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Explainer: What to Know About Monkeypox

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Explainer: What to Know About Monkeypox

The COVID-19 pandemic is still fresh in the minds of the people around the world, so it comes as no surprise that recent outbreaks of another virus are grabbing headlines.

Monkeypox outbreaks have now been reported in multiple countries, and it has scientists paying close attention. For everyone else, numerous questions come to the surface:

  • How serious is this virus?
  • How contagious is it?
  • Could monkeypox develop into a new pandemic?

Below, we answer these questions and more.

What is Monkeypox?

Monkeypox is a virus in the Orthopoxvirus genus which also includes the variola virus (which causes smallpox) and the cowpox virus. The primary symptoms include fever, swollen lymph nodes, and a distinctive bumpy rash.

There are two major strains of the virus that pose very different risks:

  • Congo Basin strain: 1 in 10 people infected with this strain have died
  • West African strain: Approximately 1 in 100 people infected with this strain died

At the moment, health authorities in the UK have indicated they’re seeing the milder strain in patients there.

Where did Monkeypox Originate From?

The virus was originally discovered in the Democratic Republic of Congo in monkeys kept for research purposes (hence the name). Eventually, the virus made the jump to humans more than a decade after its discovery in 1958.

It is widely assumed that vaccination against another similar virus, smallpox, helped keep monkeypox outbreaks from occurring in human populations. Ironically, the successful eradication of smallpox, and eventual winding down of that vaccine program, has opened the door to a new viral threat. There is now a growing population of people who no longer have immunity against the virus.

Now that travel restrictions are lifting in many parts of the world, viruses are now able to hop between nations again. As of the publishing of this article, a handful of cases have now been reported in the U.S., Canada, the UK, and a number of European countries.

On the upside, contact tracing has helped authorities piece together the transmission of the virus. While cases are rare in Europe and North America, it is considered endemic in parts of West Africa. For example, the World Health Organization reports that Nigeria has experienced over 550 reported monkeypox cases from 2017 to today. The current UK outbreak originated from an individual who returned from a trip to Nigeria.

Could Monkeypox become a new pandemic?

Monkeypox, which primarily spreads through animal-to-human interaction, is not known to spread easily between humans. Most individuals infected with monkeypox pass the virus to between zero and one person, so outbreaks typically fizzle out. For this reason, the fact that outbreaks are occurring in several countries simultaneously is concerning for health authorities and organizations that monitor viral transmission. Experts are entertaining the possibility that the virus’ rate of transmission has increased.

Images of people covered in monkeypox lesions are shocking, and people are understandably concerned by this virus, but the good news is that members of the general public have little to fear at this stage.

I think the risk to the general public at this point, from the information we have, is very, very low.
–Tom Inglesby, Director, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security

» For up-to-date information on monkeypox cases, check out Global.Health’s tracking spreadsheet

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Misc

Infographic: The Next Characters to Enter the Public Domain

This infographic shows which popular characters will be entering the public domain over the next 15 years.

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Infographic showing which popular characters that will enter public domain in coming years

The Next Characters to Enter the Public Domain

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Copyright is a type of intellectual property right that protects authors’ original works, meaning that their art cannot be used without approval. However, copyright protections do not last forever—eventually, all original work will enter the public domain.

In this graphic, we visualize the popular characters that are set to enter the public domain in the next 15 years, using data compiled from several sources.

How Does a Character Enter the Public Domain?

The amount of time a given work is protected by copyright varies, but this window typically lasts 70 years after the author’s death or 95 years after publication. Once the copyright expires, the work enters the public domain, signaling time for anyone to enjoy and interact with them without legal repercussions.

Which Characters Will Have Their Copyrights Expire Next?

The Brothers Grimm version of Snow White has already had its copyright expire. However, Disney’s iconic Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs version will only enter public domain in 2032.

On January 1st, 2024, the Steamboat Willie versions of Mickey and Minnie Mouse entered public domain (and already, content creators are seizing the opportunity). The modern version of Mickey Mouse will follow suit in roughly 15 years.

Below is a list of popular characters that will be entering the public domain in coming years.

CharacterYear expected to enter the public domain
Sleeping Beautyalready public domain
Snow Whitealready public domain
Pinocchioalready public domain
Peter Panalready public domain
Tinkerbellalready public domain
Captain Hookalready public domain
Winnie-the-Poohalready public domain
Mickey Mouse (Steamboat Willie version)already public domain
Minnie Mouse (Steamboat Willie version)already public domain
Popeye2025
Pluto2026
Betty Boop2026
Goofy2028
Donald Duck2029
King Kong2029
Snow White and the Seven Dwarves (Disney version)2032
Superman2034
Bugs Bunny2035
Batman2035
Joker2036
Captain America2036
Wonder Woman2037
Mickey Mouse (Disney version)2037
Bambie2038

Several of Mickey’s companions—including Pluto (2026), Goofy (2028), and Donald Duck (2029)—will be entering public domain in the next five years along with Betty Boop (2026), King Kong (2029), and Bugs Bunny (2035).

The copyright on many of DC Comics’ stars—like Superman, Batman, the Joker, and Wonder Woman—will expire in the 2030s.

If you found this interesting, check out this visualization on the world’s top media franchises of all-time by revenue.

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