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Mapped: Ocean Fishing and Aquaculture Around the World

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A map of ocean fishing and aquaculture levels.

Ocean Fishing and Aquaculture Around the World

Fish and seafood is the most popularly consumed meat in the world, the first choice in more than 56 countries.

But where do our fish come from? Are they caught by massive ocean fishing boats, or farmed in sprawling aquaculture installations?

This map from creator Perrin Remonté points out where fishing activity (marked in white) occurs, using data from automatic identification system equipment aboard more than 70,000 industrial fishing vessels between 2012–2016.

The brightest white hotspots on the map—off the coast of China, western and nordic Europe, and the Pacific Northwest—give an indication of where most of the world’s fish supply is caught.

But who are the biggest producers?

Ranked: Which Country Produces the Most Fish?

By far the country with the biggest fish production is China, which supplied nearly 86 million metric tons of fish to the world in 2021, about 40% of global supply.

Chinese fishing vessels can be found fishing as far away from home as Argentina—sometimes illegally—to keep up with demand.

Here’s a list of the biggest fish producers, ranked by total output in 2021.

RankTerritoryFish Production (2021, tonnes)
1🇨🇳 China85,948,134
2🇮🇩 Indonesia21,813,413
3🇮🇳 India14,433,205
4🇻🇳 Vietnam8,289,524
5🇵🇪 Peru6,726,989
6🇷🇺 Russia5,487,045
7🇺🇸 U.S.4,731,048
8🇧🇩 Bangladesh4,621,228
9🇳🇴 Norway4,220,624
10🇵🇭 Philippines4,114,594
11🇯🇵 Japan4,114,570
12🇨🇱 Chile3,833,592
13🇰🇷 South Korea3,742,566
14🇲🇲 Myanmar2,594,957
15🇹🇭 Thailand2,402,021
16🇪🇬 Egypt2,001,959
17🇲🇽 Mexico1,875,566
18🇪🇨 Ecuador1,760,054
19🇲🇾 Malaysia1,754,209
20🇲🇦 Morocco1,434,205
21🇧🇷 Brazil1,410,979
22🇮🇷 Iran1,258,203
23🇮🇸 Iceland1,109,563
24🇪🇸 Spain1,088,454
25🇳🇬 Nigeria1,080,855
26🇨🇦 Canada945,954
27🇴🇲 Oman923,786
28🇰🇵 North Korea888,630
29🇬🇧 UK864,698
30🇲🇷 Mauritania860,217
31🇰🇭 Cambodia856,400
32🇦🇷 Argentina856,253
33🇹🇷 Türkiye799,844
34🇺🇬 Uganda760,545
35🇫🇷 France708,995
36🇵🇰 Pakistan660,586
37🇫🇴 Faroe Islands656,364
38🇹🇿 Tanzania621,058
39🇦🇴 Angola531,772
40🇸🇳 Senegal515,108
41🇩🇰 Denmark507,097
42🇿🇦 South Africa501,855
43🇬🇭 Ghana482,142
44🇳🇿 New Zealand459,937
45🇱🇰 Sri Lanka431,255
46🇳🇦 Namibia411,170
47🇲🇿 Mozambique376,763
48🇳🇱 Netherlands340,131
49🇬🇳 Guinea326,270
50🇨🇴 Colombia321,390
51🇨🇲 Cameroon300,130
52🇦🇺 Australia297,233
53🇮🇹 Italy296,358
54🇻🇪 Venezuela276,701
55🇮🇪 Ireland276,258
56🇬🇱 Greenland271,027
57🇵🇱 Poland246,172
58🇨🇩 DRC233,860
59🇬🇪 Georgia220,365
60🇩🇪 Germany220,312
61🇱🇦 Laos206,008
62🇸🇱 Sierra Leone205,015
63🇬🇷 Greece203,558
64🇵🇹 Portugal199,046
65🇵🇬 Papua
New Guinea
194,786
66🇧🇿 Belize192,226
67🇰🇮 Kiribati191,168
68🇵🇦 Panama183,774
69🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia181,949
70🇲🇼 Malawi180,508
71🇸🇪 Sweden175,222
72🇺🇿 Uzbekistan171,933
73🇿🇲 Zambia168,480
74🇫🇲 Micronesia166,334
75🇰🇪 Kenya152,728
76🇹🇳 Tunisia150,321
