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Mapped: A Snapshot of Wealth in Africa

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Map infographic showing the top locations of private wealth in Africa

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Mapped: A Snapshot of Wealth in Africa

The continent of Africa contains more than 50 countries, but just five account for more than half of total wealth on the continent: South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Morocco, and Kenya.

Despite recent setbacks in Africa’s largest economies, wealth creation has been strong in a number of areas, and total private wealth is now estimated to be US$2.1 trillion. There also an estimated 21 billionaires in Africa today.

Drawing from the latest Africa Wealth Report, here’s a look at where all that wealth is concentrated around the continent.

A Country-Level Look at Wealth in Africa

South Africa is a still a major stronghold of wealth in Africa, with a robust luxury real estate market and ample wealth management services. The country is also ranked second on the continent in per capita wealth. That said, the country has faced challenges in recent years.

An estimated 4,500 high net worth individuals (wealth of US$1 million or more) have left South Africa over the past decade, migrating to places like the UK, Australia, and the United States. In one stark data point, the report points out that “there are 15 South African born billionaires in the world, but only 5 of them still live in South Africa.”

Here is how major African countries compare in terms of per capita wealth.

RankCountryWealth per Capita (US$)
#1🇲🇺 Mauritius$34,000
#2🇿🇦 South Africa$10,970
#3🇳🇦 Namibia$9,320
#4🇧🇼 Botswana$7,880
#5🇲🇦 Morocco$3,380
#6🇪🇬 Egypt$3,000
#7🇬🇭 Ghana$1,890
#8🇰🇪 Kenya$1,700
#9🇦🇴 Angola$1,620
#10🇨🇮 Côte d'Ivoire$1,610
#11🇳🇬 Nigeria$1,100
#12🇹🇿 Tanzania$940
#13🇷🇼 Rwanda$850
#14🇺🇬 Uganda$820
#15🇿🇲 Zambia$760
#16🇲🇿 Mozambique$650
#17🇪🇹 Ethiopia$540

Mauritius is Africa’s wealthiest nation on a per capita basis. Here are a few reasons why the island nation comes out on top:

  • HNWI growth – Wealthy individuals have flocked to Mauritius in recent years
  • Ease of doing business – Mauritius ranked 13th worldwide in World Bank’s Doing Business Report
  • Low taxes – There is no inheritance tax or capital gains tax in the country
  • Safety – Mauritius was recently rated by New World Wealth as the safest country in Africa
  • Financial sector – A growing local financial services sector and stock market (SEMDEX)

As a result, Mauritius has seen the strongest growth in total private wealth over the past decade, followed by Rwanda and Ethiopia.

Bar chart showing 10-year wealth growth in African countries

On the flip side of the equation, Nigeria—which is Africa’s largest economy—saw a steep drop in total wealth. The country has struggled in recent years with high unemployment, corruption, and an over-reliance on crude oil.

The Big Picture

Over time, African countries are becoming less dependent on extractive industries, and business conditions are continuing to improve nearly across the board. These tailwinds, combined with the continent’s favorable demographics, point to a bright economic future for Africa.

The outlook for private wealth on the continent is largely positive as well. Total private wealth held in Africa is expected to reach US$3 trillion by 2031, an increase of close to 40%.

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Mapped: The World’s Billionaire Population, by Country

Collectively, worldwide billionaire wealth is nearly $12 trillion. This map breaks down where these 3,311 billionaires live around the globe.

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Visualized: The World’s Billionaire Population

The world’s billionaires—only 3,311 individuals—represent almost $11.8 trillion in wealth. The global billionaire population continued to grow in 2021, increasing by 3%. Over the same period, billionaire wealth also increased by 18%.

This map uses data from the Wealth-X Billionaire Census to visualize where the world’s billionaires live and breaks down their collective wealth.

Note on methodology: The report uses proprietary data from Wealth-X. Billionaire status is determined by assessing an individual’s total net worth, including publicly and privately held businesses and investable assets. To determine a billionaire’s location, Wealth-X used their primary business address.

Billionaires by Region

We’ll begin by zooming out to look at how various continents and world regions rank in terms of their billionaire population.

