A Guide to Cannabis in the U.S.
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A Guide to Cannabis in the U.S.

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The History of Cannabis Prohibition in the U.S. Part 1 of 5
A Bird’s Eye View of the Largest Cannabis Markets Part 2 of 5
A Guide to Cannabis in the US Part 3 of 5
 The Evolution of Cannabis Markets 4 of 5
Legal Vs Illegal: An Overview of the Cannabis Market Part 5 of 5

The following content is sponsored by Tenacious Labs.

A Guide to Cannabis in the U.S.

Providing an overview of the status of cannabis in the U.S. is challenging at best. On the federal level, things are fairly straight forward. Cannabis is federally illegal and has been for 88 years and counting. Getting down to the state level, however, changes things.

This map from Tenacious Labs breaks down the legal status of cannabis across every U.S. state, and details how lenient each one is when it comes to criminalization.

No Cannabis Allowed

Cannabis—the plant from which marijuana is made—is still considered a dangerous and criminal substance in many U.S. states. In fact, there are six states where cannabis is illegal, of which five are yet to decriminalize. This means an individual can be criminally prosecuted for possessing certain amounts.

StateLegal StatusDecriminalized?
WyomingIllegalNo
WisconsinIllegalNo
KentuckyIllegalNo
KansasIllegalNo
IdahoIllegalNo
NebraskaIllegalYes

Most states began decriminalizing marijuana decades ago, but not all have chosen to partake in this trend. Prosecutors in Alabama for example are able to charge someone with a felony offense for possessing marijuana.

In most states where cannabis is illegal, it is not decriminalized. In particular, only one illegal state has decriminalized the substance—Nebraska.

Medical Use Only

In some U.S. states, approved medical usage of cannabis could be a precursor towards full legalization. Just as it was for states like California and Oregon. However, some states that allow medical usage have chosen not to decriminalize cannabis for recreational purposes.

StateLegal StatusDecriminalized?
West VirginiaMedicalNo
UtahMedicalNo
Rhode IslandMedicalYes
PennsylvaniaMedicalNo
OklahomaMedicalNo
OhioMedicalYes
North DakotaMedicalYes
New HampshireMedicalYes
MissouriMedicalYes
MississippiMedicalYes
MinnesotaMedicalYes
MarylandMedicalYes
LouisianaMedicalNo
IowaMedicalNo
HawaiiMedicalYes
FloridaMedicalNo
DelawareMedicalYes
ArkansasMedicalNo
TennesseeMedicalNo
TexasMedical No
AlabamaMedical No
GeorgiaMedical No
IndianaMedical No
North CarolinaMedical Yes
South CarolinaMedical No
South DakotaMedical No

Many states have lists of qualifying conditions which allow a person to carry prescribed amounts of cannabis—often for ailments like glaucoma or cancer. States like Iowa allow cannabis to treat medical conditions, but only if it is CBD-based rather than THC-based.

Interestingly enough, all CBD-based cannabis products with THC levels less than or equal to 0.3% are fully legal on a federal level.

Cannabis Allowed

Some states are famously legal, like Colorado. The legalization of cannabis in Colorado, for example, has added numerous jobs, investments, and a new market to the economy—not to mention billions of dollars.

StateLegal StatusDecriminalized?
Washington, DCAdult useYes
WashingtonAdult useYes
VirginiaAdult useYes
VermontAdult useYes
OregonAdult useYes
New YorkAdult useYes
New MexicoAdult useYes
New JerseyAdult useYes
NevadaAdult useYes
MontanaAdult useYes
MichiganAdult useYes
MassachusettsAdult useYes
MaineAdult useYes
IllinoisAdult useYes
ColoradoAdult useYes
CaliforniaAdult useYes
ArizonaAdult useYes
AlaskaAdult useYes
ConnecticutAdult UseYes

Overall, there are 18 states (and Washington D.C.) which have fully legalized cannabis—allowing both medical and recreational usage—and over 20 which have legalized cannabis for medical use only.

With the current Democratic government, federal legalization seems more likely. In fact, the MORE Act (Marijuana Opportunity, Reinvestment, and Expungement Act) was recently reintroduced in the House of Representatives pushing forward the progress for federal cannabis legalization in America.

In the next part of The Legal Landscape Series, we will take a deep dive into the evolution of cannabis markets.

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The History of U.S. Energy Independence

This infographic traces the history of U.S. energy independence, showing the events that have shaped oil demand and imports over 150 years.