77🇲🇻 Maldives144,993
78🇫🇮 Finland139,370
79🇸🇨 Seychelles139,174
80🇾🇪 Yemen131,317
81🇲🇬 Madagascar130,333
82🇳🇵 Nepal121,854
83🇳🇷 Nauru120,410
84🇭🇰 Hong Kong119,088
85🇲🇱 Mali115,584
86🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire111,015
87🇹🇩 Chad103,110
88🇱🇹 Lithuania101,290
89🇲🇭 Marshall Islands95,933
90🇭🇷 Croatia89,253
91🇳🇮 Nicaragua86,280
92🇩🇿 Algeria83,979
93🇭🇳 Honduras79,518
94🇺🇦 Ukraine79,388
95🇧🇯 Benin78,765
96🇪🇪 Estonia73,085
97🇸🇻 El Salvador71,754
98🇨🇬 Congo70,330
99🇺🇾 Uruguay66,403
100🇮🇶 Iraq66,374
101🇦🇪 UAE63,852
102🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau63,231
103🇱🇻 Latvia62,560
104🇸🇧 Solomon
Islands
62,314
105🇪🇹 Ethiopia61,390
106🇻🇺 Vanuatu55,935
107🇬🇲 Gambia52,687
108🇳🇪 Niger47,672
109🇰🇿 Kazakhstan46,896
110🇨🇷 Costa Rica46,432
111🇸🇩 Sudan44,450
112🇬🇹 Guatemala43,666
113🇷🇼 Rwanda42,407
114🇨🇺 Cuba40,718
115🇬🇾 Guyana34,358
116🇫🇯 Fiji33,081
117🇲🇺 Mauritius32,955
118🇸🇸 South Sudan32,545
119🇸🇷 Suriname32,170
120🇱🇾 Libya31,961
121🇵🇾 Paraguay31,710
122🇹🇻 Tuvalu31,097
123🇧🇫 Burkina Faso30,609
124🇸🇴 Somalia30,000
125🇬🇦 Gabon29,925
126🇨🇫 Central
African Republic
28,215
127🇿🇼 Zimbabwe27,792
128🇱🇷 Liberia25,444
129🇨🇼 Curacao25,027
130🇨🇿 Czechia24,305
131🇧🇬 Bulgaria24,183
132🇭🇺 Hungary22,447
133🇧🇮 Burundi21,040
134🇩🇴 Dominican
Republic
20,397
135🇧🇳 Brunei
Darussalam
20,063
136🇦🇲 Armenia19,700
137🇰🇲 Comoros19,356
138🇲🇹 Malta18,936
139🇹🇬 Togo18,866
140🇦🇱 Albania18,283
141🇧🇪 Belgium18,160
142🇷🇴 Romania18,065
143🇭🇹 Haiti17,830
144🇮🇱 Israel16,910
145🇶🇦 Qatar16,668
146🇧🇭 Bahrain15,736
147🇹🇲 Turkmenistan15,202
148🇵🇫 French Polynesia14,802
149🇹🇹 Trinidad & Tobago13,102
150🇲🇩 Moldova12,905
151🇦🇫 Afghanistan12,607
152🇯🇲 Jamaica11,840
153🇨🇻 Cabo Verde11,652
154🇧🇴 Bolivia11,453
155🇰🇬 Kyrgyz Republic10,320
156🇷🇸 Serbia9,662
157🇨🇾 Cyprus9,264
158🇼🇸 Samoa9,186
159🇧🇾 Belarus9,115
160🇧🇸 Bahamas8,705
161🇸🇾 Syria6,660
162🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea6,322
163🇹🇱 Timor-Leste6,024
164🇸🇹 Sao Tome
& Principe
6,020
165🇸🇬 Singapore5,550
166🇵🇸 West Bank
& Gaza
5,348
167🇦🇹 Austria5,270
168🇳🇨 New Caledonia4,715
169🇪🇷 Eritrea4,578
170🇹🇯 Tajikistan4,389
171🇧🇦 Bosnia &
Herzegovina
4,124
172🇸🇰 Slovak Republic4,119
173🇰🇼 Kuwait3,975
174🇨🇭 Switzerland3,850
175🇲🇰 North Macedonia3,683
176🇱🇧 Lebanon3,358
177🇯🇪 Channel Islands3,333
178🇦🇬 Antigua
& Barbuda
3,225
179🇩🇯 Djibouti3,089
180🇮🇲 Isle of Man3,041
181🇯🇴 Jordan2,810
182🇹🇨 Turks &
Caicos Islands
2,277
183🇦🇿 Azerbaijan1,971
184🇸🇮 Slovenia1,955
185🇲🇪 Montenegro1,666
186🇱🇨 St. Lucia1,625
187🇻🇨 St. Vincent &
the Grenadines
1,599
188🇵🇷 Puerto Rico1,598
189🇱🇸 Lesotho1,556
190🇲🇴 Macao1,500
191🇹🇴 Tonga1,265
192🇻🇬 British Virgin Islands1,134
193🇦🇸 American Samoa1,079
194🇬🇩 Grenada1,046
195🇧🇧 Barbados872
196🇵🇼 Palau804
197🇻🇮 Virgin Islands428
198🇧🇲 Bermuda419
199🇰🇳 St. Kitts
& Nevis
371
200🇩🇲 Dominica289
201🇸🇽 Sint Maarten253
202🇲🇵 Northern
Mariana Islands
230
203🇧🇹 Bhutan208
204🇧🇼 Botswana201
205🇦🇼 Aruba167
206🇸🇿 Eswatini165
207🇬🇺 Guam141
208🇰🇾 Cayman Islands135
209🇫🇷 St. Martin90
210🇬🇮 Gibraltar1
211🇲🇨 Monaco1
N/A🌐 World216,872,258

