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Banks Hit With Record Fines for Forex Manipulation [Chart]

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Banks Hit With Record Fines for Forex Manipulation [Chart]

Banks Hit With Record Fines for Forex Manipulation [Chart]

The Chart of the Week is a weekly feature in Visual Capitalist on Fridays.

Few things in life are guaranteed. There’s death and taxes of course, but is anything else inevitable?

We’d say the cat and mouse game between regulators and financial institutions ranks up there. The rodents are usually pretty elusive, but this week the cat had them cornered and made off with their lunch.

On Wednesday, six major banks got more than just their wrists slapped by various authorities including The Fed, the Department of Justice, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, the New York State Department of Financial Services, and the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority.

The total fines add up to nearly $6 billion for the manipulation of foreign currency rates for the benefit of traders. The biggest hit this week was to Barclays, with the bank getting a $2.5 billion fine in the probe. Barclays, along with three other banks (Citi, JPMorgan, and RBS) had pleaded guilty to criminal charges for forex manipulation with the market prices for US dollars and euros. UBS, the bank that was granted immunity in the antitrust case, did also plead guilty to manipulating LIBOR.

The guilty pleads are no surprise, as the details of these collusion allegations are pretty damning. Evidence of trader conversations in chatrooms have been leaked by authorities and there are pages upon pages of them.

Some of the classics (from above sources):

  • “If you aint cheating, you aint trying.”
  • “its just amazing how libor fixing can make you that much money”
  • “give the rate that was most advantageous to the bank, but would not make the customer go away!”
  • “JUST BE CAREFUL DUDE.” “I agree we shouldn’t ve been talking about putting fixings for our positions on public chat.”

Yes, you probably shouldn’t be talking about putting fixings on positions in public chat. Enjoy your new job (probably working for some government agency “teaching” them how forex manipulation works).

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Markets

Mapped: The World’s Least Affordable Housing Markets in 2024

See which housing markets are considered ‘impossibly unaffordable’ according to their median price-to-income ratio.

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The World’s Least Affordable Housing Markets in 2024

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Many cities around the world have become very expensive to buy a home in, but which ones are the absolute most unattainable?

In this graphic, we highlight a number of housing markets that are deemed to be “impossibly unaffordable” in 2024, ranked by their median price-to-income ratio.

This data comes from the Demographia International Housing Affordability Report, which is produced by the Chapman University Center for Demographics and Policy.

Data and Key Takeaway

The median price-to-income ratio compares median house price to median household income within each market. A higher ratio (higher prices relative to incomes) means a city is less affordable.

See the following table for all of the data we used to create this graphic. Note that this analysis covers 94 markets across eight countries: Australia, Canada, China, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

RankMetropolitan MarketCountryMedian price-to-income
ratio
1Hong Kong (SAR)🇨🇳 China16.7
2Sydney🇦🇺 Australia13.8
3Vancouver🇨🇦 Canada12.3
4San Jose🇺🇸 U.S.11.9
5Los Angeles🇺🇸 U.S.10.9
6Honolulu🇺🇸 U.S.10.5
7Melbourne🇦🇺 Australia9.8
8San Francisco🇺🇸 U.S.9.7
9Adelaide🇦🇺 Australia9.7
10San Diego🇺🇸 U.S.9.5
11Toronto🇨🇦 Canada9.3
12Auckland🇳🇿 New Zealand8.2

According to the Demographia report, cities with a median price-to-income ratio of over 9.0 are considered “impossibly unaffordable”.

We can see that the top city in this ranking, Hong Kong, has a ratio of 16.7. This means that the median price of a home is 16.7 times greater than the median income.

Which Cities are More Affordable?

On the flipside, here are the top 12 most affordable cities that were analyzed in the Demographia report.

RankMetropolitan MarketCountryMedian price-to-income
ratio
1Pittsburgh🇺🇸 U.S.3.1
2Rochester🇺🇸 U.S.3.4
2St. Louis🇺🇸 U.S.3.4
4Cleveland🇺🇸 U.S.3.5
5Edmonton🇨🇦 Canada3.6
5Buffalo🇺🇸 U.S.3.6
5Detroit🇺🇸 U.S.3.6
5Oklahoma City🇺🇸 U.S.3.6
9Cincinnati🇺🇸 U.S.3.7
9Louisville🇺🇸 U.S.3.7
11Singapore🇸🇬 Singapore3.8
12Blackpool & Lancashire🇬🇧 U.K.3.9

Cities with a median price-to-income ratio of less than 3.0 are considered “affordable”, while those between 3.1 and 4.0 are considered “moderately unaffordable”.

See More Real Estate Content From Visual Capitalist

If you enjoyed this post, be sure to check out Ranked: The Most Valuable Housing Markets in America.

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