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history of U.S. energy independence

The History of U.S. Energy Independence

Energy independence has long been a part of America’s political history and foreign policy, especially since the 1970s.

Despite long being a leader in energy production, the U.S. has often still relied on oil imports to meet its growing needs. This “energy dependence” left the country and American consumers vulnerable to supply disruptions and oil price shocks.

The above infographic from Surge Battery Metals traces the history of U.S. energy independence, highlighting key events that shaped the country’s import reliance for oil. This is part one of three infographics in the Energy Independence Series.

How the U.S. Became Energy Dependent

Oil was first commercially drilled in the U.S. in 1859, when Colonel Edwin Drake developed an oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania.

Twenty years later in 1880, the U.S. was responsible for 85% of global crude oil production and refining. But over the next century, the country became increasingly dependent on oil imports.

Here are some key events that affected America’s oil dependence and foreign policy during that time according to the Council on Foreign Relations:

  • 1908: Henry Ford invented the Model T, the world’s first mass-produced and affordable car.
  • 1914-1918: The U.S. began importing small quantities of oil from Mexico to meet the demands of World War I and domestic consumption.
  • 1942: In efforts to save gas and fuel for World War II, the Office of Defense Transportation implemented a national plan limiting driving speeds to 35 miles per hour.
  • 1943: President Roosevelt provided financial support to Saudi Arabia and declared Saudi oil critical to U.S. security.
  • 1950: With 40 million cars on the road, the U.S. became a net importer of oil bringing in around 500,000 barrels per day.
  • 1970: Twentieth century U.S. oil production peaked and President Nixon eased oil import quotas, allowing an additional 100,000 barrels per day in imports.

The U.S. economy’s increasing reliance on oil imports made it vulnerable to supply disruptions. For example, in 1973, in response to the U.S.’ support for Israel, Arab members of the OPEC imposed an embargo on oil exports to Western nations, creating the first “oil shock”. Oil prices nearly quadrupled, and American consumers felt the shock through long lineups at gas stations along with high inflation. Combined with rising unemployment rates and flattening wages, the increase in prices led to a period of stagflation.

Despite the energy crisis, U.S. oil production fell for decades, while the country met its increasing energy needs with oil from abroad.

The Rise and Fall of U.S. Oil Imports

Here’s how U.S. net imports of crude oil and petroleum products has evolved since 1950 in comparison with consumption and production. All figures are in millions of barrels per day (bpd).

YearConsumption (bpd)Production (bpd)Net imports (bpd)
19506.5M5.9M0.5M
19609.8M8.1M1.6M
197014.7M11.7M3.2M
198017.1M10.8M6.4M
199017.0M9.6M7.2M
200019.7M8.7M10.4M
201019.2M9.5M9.4M
202119.8M18.7M-0.2M

Net oil imports quadrupled between 1960 and 1980, marking the two biggest decadal jumps. Given that production was falling while consumption was booming, it’s clear why the U.S. needed to rely on imports.

Imports peaked in 2005, with net imports accounting for a record 60% of domestic consumption. Both imports and consumption fell in the years that followed. In 2009, for the first time since 1970, U.S. oil production increased thanks to the shale boom. It ascended until 2019 to make the U.S. the world’s largest oil producer.

As of 2021, the U.S. was a net exporter of refined petroleum products and hydrocarbon liquids but remained a net importer of crude oil.

The New Era of Energy

Oil and fossil fuels have long played a central role in the global energy mix. The U.S.’ reliance on other countries for oil made it energy-dependent, exposing American gas consumers to geopolitical shocks and volatile oil prices.

Today, the global energy shift away from fossil fuels towards cleaner sources of generation offers a new opportunity to use lessons from the past. By securing the raw materials needed to enable the energy transition, the U.S. can build a clean energy future independent of foreign sources.

In the next part of the Energy Independence Series sponsored by Surge Battery Metals, we will explore the New Era of Energy and the role of electric vehicles and renewables in the ongoing energy transition.

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Ranked: Emissions per Capita of the Top 30 U.S. Investor-Owned Utilities

Roughly 25% of all GHG emissions come from electricity production. See how the top 30 IOUs rank by emissions per capita.

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Emissions per Capita of the Top 30 U.S. Investor-Owned Utilities

Approximately 25% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) come from electricity generation.

Subsequently, this means investor-owned utilities (IOUs) will have a crucial role to play around carbon reduction initiatives. This is particularly true for the top 30 IOUs, where almost 75% of utility customers get their electricity from.