Source: World Bank.

Other Asian countries—Indonesia (21.8 million tonnes), India (14.4 million tonnes), and Vietnam (8.2 million tonnes)—fill out the next few spots. Peru, with an annual production of 6.7 million tonnes rounds out the top five fish suppliers, which together account for nearly 60% of world fish supply.

The second half of the top 10 also has representatives from North America (the U.S.) and Europe (Russia), the latter whose fleets have also been caught fishing illegally off the coast of Africa.

Captured Ocean Fish vs Farmed Aquaculture Fish

A big footnote on total fish production is that it also includes aquaculture and farmed fish. Breaking down total fish supply between farmed and captured fish reveals some interesting trends. Here we rank the biggest fish suppliers by their farmed fish output.

RankTerritoryAquaculture Supply
(2021, tonnes)
Captured Supply
(2021, tonnes)
1🇨🇳 China72,805,29713,142,837
2🇮🇩 Indonesia14,606,5347,206,879
3🇮🇳 India9,408,3005,024,905
4🇻🇳 Vietnam4,749,2743,540,250
5🇧🇩 Bangladesh2,638,7451,982,483
6🇰🇷 South Korea2,427,6771,314,889
7🇵🇭 Philippines2,272,5281,842,067
8🇳🇴 Norway1,665,1122,555,512
9🇪🇬 Egypt1,576,189425,770
10🇨🇱 Chile1,443,5202,390,072
11🇹🇭 Thailand989,8981,412,123
12🇯🇵 Japan963,6803,150,890
13🇲🇲 Myanmar929,2171,665,740
14🇪🇨 Ecuador896,435863,619
15🇰🇵 North Korea680,560208,070
16🇧🇷 Brazil650,356760,623
17🇮🇷 Iran478,737779,466
18🇹🇷 Türkiye471,686328,158
19🇺🇸 U.S.448,6154,282,433
20🇲🇾 Malaysia416,9781,337,231
21🇰🇭 Cambodia348,350508,050
22🇷🇺 Russia319,3425,167,703
23🇪🇸 Spain279,910808,544
24🇳🇬 Nigeria275,645805,210
25🇲🇽 Mexico246,9141,628,652
26🇬🇧 UK230,280634,419
27🇫🇷 France198,886510,110
28🇨🇴 Colombia192,521128,869
29🇨🇦 Canada191,449754,505
30🇵🇰 Pakistan164,527496,059
31🇵🇪 Peru150,8186,576,171
32🇮🇹 Italy145,862150,496
33🇬🇷 Greece143,92659,632
34🇺🇬 Uganda138,558621,987
35🇱🇦 Laos135,00871,000
36🇦🇺 Australia126,206171,026
37🇺🇿 Uzbekistan118,93353,000
38🇳🇿 New Zealand116,839343,098
39🇫🇴 Faroe Islands115,760540,604
40🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia114,49067,459
41🇹🇿 Tanzania106,482514,575
42🇳🇵 Nepal100,85421,000
43🇬🇭 Ghana89,380392,762
44🇿🇲 Zambia63,355105,125
45🇭🇳 Honduras63,26816,250
46🇻🇪 Venezuela53,601223,100
47🇮🇸 Iceland53,1361,056,427
48🇱🇰 Sri Lanka50,977380,278
49🇵🇱 Poland44,787201,385
50🇮🇪 Ireland42,099234,159
51🇩🇰 Denmark40,594466,503
52🇳🇱 Netherlands40,590299,541
53🇩🇪 Germany32,649187,663
54🇬🇹 Guatemala32,58311,082
55🇳🇮 Nicaragua31,00655,275
56🇭🇷 Croatia26,83162,422
57🇹🇳 Tunisia26,077124,243
58🇮🇶 Iraq22,69443,680
59🇨🇺 Cuba22,66518,053
60🇰🇪 Kenya21,825130,903
61🇨🇿 Czechia20,9913,314
62🇵🇹 Portugal19,516179,530
63🇦🇲 Armenia18,930770
64🇭🇺 Hungary17,8474,601
65🇨🇷 Costa Rica17,30929,123
66🇺🇦 Ukraine16,88262,506
67🇲🇹 Malta16,4332,503
68🇲🇬 Madagascar16,396113,937
69🇸🇪 Sweden15,253159,969
70🇧🇬 Bulgaria15,1749,009
71🇮🇱 Israel14,8752,035
72🇫🇮 Finland14,399124,971
73🇵🇾 Paraguay14,15017,560
74🇲🇩 Moldova12,9050
75🇸🇻 El Salvador12,74959,005
76🇸🇧 Solomon Islands12,46149,854
77🇷🇴 Romania11,7146,351
78🇦🇫 Afghanistan11,1071,500
79🇿🇦 South Africa10,525491,330
80🇷🇼 Rwanda10,31332,094
81🇰🇬 Kyrgyz Republic10,30020
82🇲🇼 Malawi9,948170,560
83🇸🇩 Sudan9,90034,550
84🇨🇲 Cameroon9,800290,330
85🇦🇱 Albania8,6419,642
86🇧🇾 Belarus8,504611
