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Urbanization

Projecting Europe’s Metro Population Growth from 2021‒2100

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Top 50 metropolitan regions in Europe population growth

Projecting Europe’s Metro Population Growth from 2021‒2100

European cities have a storied history as global destinations, both for tourism and for immigration.

Despite lengthy histories, they are not immune to the global shifts in population patterns or urbanization. Even though the majority of the EU’s population already lives in urban areas, Europe’s urbanization rate is expected to rise to 84% by 2050.

However, not all cities are subject to that same growth. This visual from Gilbert Fontana uses data from Eurostat and breaks down the expected EU population growth rates for the 50 largest metropolitan regions from 2021 to 2100.

Drivers of Growth

It may come as no surprise that economic prosperity is a key driver of population growth.

Countries like Sweden, France, and Ireland are expected to see large swaths of population growth. Sweden’s largest three cities, Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö, are forecasted to experience the largest population growth by 2100 in percentage terms.

Metro regionCountryPopulation (2021)Population (2100)Growth rate (%)
MalmöSweden1,389,3362,009,51044.6%
StockholmSweden2,391,9903,424,31743.1%
GothenburgSweden1,734,4432,449,55241.2%
ToulouseFrance1,434,4391,906,35932.8%
BordeauxFrance1,661,9292,185,09031.4%
DublinIreland2,160,7812,831,08831.0%
BarcelonaSpain5,639,5237,319,53729.7%
LyonFrance1,899,5992,401,55326.4%
MadridSpain6,755,8288,486,42925.6%
NantesFrance1,461,2671,828,15525.1%
RotterdamNetherlands1,834,4172,196,55519.7%
PragueCzech Republic2,733,0813,204,49317.2%
LisbonPortugal2,869,0333,232,62312.6%
ViennaAustria2,890,5773,244,85712.2%
HelsinkiFinland1,702,6781,899,42011.5%
BerlinGermany5,351,7655,968,36511.5%
UtrechtNetherlands1,361,1531,472,0558.1%
MunichGermany2,932,6683,163,2207.8%
DresdenGermany1,339,3301,441,6027.6%
ParisFrance12,348,60513,212,2126.9%
Málaga - MarbellaSpain1,696,4631,797,6645.9%
Murcia - CartagenaSpain1,513,0761,599,7815.7%
MarseilleFrance3,146,5783,318,0865.4%
MilanItaly4,339,2694,521,5184.1%
FrankfurtGermany2,735,9322,837,8433.7%
CologneGermany2,000,2892,057,9252.8%
HamburgGermany3,353,0843,445,2842.7%
WarsawPoland3,095,0253,163,5052.2%
AmsterdamNetherlands3,316,7123,384,3052.0%
StuttgartGermany2,787,8582,839,2421.8%
Alicante - ElcheSpain1,895,1921,911,9540.8%
Lille - Dunkirk - ValenciennesFrance2,607,8792,628,2680.7%
GdanskPoland1,345,6231,344,3220.0%
NürnbergGermany1,352,3181,350,907-0.1%
RuhrGermany5,102,4845,080,567-0.4%
DüsseldorfGermany1,556,8461,516,349-2.6%
CopenhagenDenmark2,067,9161,996,277-3.4%
RomeItaly4,231,4513,969,742-6.1%
KrakówPoland1,510,7141,402,230-7.1%
BudapestHungary3,033,6382,797,722-7.7%
ValenciaSpain2,574,8882,332,960-9.3%
BrusselsBelgium3,328,5682,873,299-13.6%
SevilleSpain1,960,9191,635,001-16.6%
TorinoItaly2,219,2061,844,613-16.8%
SofiaBulgaria1,667,3141,373,429-17.6%
NaplesItaly2,986,7452,299,616-23.0%
BucharestRomania2,327,0571,683,124-27.6%
PortoPortugal1,727,7741,103,722-36.1%
KatowicePoland2,668,7901,663,542-37.6%
AthensGreece3,547,3912,206,511-37.7%

This forecasted growth underscores the strength of Sweden’s economy and global identity, with a very high GDP-per-capita and consistently ranking highly in economic freedom and prosperity.

Europe’s largest population growth in raw numbers, meanwhile, is expected in Spain. The populations of both Madrid and Barcelona are each forecasted to grow by more than 1.6 million people between 2021 and 2100.

On the flip side, some of the regions with the lowest levels of expected growth face challenging economic environments.

For example, Greece is still suffering from the fallout of its sovereign debt crisis in the 2010s, which significantly harmed economic prospects for everyday people. Even though many working-class people have already left the country, Athens is currently expected to see a further population reduction of 1.3 million people or 38% of its population by the end of the century.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Urbanization

Mapped: U.S. States By Number of Cities Over 250,000 Residents

Eighteen U.S. States don’t have a single incorporated area with more than 250,000 people.