North America is home to most billionaires, worth $4.6 trillion. The U.S., unsurprisingly, accounts for the majority of this wealth, with 975 billionaires and a collective net worth of $4.45 trillion.

RankRegionNumber of billionairesCollective Billionaire Wealth
#1North America1,035$4.6 trillion
#2Europe954$3.1 trillion
#3Asia899$2.9 trillion
#4Middle East191$519 billion
#5Latin America and the Caribbean146$465 billion
#6Africa46$104 billion
#7Pacific40$89 billion

In regional terms, Europe’s billionaire wealth is growing the fastest, up 22% year-over-year in 2021. In contrast, the year-over-year change in the Middle East was -12.5%.

Asia is inching towards Europe, holding almost a quarter of all billionaire wealth worldwide, compared to Europe’s 26.5%.

Wealth in Africa will also be important to watch in coming years. Although only home to 46 billionaires currently, the change in billionaire wealth increased by almost 17% year-over-year. Additionally, while they no longer live there, a number of the world’s billionaires hail from African countries originally.

Billionaires by Country

Now, let’s look at the ranking broken down by the top 15 countries:

RankCountryNumber of BillionairesCollective Billionaire Wealth
#1🇺🇸 US975$4.45 trillion
#2🇨🇳 China400$1.45 trillion
#3🇩🇪 Germany176$602 billion
#4🇮🇳 India124$384 billion
#5🇬🇧 UK120$266 billion
#6🇭🇰 Hong Kong SAR114$287 billion
#7🇨🇭 Switzerland111$365 billion
#8🇷🇺 Russia107$475 billion
#9🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia71$192 billion
#10🇫🇷 France68$294 billion
#11🇮🇹 Italy68$207 billion
#12🇨🇦 Canada60$131 billion
#13🇧🇷 Brazil52$159 billion
#14🇸🇬 Singapore50$99 billion
#15🇦🇪 UAE45$181 billion

China is an obvious second in billionaire wealth to the United States, with famous billionaires like Zhang Yiming ($44.5 billion) of TikTok and Zhong Shanshan ($67.1 billion), whose wealth primarily comes from the pharmaceutical and beverages industries.

That said, Chinese billionaire wealth actually decreased 2% last year. It was India that came out on top in terms of growth, seeing a 19% increase in 2021.

Billionaires by City

Looking at cities, New York is home to the most billionaires—with 13 added billionaire residents last year—followed by Hong Kong.

RankCityCountryNumber of Billionaires
#1New York City🇺🇸 U.S.138
#2Hong Kong🇭🇰 China114
#3San Francisco🇺🇸 U.S.85
#4London🇬🇧 UK77
#5Moscow🇷🇺 Russia75
#6Beijing🇨🇳 China63
#7Los Angeles🇺🇸 U.S.59
#8Singapore🇸🇬 Singapore50
#9Shenzhen🇨🇳 China44
#10Mumbai🇮🇳 India40
#11Dubai🇦🇪 UAE38
#12Hangzhou🇨🇳 China35
#13São Paulo🇧🇷 Brazil34
#14Istanbul🇹🇷 Turkey33
#15Paris🇫🇷 France33

Billionaire Wealth in 2022

Billionaires have significant power and influence, not in the least because their collective wealth is equivalent to about 11.8% of global GDP.

In recent billionaire news, Gautam Adani’s wealth has been soaring, most recently hitting the $145 billion mark, making him the third-richest person in the world according to Bloomberg’s Billionaire Index. However, not all billionaires are holding on to their wealth. Patagonia founder, Yvon Chouinard, recently transferred ownership of his company to an organization that fights climate change.

Over the last decade, billionaires have been grown their fortunes considerably, with wealth increasing at a faster rate than the growth in the number of billionaires themselves. According to Wealth-X, collective billionaire net worth grew by an astonishing 90% in the last 10 years.

But in the shorter term, the situation is often more volatile. With markets reeling in 2022, Bloomberg reported that billionaires lost a record $1.4 trillion over the first half of the year. Once the year is over and the final numbers are in, it will be interesting to see how the billionaire landscape shapes up in comparison to the more long-term trend.

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Charting the Relationship Between Wealth and Happiness, by Country

Can money really buy happiness? In this chart, we compare most of the world’s countries to examine the relationship between wealth and happiness.