87🇲🇱 Mali8,484107,100
88🇨🇾 Cyprus7,8621,401
89🇷🇸 Serbia7,3082,354
90🇵🇦 Panama6,704177,069
91🇵🇬 Papua
New Guinea
6,122188,664
92🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire5,720105,295
93🇰🇿 Kazakhstan5,43841,457
94🇸🇬 Singapore5,244306
95🇨🇩 DRC5,195228,665
96🇱🇹 Lithuania5,13896,152
97🇿🇼 Zimbabwe5,05822,734
98🇦🇹 Austria4,920350
99🇩🇿 Algeria4,77979,200
100🇧🇳 Brunei
Darussalam
4,76815,295
101🇧🇯 Benin4,15074,615
102🇭🇰 Hong Kong3,909115,179
103🇧🇴 Bolivia3,8537,600
104🇧🇦 Bosnia & Herzegovina3,819305
105🇦🇷 Argentina3,687852,566
106🇲🇿 Mozambique3,200373,563
107🇲🇰 North Macedonia3,169514
108🇦🇴 Angola2,808528,964
109🇬🇪 Georgia2,790217,575
110🇩🇴 Dominican Republic2,73017,667
111🇦🇪 UAE2,66361,189
112🇨🇭 Switzerland2,3641,486
113🇸🇾 Syria2,3504,310
114🇲🇺 Mauritius2,31630,640
115🇸🇰 Slovak Republic2,3041,815
116🇯🇴 Jordan2,145665
117🇹🇯 Tajikistan2,0392,350
118🇲🇦 Morocco2,0061,432,199
119🇴🇲 Oman1,703922,083
120🇸🇮 Slovenia1,686269
121🇭🇹 Haiti1,61016,220
122🇵🇫 French Polynesia1,55913,243
123🇱🇸 Lesotho1,50155
124🇧🇮 Burundi1,49019,550
125🇳🇨 New Caledonia1,4113,305
126🇸🇳 Senegal1,151513,957
127🇬🇳 Guinea1,150325,120
128🇯🇪 Channel Islands1,1452,188
129🇹🇱 Timor-Leste1,0914,933
130🇨🇬 Congo91169,419
131🇱🇻 Latvia90161,658
132🇯🇲 Jamaica88410,956
133🇹🇬 Togo88217,984
134🇧🇫 Burkina Faso87829,731
135🇲🇪 Montenegro858808
136🇪🇪 Estonia84972,236
137🇱🇧 Lebanon7782,580
138🇪🇹 Ethiopia74060,650
139🇵🇸 West Bank
& Gaza
6874,661
140🇧🇿 Belize605191,621
141🇦🇿 Azerbaijan5071,464
142🇳🇪 Niger47247,200
143🇰🇼 Kuwait4503,525
144🇳🇦 Namibia321410,849
145🇱🇷 Liberia27525,169
146🇧🇪 Belgium22317,937
147🇨🇫 Central
African Republic
21528,000
148🇱🇨 St. Lucia2111,414
149🇫🇯 Fiji20632,874
150🇧🇹 Bhutan19315
151🇧🇼 Botswana16338
152🇹🇲 Turkmenistan16015,042
153🇬🇾 Guyana14234,216
154🇸🇱 Sierra Leone115204,900
155🇬🇺 Guam11526
156🇶🇦 Qatar11416,555
157🇹🇩 Chad110103,000
158🇺🇾 Uruguay10366,300
159🇹🇴 Tonga1001,165
160🇸🇿 Eswatini10065
161🇬🇦 Gabon6529,860
162🇸🇸 South Sudan4532,500
163🇲🇵 Northern
Mariana Islands
41189
164🇸🇷 Suriname4032,130
165🇬🇲 Gambia3552,652
166🇨🇻 Cabo Verde2811,624
167🇧🇧 Barbados26847
168🇬🇩 Grenada231,024
169🇦🇬 Antigua
& Barbuda
203,205
170🇦🇸 American Samoa201,059
171🇹🇹 Trinidad
& Tobago
1813,084
172🇵🇼 Palau18786
173🇵🇷 Puerto Rico181,580
174🇧🇭 Bahrain1615,720
175🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea156,307
176🇻🇨 St. Vincent
& the Grenadines
131,586
177🇾🇪 Yemen10131,307
178🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau1063,221
179🇱🇾 Libya1031,951
180🇼🇸 Samoa109,176
181🇰🇾 Cayman Islands10125
182🇻🇮 Virgin Islands8420
183🇪🇷 Eritrea44,574
184🇻🇺 Vanuatu355,932
185🇰🇮 Kiribati2191,166
186🇰🇳 St. Kitts
& Nevis
2369
187🇦🇼 Aruba2165
188🇹🇻 Tuvalu131,096
189🇻🇬 British Virgin Islands11,133
190🇩🇲 Dominica1288
191🇳🇷 Nauru1120,409
192🇲🇭 Marshall Islands095,933
193🇫🇲 Micronesia0166,334
194🇸🇨 Seychelles0139,174
195🇨🇼 Curacao025,027
196🇧🇸 Bahamas08,705
197🇹🇨 Turks &
Caicos Islands
02,277
198🇲🇷 Mauritania0860,217
199🇬🇱 Greenland0271,027
200🇲🇻 Maldives0144,993
201🇸🇴 Somalia030,000
202🇰🇲 Comoros019,356
203🇸🇹 Sao Tome
& Principe
06,020
204🇩🇯 Djibouti03,089
205🇮🇲 Isle of Man03,041
206🇲🇴 Macao01,500
207🇧🇲 Bermuda0419
208🇸🇽 Sint Maarten0253
209🇫🇷 St. Martin090
210🇬🇮 Gibraltar01
211🇲🇨 Monaco01
N/A🌐 World126,035,14692,177,119