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A cropped map showing the number of cities with 250,000+ residents in each U.S. state.

Mapped: U.S. States By Number of Cities Over 250K Residents

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Over 80% of the American population lives in an “urban area” according to the U.S. Census Bureau. But where are all of the country’s largest cities, and what patterns can we see from their state locations?

This map shows U.S. states by their number of incorporated areas (i.e. cities or towns) that have more than 250,000 residents. Data for this map comes from 2024 estimates made by World Population Review, which were based on the latest U.S. Census Bureau figures.

ℹ️ An incorporated area is a legally recognized region with its own local government, empowered to enact and enforce laws within its boundaries, often including cities, towns, or villages.

Ranked: U.S. States By Number of Cities Over 250K Residents

California and Texas—also the most populous U.S. states—each have more than 10 cities with at least a quarter of a million inhabitants.

StateCities With 250K
People
City Names
California15Los Angeles, San
Diego, San Jose,
San Francisco,
Fresno, Sacramento,
Long Beach, Oakland,
Bakersfield, Anaheim,
Riverside, Stockton,
Irvine, Santa Ana,
Chula Visa
Texas12Houston, San
Antonio, Dallas,
Fort Worth, Austin,
El Paso, Arlington,
Corpus Christi, Plano,
Lubbock, Laredo,
Irving
Arizona6Phoenix, Tucson,
Mesa, Chandler,
Gilbert, Glendale
Florida6Jacksonville, Miami,
Tampa, Orlando,
St. Petersburg,
Port St. Lucie
North Carolina5Charlotte, Raleigh,
Greensboro, Durham,
Winston-Salem
Ohio4Columbus, Cleveland,
Cincinnati, Toledo
Nevada4Las Vegas, Henderson,
North Las Vegas,
Reno
Colorado3Denver, Colorado
Springs, Aurora
Tennessee2Nashville, Memphis
New York2New York, Buffalo
Pennsylvania2Philadelphia, Pittsburgh
Indiana2Indianapolis,
Fort Wayne
Oklahoma2Oklahoma City, Tulsa
Kentucky2Louisville/Jefferson
County, Lexington
Wisconsin2Milwaukee, Madison
Missouri2Kansas City, St. Louis
Nebraska2Omaha, Lincoln
Virginia2Virginia Beach,
Chesapeake
Minnesota2Minneapolis, St. Paul
New Jersey2Newark, Jersey City
Illinois1Chicago
Washington1Seattle
District of Columbia1Washington D.C.
Massachusetts1Boston
Oregon1Portland
Michigan1Detroit
New Mexico1Albuquerque
Maryland1Baltimore
Georgia1Atlanta
Kansas1Wichita
Louisiana1New Orleans
Hawaii1Honolulu
Alaska1Anchorage

Two other warm weather states, Arizona and Florida, also have a number of cities with 250,000 or more residents, at six each.

Eighteen U.S. states in total—including South Carolina, Alabama, and Utah to name a few—have no single incorporated area with 250,000 or more residents.

Cities, Towns, and Metro Areas

Like with all population data, definitions tend to play a big role in what is considered a city. In general parlance, built-up population centers are often thought of cities. However, an urban area can have a relatively big population and be incorporated as a town, as in the case of Gilbert, Arizona, which is included in the above map.

Separately, a collection of incorporated villages can be collectively referred to as a town, such as in the case of Hempstead, New York. Hempstead is an incorporated village with only 60,000 people, however it also lends its name to the wider town (an amalgamation of 22 villages and 38 hamlets) which has nearly 800,000 inhabitants. Three other New York towns listed below thus do not make the map for similar reasons.

TownStatePopulation
HempsteadNew York779,916
BrookhavenNew York483,351
IslipNew York333,322
Oyster BayNew York293,812

Source: World Population Review.

On the other hand, major hubs like Los Angeles often have a central city and surrounding suburbs, which are their own distinct incorporated cities as well. These are often counted as one major metropolitan region, but are still, technically separate cities. This leads to interesting results in the final count.

For example, in Arizona’s case, five of the six cities listed all belong to the greater Phoenix Metropolitan region.

Meanwhile, Nevada has two main population centers: Las Vegas and Reno. However two of Las Vegas’ suburbs, Henderson and North Las Vegas, are separately incorporated, and each have populations that crack the 250,000 mark.

Conversely, in South Carolina, there are no cities listed, despite having a state population of 5.3 million. The state’s urban areas are divided up in such a way that none of them (including the central cities of Charleston, Columbia, and Greenville) end up passing 250,000 in population.

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