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wealth and happiness

The Relationship Between Wealth and Happiness, by Country

Throughout history, the pursuit of happiness has been a preoccupation of humankind.

Of course, we humans are not just content with measuring our own happiness, but also our happiness in relation to the people around us—and even other people around the world. The annual World Happiness Report, which uses global survey data to report how people evaluate their own lives in more than 150 countries, helps us do just that.

The factors that contribute to happiness are as subjective and specific as the billions of humans they influence, but there are a few that have continued to resonate over time. Family. Love. Purpose. Wealth. The first three examples are tough to measure, but the latter can be analyzed in a data-driven way.

Does money really buy happiness? Let’s find out.

Wealth and Happiness

To crunch the numbers, we looked at data from Credit Suisse, which breaks down the average wealth per adult in various countries around the world.

The table below looks at 146 countries by their happiness score and wealth per adult:

CountryMedian Wealth per Adult (US$)Happiness Score
🇫🇮 Finland 73,7757.8
🇩🇰 Denmark 165,6227.6
🇮🇸 Iceland 231,4627.6
🇨🇭 Switzerland 146,7337.5
🇮🇱 Israel 80,3157.4
🇸🇪 Sweden 89,8467.4
🇳🇴 Norway 117,7987.4
🇳🇱 Netherlands 136,1057.4
🇱🇺 Luxembourg 259,8997.4
🇦🇹 Austria 91,8337.2
🇳🇿 New Zealand 171,6247.2
🇦🇺 Australia 238,0727.2
🇩🇪 Germany 65,3747.0
🇺🇸 United States 79,2747.0
🇮🇪 Ireland 99,0287.0
🇨🇦 Canada 125,6887.0
🇨🇿 Czech Republic 23,7946.9
🇬🇧 United Kingdom 131,5226.9
🇧🇪 Belgium 230,5486.8
🇫🇷 France 133,5596.7
🇧🇭 Bahrain 14,5206.6
🇨🇷 Costa Rica 14,6626.6
🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates 21,6136.6
🇸🇮 Slovenia 67,9616.6
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia 15,4956.5
🇺🇾 Uruguay 22,0886.5
🇷🇴 Romania 23,6756.5
🇽🇰 Kosovo 46,0876.5
🇸🇬 Singapore 86,7176.5
🇹🇼 Taiwan 93,0446.5
🇪🇸 Spain 105,8316.5
🇮🇹 Italy 118,8856.5
🇱🇹 Lithuania 29,6796.4
🇸🇰 Slovakia 45,8536.4
🇶🇦 Qatar 83,6806.4
🇲🇹 Malta 84,3906.4
🇧🇷 Brazil 3,4696.3
🇵🇦 Panama 13,1476.3
🇬🇹 Guatemala 30,5866.3
🇪🇪 Estonia 38,9016.3
🇳🇮 Nicaragua 3,6946.2
🇰🇿 Kazakhstan 12,0296.2
🇷🇸 Serbia 14,9546.2
🇨🇱 Chile 17,7476.2
🇱🇻 Latvia 33,8846.2
🇨🇾 Cyprus 35,3006.2
🇺🇿 Uzbekistan 7,8216.1
🇸🇻 El Salvador 11,3726.1
🇲🇽 Mexico 13,7526.1
🇵🇱 Poland 23,5506.1
🇭🇺 Hungary 24,1266.1
🇲🇺 Mauritius 27,4566.1
