spirit in America.
Mapped: America’s Entrepreneurial Spirit During COVID-19
Despite the risks of opening a business during a global pandemic, new data from the U.S. Census Bureau reveals that the entrepreneurial spirit is alive and well in the United States.
In total, there were 492,133 new business applications in January 2021—an increase of over 73% year-over-year (YoY).
The region with the highest growth rate was the South at 84% with more than 220,000 new business applications in the region in January of this year. Mississippi had the highest percent increase at 164%, with over 6,000 new applications in January 2021.
Here’s a closer look at the number of total applications by state and region:
Notably, new business applications have soared in the last month or so, bouncing back from a dip between July and December 2020.
The growth rate from December 2020 to January 2021 stood at 42.6%, with the biggest change happening in the Midwest, where applications have gone up 48.6%. Here’s a look at the biggest changes in applications by region since December 2020:
|Region||Number of Applications in January 2021||Percentage Change from December 2020|
Note: Business applications are measured by collecting data on new applications for Employer Identification Numbers with the U.S. government.
Opportunity Out of Crisis
Prior to the pandemic, new business startups were actually on the decline, but in times of crisis there is often opportunity.
People have become wildly innovative during COVID-19, partly because they were forced to do so due to job or income loss. Economists call this ‘creative destruction,’ wherein new innovation springs up because of the failure of particular industries or businesses.
Here’s a look at new business applications by industry.
|Industry||Number of New Business Applications (Jan. 2021)|
|Transportation and Warehousing||41,320|
|Accomodation and Food Services||27,409|
|Health Care and Social Assistance||27,266|
|Finance and Insurance||22,607|
|Arts and Entertainment||14,407|
|Management of Companies||4,273|
Creative destruction has been keenly exemplified in the rise of remote and digital services over traditional brick and mortar stores. In fact, the industry with the highest number of new business applications in January 2021 was retail services, mostly online, with over 101,000 applications.
Feeling the Entrepreneurial Spirit?
As business applications are on the rise, more jobs could potentially be created in the U.S., and competition will likely increase as well. While starting a business during COVID-19 is risky, it could have immense payoffs for the individuals involved and the overall economy.
In fact, a piece from the U.S. Chamber of Commerce actually recommends specific business ideas that are ‘pandemic-friendly.’ Among many virtually-based ideas, the list includes:
- Digital marketing
- App development
- Fitness and wellness services
- Box subscription services
Perhaps, for digitally minded entrepreneurs, there has never been a better time to start a business.
Global Stars: The Most Innovative Countries, Ranked by Income Group
From Switzerland and China to Vietnam and Tanzania — here are the world’s most innovative countries, taking income per capita into account.
The Most Innovative Countries, Ranked by Income Group
Innovation can be instrumental to the success of economies, at macro and micro scales. While investment provides powerful fuel for innovation—the relationship isn’t always straightforward.
The 2020 ranking from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) reveals just that.
The above map breaks down the most innovative countries in each World Bank income group, based on data from WIPO’s Global Innovation Index (GII), which evaluates nations across 80 innovation indicators like research and development (R&D), venture capital, and high-tech production.
While wealthier nations continue to lead global innovation, the GII also shows that middle-income countries—particularly in Asia—are making impressive strides.
The economic and regulatory spheres within countries can have an enormous impact on their level of innovation—and vice versa, as innovation in turn becomes an economic driver, stimulating further investment.
The positive feedback loop between investment and innovation results in the success of some of the top countries in the table below, which shows the three most innovative countries in each income group.
|Income Group||Group Rank||Country (Overall Rank)|
|High||1||🇨🇭 Switzerland (#1)|
|High||2||🇸🇪 Sweden (#2)|
|High||3||🇺🇸 United States of America (#3)|
|Upper Middle||1||🇨🇳 China (#14)|
|Upper Middle||2||🇲🇾 Malaysia (#33)|
|Upper Middle||3||🇧🇬 Bulgaria (#37)|
|Lower Middle||1||🇻🇳 Vietnam (#42)|
|Lower Middle||2||🇺🇦 Ukraine (#45)|
|Lower Middle||3||🇮🇳 India (#48)|
|Low||1||🇹🇿 Tanzania (#88)|
|Low||2||🇷🇼 Rwanda (#91)|
|Low||3||🇲🇼 Malawi (#111)|
Switzerland, Sweden, and the U.S. are the top three in the high-income group. Considering that Switzerland has the second-highest GDP per capita globally, it is not a surprise leader on this list.
Upper middle-income countries are led by China, Malaysia, and Bulgaria. Note that China far surpasses other nations in the upper-middle-income group ranking, reaching 14th spot overall in 2020. Others in the income group only appear in the overall ranking after 30th place.
