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Chart: The Global Leaders in R&D Spending, by Country and Company

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Chart: The Global Leaders in R&D Spending, by Country and Company

Chart: The Global Leaders in R&D Spending

The countries and firms that put the most into R&D

The Chart of the Week is a weekly Visual Capitalist feature on Fridays.

Given a choice of being the disruptor or the disrupted, many would prefer to choose the former.

But it’s not as easy as just flipping a switch and subsequently reaping the benefits of a forward-looking vision, new product categories, and forthcoming patents. Instead, an organization has to proactively acquire this innovation and intellectual capital from somewhere.

For many established companies, there is no other choice but to buy innovative startups through M&A to get their innovation fix, though this typically comes at a marked up price. On the flipside, especially for companies in tech, auto, and pharmaceutical spaces, innovation likely has to be in the DNA of the company culture, managerial decisions, and any new talent hired.

Global Leaders in R&D Spending

For those companies that aim to innovate internally, money needs to go into the research and development (R&D) line of their income statement.

Today’s chart looks at the countries that put the most into R&D (in % of GDP terms, and absolute $ terms), as well as the companies that have spent the most on R&D in the last 12 months trailing.

It’s also worth noting that money put into R&D is like any other investment – the money can be used wisely or simply squandered into initiatives that don’t pay off. Despite this, R&D spending is a loose approximation for global innovation.

R&D by Country

Global R&D spending is heavily concentrated in the G20 countries. In total they account for 92% of all R&D spending, and 94% of all patents granted at the U.S. Patent and Trademark office.

Here is a breakdown of R&D spending by GDP of select G20 countries:

CountryR&D Spending (% GDP)
South Korea4.23%
Japan3.29%
Germany2.93%
United States2.79%
France2.22%
Australia2.11%
China2.07%
Canada1.71%
United Kingdom1.70%
Italy1.33%
Russia1.10%
Turkey0.88%
South Africa0.73%
Argentina0.63%
Mexico0.53%

By total dollar spend, however, massive economies like the United States, China, and the EU take their rightful place.

RankEconomyR&D Spending ($) in 2015
#1United States$463 billion
#2China$377 billion
#3European Union$346 billion
#4Japan$155 billion
#5South Korea$74 billion

R&D by Company

On a company basis, the top five R&D spenders today are mostly technology companies.

RankCompanyR&D Spending (Last 12 months)
#1Amazon$17.4 billion
#2Volkswagen$15.1 billion
#3Alphabet$14.5 billion
#4Intel$12.8 billion
#5Samsung$12.8 billion

Interestingly, that wasn’t always the case – even as short as 10 years ago, the largest R&D spenders tended to be pharmaceutical companies like Pfizer, or automobile manufacturers like GM and Volkswagen.

A final note: Amazon doesn’t list R&D on its income statement directly, and instead classifies everything under a “Technology and Content” line which includes R&D. While it is likely Amazon is an R&D leader, there isn’t an exact number for it as of now.

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How Tech Logos Have Evolved Over Time

From complete overhauls to more subtle tweaks, these tech logos have had quite a journey. Featuring: Google, Apple, and more.

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A cropped chart with the evolution of prominent tech companies’ logos over time.

How Tech Logos Have Evolved Over Time

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

One would be hard-pressed to find a company that has never changed its logo. Granted, some brands—like Rolex, IBM, and Coca-Cola—tend to just have more minimalistic updates. But other companies undergo an entire identity change, thus necessitating a full overhaul.

In this graphic, we visualized the evolution of prominent tech companies’ logos over time. All of these brands ranked highly in a Q1 2024 YouGov study of America’s most famous tech brands. The logo changes are sourced from 1000logos.net.

How Many Times Has Google Changed Its Logo?

Google and Facebook share a 98% fame rating according to YouGov. But while Facebook’s rise was captured in The Social Network (2010), Google’s history tends to be a little less lionized in popular culture.

For example, Google was initially called “Backrub” because it analyzed “back links” to understand how important a website was. Since its founding, Google has undergone eight logo changes, finally settling on its current one in 2015.

CompanyNumber of
Logo Changes
Google8
HP8
Amazon6
Microsoft6
Samsung6
Apple5*

Note: *Includes color changes. Source: 1000Logos.net

Another fun origin story is Microsoft, which started off as Traf-O-Data, a traffic counter reading company that generated reports for traffic engineers. By 1975, the company was renamed. But it wasn’t until 2012 that Microsoft put the iconic Windows logo—still the most popular desktop operating system—alongside its name.

And then there’s Samsung, which started as a grocery trading store in 1938. Its pivot to electronics started in the 1970s with black and white television sets. For 55 years, the company kept some form of stars from its first logo, until 1993, when the iconic encircled blue Samsung logo debuted.

Finally, Apple’s first logo in 1976 featured Isaac Newton reading under a tree—moments before an apple fell on his head. Two years later, the iconic bitten apple logo would be designed at Steve Jobs’ behest, and it would take another two decades for it to go monochrome.

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