🇰🇼 Kuwait 28,6986.1
🇭🇷 Croatia 34,9456.1
🇦🇷 Argentina 2,1576.0
🇭🇳 Honduras 15,3806.0
🇵🇹 Portugal 61,3066.0
🇯🇵 Japan 122,9806.0
🇵🇭 Philippines 3,1555.9
🇯🇲 Jamaica 5,9765.9
🇲🇩 Moldova 7,5775.9
🇹🇭 Thailand 8,0365.9
🇬🇷 Greece 57,5955.9
🇰🇷 South Korea 89,6715.9
🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan 2,2385.8
🇲🇳 Mongolia 2,5465.8
🇨🇴 Colombia 4,8545.8
🇧🇾 Belarus 12,1685.8
🇧🇦 Bosnia and Herzegovina 15,2835.8
🇲🇾 Malaysia 8,5835.7
🇩🇴 Dominican Republic 22,7015.7
🇵🇾 Paraguay 3,6445.6
🇧🇴 Bolivia 3,8045.6
🇵🇪 Peru 5,4455.6
🇨🇳 China 24,0675.6
🇻🇳 Vietnam 4,5595.5
🇷🇺 Russia 5,4315.5
🇪🇨 Ecuador 5,4445.5
🇹🇲 Turkmenistan 9,0305.5
🇲🇪 Montenegro 30,7395.5
🇳🇵 Nepal 1,4375.4
🇹🇯 Tajikistan 1,8445.4
🇦🇲 Armenia 9,4115.4
🇧🇬 Bulgaria 17,4035.4
🇭🇰 Hong Kong  SAR173,7685.4
🇱🇾 Libya 6,5125.3
🇧🇩 Bangladesh 3,0625.2
🇿🇦 South Africa 4,5235.2
🇮🇩 Indonesia 4,6935.2
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan 5,0225.2
🇨🇮 Côte d'Ivoire6,6215.2
🇦🇱 Albania 15,3635.2
🇲🇰 North Macedonia 51,7885.2
🇬🇲 The Gambia6585.2
🇱🇷 Liberia 1,4645.1
🇱🇦 Laos 1,6105.1
🇩🇿 Algeria 2,3025.1
🇺🇦 Ukraine 2,5295.1
🇲🇦 Morocco 3,8745.1
🇨🇬 Congo 5825.1
🇸🇳 Senegal 1,5705.0
🇬🇪 Georgia 4,2235.0
🇬🇦 Gabon 4,6855.0
🇲🇿 Mozambique 3455.0
🇳🇪 Niger 4925.0
🇨🇲 Cameroon 9415.0
🇬🇭 Ghana 2,1984.9
🇮🇶 Iraq 6,3784.9
🇻🇪 Venezuela 7,3414.9
🇮🇷 Iran 7,6214.9
🇬🇳 Guinea 9384.9
🇹🇷 Turkey 8,0014.7
🇧🇫 Burkina Faso 6224.7
🇰🇲 Comoros 1,4664.6
🇳🇬 Nigeria 1,4744.6
🇰🇭 Cambodia 2,0314.6
🇺🇬 Uganda 6464.6
🇧🇯 Benin 8904.6
🇵🇰 Pakistan 2,1874.5
🇳🇦 Namibia 3,6774.5
🇰🇪 Kenya 3,6834.5
🇹🇳 Tunisia 6,1774.5
🇲🇱 Mali 8694.5
🇲🇲 Myanmar 2,4584.4
🇱🇰 Sri Lanka 8,8024.4
🇨🇩 DR Congo3564.4
🇪🇬 Egypt 6,3294.3
🇹🇩 Chad 3554.3
🇲🇬 Madagascar 6664.3
🇲🇷 Mauritania 1,0374.2
🇾🇪 Yemen 1,2234.2
🇪🇹 Ethiopia 1,5274.2
🇯🇴 Jordan 10,8424.2
🇹🇬 Togo 4684.1
🇮🇳 India 3,1943.8
🇲🇼 Malawi 6063.8
🇿🇲 Zambia 6923.8
🇹🇿 Tanzania 1,4333.7
🇭🇹 Haiti1933.6
🇸🇱 Sierra Leone 3703.6
🇧🇼 Botswana 3,6803.5
🇱🇸 Lesotho 2643.5
🇷🇼 Rwanda 1,2663.3
🇱🇧 Lebanon 18,1593.0
🇸🇸 South Sudan 2,6772.9
🇦🇫 Afghanistan 7342.4

While the results don’t definitively point to wealth contributing to happiness, there is a strong correlation across the board. Broadly speaking, the world’s poorest countries have the lowest happiness scores, and the richest report being the most happy.

Regional and Country-Level Observations

While many of the countries follow an obvious trend (more wealth = more happiness), there are nuances and outliers worth exploring.