Below are several income group leaders, and some of their key areas of output:
- Switzerland: First in Knowledge Creation, second in Global Brand Value
- U.S.: First in Entertainment and Media, Computer Software Spending, Intellectual Property Receipts
- China: First in Patents Registered
- Vietnam: Second in High-Technology Net Exports
- India: First in Information and Communication Technology Services Exports
- Tanzania: 23rd in Printing and Other Media
Shining a Light on Global Innovators
Since 2011, Switzerland has led the world in innovation according to this index, and the top five countries have seen few changes in recent years.
Sweden regained second place in 2019 and the U.S. moved into third—positions they maintain in 2020. The Netherlands entered the top two in 2018 and now sits at fifth.
Here’s how the overall ranking shakes out:
|3||United States of America||60.6||High|
|11||Hong Kong, China||54.2||High|
|34||United Arab Emiratesx||42.4||High|
|42||Viet Nam||37.1||Lower Middle|
|47||Russian Federation||35.6||Upper Middle|
|56||Costa Rica||33.5||Upper Middle|
|57||North Macedonia||33.4||Upper Middle|
|59||Republic of Moldova||33.0||Lower Middle|
|60||South Africa||32.7||Upper Middle|
|67||Iran (Islamic Republic of)||30.9||High|
|74||Bosnia and Herzegovina||29.0||Upper Middle|
|88||United Republic of Tanzania||25.6||Lower I|
|90||Dominican Republic||25.1||Upper Middle|
|92||El Salvador||24.9||Lower Middle|
|98||Trinidad and Tobago||24.1||High|
|100||Cabo Verde||23.9||Lower Middle|
|101||Sri Lanka||23.8||Upper Middle|
|105||Bolivia (Plurinational State of)||22.4||Lower Middle|
|112||Côte d’Ivoire||21.2||Lower Middle|
|113||Lao People’s Democratic Republic||20.7||Lower Middle|
|118||Burkina Faso||20.0||Lower I|
Nordic countries like Sweden, Denmark, and Finland continue their strong showing across innovation factors—like Knowledge Creation, Global Brand Value, Environmental Performance, and Intellectual Property Receipts—leading to their continued presence atop global innovators.
But the nations making the biggest moves in GII ranking are found in Asia.
China, Vietnam, India, and the Philippines have risen the most of all countries, with all four now in the top 50. China broke into the top 15 in 2019 and remains the only middle-income economy in the top 30.
In 2020, South Korea became the second Asian economy to enter the top 10, after Singapore. As the first Asian country to move into the global top five, Singapore joined the leaders in 2018, and now sits at 8th place.
In another first for 2020, India has now broken into the top 50.
Innovation Input & Output: The Overachievers
While annual rankings like these confirm the importance of a robust economy and innovation investment, variations in the relationship between input and output are not uncommon.
The correlation between wealth and innovation isn’t always straightforward, and neither is the connection between innovation input and output.
Below is an overview of the GII inputs and outputs, as well as several of the world’s overall leaders in each pillar.
Input variables can be characterized as factors that foster innovation—everything from the quality of a country’s university institutions to its levels of ecological sustainability.
|Input Pillars||Input Examples||Input Leaders|
Human Capital & Research
Venture Capital Deals
7. Hong Kong, China
10. South Korea
Output factors include innovation indicators like the creation of new businesses, and even the number of Wikipedia edits made per million people.
|Output Pillars||Output Types||Output Leaders|
|Knowledge & Technology|
Creative goods and services
National feature films
Entertainment and media
3. United Kingdom
10. South Korea
Countries with impressive innovation outputs compared to input levels include:
- China: 26th in inputs, but sixth in overall innovation outputs
- Netherlands: 11th in innovation input, but fourth across outputs
- Thailand: 48th in overall input, first in business R&D
- Malaysia: 34th in overall input, first in high-tech net exports
Innovation Fuel Reductions Up Ahead?
Although financial markets have ignited, the economy as a whole has not fared well since lockdowns began. This begs the question of whether a steep decline in innovation capital will follow.
In response to the 2020 pandemic, will spending on R&D echo the 2009 recession and aftermath of 9/11? Will venture capital flows continue to decline more than they have since 2018?
Because innovation is so entwined with the economic growth strategies of companies and nations alike, the WIPO notes that the potential decline may not be as severe as historical trends might suggest.
No Stopping Human Innovation
Thankfully, innovation opportunities are not solely contingent on the level of capital infused during any given year. Instead, the cumulative results of continuous innovation stimuli may be enough to maintain growth, while strategic cash reserves are put to use.
What the GII ranking shows is that inputs don’t always equal outputs—and that innovative strides can be made with even modest levels of capital flow.
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