This infographic from the National Public Utilities Council ranks the largest IOUs by emissions per capita. By accounting for the varying customer bases they serve, we get a more accurate look at their green energy practices. Here’s how they line up.

Per Capita Rankings

The emissions per capita rankings for the top 30 investor-owned utilities have large disparities from one another.

Totals range from a high of 25.8 tons of CO2 per customer annually to a low of 0.5 tons.

UtilityEmissions Per Capita (CO2 tons per year)Total Emissions (M)
TransAlta25.816.3
Vistra22.497.0
OGE Energy21.518.2
AES Corporation19.849.9
Southern Company18.077.8
Evergy14.623.6
Alliant Energy14.414.1
DTE Energy14.229.0
Berkshire Hathaway Energy14.057.2
Entergy13.840.5
WEC Energy13.522.2
Ameren12.831.6
Duke Energy12.096.6
Xcel Energy11.943.3
Dominion Energy11.037.8
Emera11.016.6
PNM Resources10.55.6
PPL Corporation10.428.7
American Electric Power9.250.9
Consumers Energy8.716.1
NRG Energy8.229.8
Florida Power and Light8.041.0
Portland General Electric7.66.9
Fortis Inc.6.112.6
Avangrid5.111.6
PSEG3.99.0
Exelon3.834.0
Consolidated Edison1.66.3
Pacific Gas and Electric0.52.6
Next Era Energy Resources01.1

PNM Resources data is from 2019, all other data is as of 2020

Let’s start by looking at the higher scoring IOUs.

TransAlta

TransAlta emits 25.8 tons of CO2 emissions per customer, the largest of any utility on a per capita basis. Altogether, the company’s 630,000 customers emit 16.3 million metric tons. On a recent earnings call, its management discussed clear intent to phase out coal and grow their renewables mix by doubling their renewables fleet. And so far it appears they’ve been making good on their promise, having shut down the Canadian Highvale coal mine recently.

Vistra

Vistra had the highest total emissions at 97 million tons of CO2 per year and is almost exclusively a coal and gas generator. However, the company announced plans for 60% reductions in CO2 emissions by 2030 and is striving to be carbon neutral by 2050. As the highest total emitter, this transition would make a noticeable impact on total utility emissions if successful.

Currently, based on their 4.3 million customers, Vistra sees per capita emissions of 22.4 tons a year. The utility is a key electricity provider for Texas, ad here’s how their electricity mix compares to that of the state as a whole:

Energy SourceVistraState of Texas
Gas63%52%
Coal29%15%
Nuclear6%9%
Renewables1%24%
Oil1%0%

Despite their ambitious green energy pledges, for now only 1% of Vistra’s electricity comes from renewables compared to 24% for Texas, where wind energy is prospering.

Based on those scores, the average customer from some of the highest emitting utility groups emit about the same as a customer from each of the bottom seven, who clearly have greener energy practices. Let’s take a closer look at emissions for some of the bottom scoring entities.

Utilities With The Greenest Energy Practices

Groups with the lowest carbon emission scores are in many ways leaders on the path towards a greener future.

Exelon

Exelon emits only 3.8 tons of CO2 emissions per capita annually and is one of the top clean power generators across the Americas. In the last decade they’ve reduced their GHG emissions by 18 million metric tons, and have recently teamed up with the state of Illinois through the Clean Energy Jobs Act. Through this, Exelon will receive $700 million in subsidies as it phases out coal and gas plants to meet 2030 and 2045 targets.

Consolidated Edison

Consolidated Edison serves nearly 4 million customers with a large chunk coming from New York state. Altogether, they emit 1.6 tons of CO2 emissions per capita from their electricity generation.

The utility group is making notable strides towards a sustainable future by expanding its renewable projects and testing higher capacity limits. In addition, they are often praised for their financial management and carry the title of dividend aristocrat, having increased their dividend for 47 years and counting. In fact, this is the longest out of any utility company in the S&P 500.

A Sustainable Tomorrow

Altogether, utilities will have a pivotal role to play in decarbonization efforts. This is particularly true for the top 30 U.S. IOUs, who serve millions of Americans.

Ultimately, this means a unique moment for utilities is emerging. As the transition toward cleaner energy continues and various groups push to achieve their goals, all eyes will be on utilities to deliver.

The National Public Utilities Council is the go-to resource to learn how utilities can lead in the path towards decarbonization.

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