  • In Latin America, people self-report more happiness than the trend between wealth and happiness would predict.
  • On the flip side, many nations in the Middle East report slightly less happiness than levels of wealth would predict.
  • Political turmoil, an economic crisis, and the devastating explosion in Beirut have resulted in Lebanon scoring far worse than would be expected. Over the past decade, the country’s score has fallen by nearly two full points.
  • Hong Kong has seen its happiness score sink for years now. Inequality, protests, instability, and now COVID-19 outbreaks have placed the region in an unusual zone on the chart: rich and unhappy.

Examining Inequality and Happiness

We’ve looked at the relationship between wealth and happiness between countries, but what about within countries?

The Gini Coefficient is a tool that allows us to do just that. This measure looks at income distribution across a population, and applies a score to that population. Simply put, a score of 0 would be “perfect equality”, and 1 would be “perfect inequality” (i.e. an individual or group of recipients is receiving the entire income distribution).

Combined with the same happiness scale as before, this is how countries shape up.

Data visualization showing the relationship between inequality and happiness around the world

While there is no ironclad conclusion that can be derived from this dataset, there are big picture observations worth highlighting.

The 15 Countries With Highest Income Inequality

Countries with High inequalityHappiness ScoreGini Score
🇿🇦 South Africa5.20.63
🇳🇦 Namibia4.50.59
🇿🇲 Zambia3.80.57
🇨🇴 Colombia5.80.54
🇲🇿 Mozambique5.00.54
🇧🇼 Botswana3.50.53
🇿🇼 Zimbabwe3.00.50
🇵🇦 Panama6.30.50
🇨🇷 Costa Rica6.60.49
🇧🇷 Brazil6.30.49
🇬🇹 Guatemala6.30.48
🇭🇳 Honduras6.00.48
🇧🇫 Burkina Faso4.70.47
🇪🇨 Ecuador5.50.47
🇨🇲 Cameroon5.00.47
Average5.252

First, countries with lower income inequality tend to also report more happiness. The 15 countries in this dataset with the highest inequality (shown above) have an average happiness score 1.3 lower than the 15 countries with the lowest inequality (shown below).

The 15 Countries With Lowest Income Inequality

Countries with low inequalityHappy ScoreGini Score
🇸🇰 Slovakia6.423.2
🇧🇾 Belarus5.824.4
🇸🇮 Slovenia6.624.4
🇦🇲 Armenia5.425.2
🇨🇿 Czech Republic6.925.3
🇺🇦 Ukraine5.125.6
🇲🇩 Moldova5.926
🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates6.626
🇮🇸 Iceland7.626.1
🇧🇪 Belgium6.827.2
🇩🇰 Denmark7.627.7
🇫🇮 Finland7.827.7
🇳🇴 Norway7.427.7
🇰🇿 Kazakhstan6.227.8
🇭🇷 Croatia6.128.9
Average6.526

Next, interesting regional differences emerge.

Despite high income inequality, many Latin American countries report levels of happiness similar to many much-wealthier European nations.

The Bottom Line

People have been seeking understanding on happiness for millennia now, and it’s unlikely that slicing and dicing datasets will crack the code. Still though, much like the pursuit of happiness, the pursuit of understanding is human nature.

And, in more concrete terms, the more policymakers and the public understand the link between wealth and happiness, the more likely we can shape societies that give us a better chance at living a happy life.

Where does this data come from?

Source: Credit Suisse Global Wealth Databook 2021, World Happiness Report 2022, World Bank

Data notes: This visualization includes countries that had available data for both happiness and wealth per adult. Credit Suisse notes that due to incomplete data, the following countries are estimates of average wealth per adult: North Macedonia, Kosovo, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Uzbekistan, Côte d’Ivoire, and South Sudan. Happiness data for countries is from the 2022 report, with the exception of: Qatar, DRC, Haiti, and South Sudan, which pull from the 2019 report. For Gini Coefficient calculations, only countries with data from 2014 onward were included. As a result, major economies such as India and Japan are excluded from that visualization.

Chart note: The wealth axis was plotted logarithmically to better show the trend visually. This approach is often used when a small number of results skew the visualization, making it harder to glean insight from. In this case, there are large extremes between the richest and poorest countries around the world.

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