Ranked: The Top 10 Countries by Energy Transition Investment
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Ranked: The Top 10 Countries by Energy Transition Investment

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Energy transition investment

Ranked: The Top 10 Countries by Energy Transition Investment

This was originally posted on Elements. Sign up to the free mailing list to get beautiful visualizations on natural resource megatrends in your email every week.

More than 130 countries have set or are considering a goal of net-zero emissions by 2050.

Achieving net-zero on a global scale, however, requires $125 trillion in climate investment by 2050, according to research commissioned by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

While that level of investment hasn’t been achieved yet, it’s ramping up. In 2021, the world spent $755 billion on deploying low-carbon energy technologies, up 27% from the year prior.

This graphic highlights the top 10 countries by low-carbon energy investment in 2021 using data from BloombergNEF.

Energy Transition Investment by Country

The top 10 countries together invested $561 billion in the energy transition, nearly three-fourths of the world total.

Country2021 Energy Transition Investment (US$)% of World Total
China 🇨🇳$266B35.2%
U.S. 🇺🇸$114B15.1%
Germany 🇩🇪$47B6.2%
U.K. 🇬🇧$31B4.1%
France 🇫🇷$27B3.6%
Japan 🇯🇵$26B3.4%
India 🇮🇳$14B1.9%
South Korea 🇰🇷$13B1.7%
Brazil 🇧🇷$12B1.6%
Spain 🇪🇸$11B1.5%
Total$561B74.3%

China increased its overall energy transition investment by 60% from 2020 levels, further cementing its position as a global leader. The country’s wind and solar capacity increased by 19% in 2021, with electrified transport also accounting for a large portion of the investment.

Next, the U.S. invested $114 billion in clean energy last year, up 17% from 2020. Several European countries also made the top 10 list, with Germany, U.K., and France rounding out the top five. In total, European countries invested $219 billion in the energy transition.

Which Low-Carbon Technologies are Attracting Investment?

While the top 10 countries provide an overview of where investments are being made, it’s also interesting to see which sectors are seeing the biggest influxes of capital.

Here’s a breakdown of energy transition investment by sector in 2021:

Technology/SectorTotal Investment in 2021 (US$)% change from 2020
Renewable energy$365.9B6.8%
Electrified transport$273.2B76.7%
Electrified heat$52.7B10.7%
Nuclear$31.5B6.1%
Sustainable Materials$19.3B141.3%
Energy Storage$7.9B-6.0%
Carbon capture & storage$2.3B-23.3%
Hydrogen$2.0B33.3%
Total$754.8B26.8%

Renewables accounted for nearly 50% of total investment in 2021. However, electrified transport drove much of the growth as several countries charged ahead in the shift to electric vehicles.

Nuclear power also racked up roughly $32 billion in investments, as conviction grows that it can deliver reliable, carbon-free electricity. But the biggest overall percentage gain was seen in sustainable materials including recycling and bioplastics, which saw investment activity more than double in 2021.

Given that the dawn of clean energy is still in its early hours, technologies in the sector are constantly evolving. As the race to net-zero continues, which energy technologies will draw even more investment in the future?

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Visualizing China’s Dominance in Battery Manufacturing (2022-2027P)

This infographic breaks down battery manufacturing capacity by country in 2022 and 2027.

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battery manufacturing capacity by country infographic

Visualizing China’s Dominance in Battery Manufacturing

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With the world gearing up for the electric vehicle era, battery manufacturing has become a priority for many nations, including the United States.

However, having entered the race for batteries early, China is far and away in the lead.

Using the data and projections behind BloombergNEF’s lithium-ion supply chain rankings, this infographic visualizes battery manufacturing capacity by country in 2022 and 2027p, highlighting the extent of China’s battery dominance.

Battery Manufacturing Capacity by Country in 2022

In 2022, China had more battery production capacity than the rest of the world combined.

RankCountry2022 Battery Cell
Manufacturing Capacity, GWh
% of Total
#1 🇨🇳 China89377%
#2🇵🇱 Poland736%
#3🇺🇸 U.S.706%
#4🇭🇺 Hungary383%
#5🇩🇪 Germany313%
#6🇸🇪 Sweden161%
#7🇰🇷 South Korea151%
#8🇯🇵 Japan121%
#9🇫🇷 France61%
#10🇮🇳 India30.2%
🌍 Other71%
Total1,163100%

With nearly 900 gigawatt-hours of manufacturing capacity or 77% of the global total, China is home to six of the world’s 10 biggest battery makers. Behind China’s battery dominance is its vertical integration across the rest of the EV supply chain, from mining the metals to producing the EVs. It’s also the largest EV market, accounting for 52% of global sales in 2021.

Poland ranks second with less than one-tenth of China’s capacity. In addition, it hosts LG Energy Solution’s Wroclaw gigafactory, the largest of its kind in Europe and one of the largest in the world. Overall, European countries (including non-EU members) made up just 14% of global battery manufacturing capacity in 2022.

Although it lives in China’s shadow when it comes to batteries, the U.S. is also among the world’s lithium-ion powerhouses. As of 2022, it had eight major operational battery factories, concentrated in the Midwest and the South.

China’s Near-Monopoly Continues Through 2027

Global lithium-ion manufacturing capacity is projected to increase eightfold in the next five years. Here are the top 10 countries by projected battery production capacity in 2027:

RankCountry2027P Battery Cell
Manufacturing Capacity, GWh
% of Total
#1🇨🇳 China6,19769%
#2🇺🇸 U.S.90810%
#3🇩🇪 Germany5036%
#4🇭🇺 Hungary1942%
#5🇸🇪 Sweden1352%
#6🇵🇱 Poland1121%
#7🇨🇦 Canada1061%
#8🇪🇸 Spain981%
#9🇫🇷 France891%
#10 🇲🇽 Mexico801%
🌍 Other5236%
Total8,945100%

China’s well-established advantage is set to continue through 2027, with 69% of the world’s battery manufacturing capacity.

Meanwhile, the U.S. is projected to increase its capacity by more than 10-fold in the next five years. EV tax credits in the Inflation Reduction Act are likely to incentivize battery manufacturing by rewarding EVs made with domestic materials. Alongside Ford and General Motors, Asian companies including Toyota, SK Innovation, and LG Energy Solution have all announced investments in U.S. battery manufacturing in recent months.

Europe will host six of the projected top 10 countries for battery production in 2027. Europe’s current and future battery plants come from a mix of domestic and foreign firms, including Germany’s Volkswagen, China’s CATL, and South Korea’s SK Innovation.

Can Countries Cut Ties With China?

Regardless of the growth in North America and Europe, China’s dominance is unmatched.

Battery manufacturing is just one piece of the puzzle, albeit a major one. Most of the parts and metals that make up a battery—like battery-grade lithium, electrolytes, separators, cathodes, and anodes—are primarily made in China.

Therefore, combating China’s dominance will be expensive. According to Bloomberg, the U.S. and Europe will have to invest $87 billion and $102 billion, respectively, to meet domestic battery demand with fully local supply chains by 2030.

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