Source: World Bank.

Aquaculture makes up the majority of fish production for all the big Asian producers in the top 10. However the inverse is true for European, North American, and South American countries.

While the history of aquaculture goes back thousands of years, its use began to rise steeply in the 2000s, with production overtaking captured fish in 2014. First seen as a solution to overfishing and to make the industry more sustainable, aquaculture’s problems are now beginning to weigh on the industry.

From the pollution it causes—in the form of feces—to its dependence on wild catch for feeding the stock, makes it far less sustainable than what is assumed. In fact, about 25% of wild catch is turned into fish meal—a mixture of less appetizing fish like anchovies, menhaden and herring—used to feed farmed fish.

How Secure is the Ocean Fishing Industry?

Fish and seafood is one of the most accessible sources of meat in the world, accounting for 17% of animal protein consumed. However, almost 90% of the world’s fish stocks are fully depleted while demand only continues to grow.

Unregulated and illegal fishing not only adds a sustainability burden to the planet, but the industry is also rife with human rights abuses, including human trafficking and modern slavery.

Meanwhile, only 3% of the world’s oceans are designated as protected marine reserves and even they lack the safeguards to fully stop exploitative fishing.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Environment

Top Countries By Forest Growth Since 2001

One country is taking reforestation very seriously, registering more than 400,000 square km of forest growth in two decades.

Published

on

A cropped treemap showing the countries by their total forest growth measured in square kilometers.

Ranked: Top Countries By Forest Growth Since 2001

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on Apple or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Reforestation is tricky business: it’s expensive, difficult to plan, and even harder to execute. And this is without all the associated environmental obstacles: weather, pests, and natural calamities.

However, some countries have prioritized replanting their lost forests, especially in the last two decades as the climate movement has gathered steam.

We visualized forest growth around the world, ranking countries by their forest area increases between 2001–2021, measured in square kilometers (km²).

All of this data was sourced from the World Bank. Note that countries are ranked by forest growth in square kilometers, rather than percentage change.

Which Country Leads Forest Growth Since 2001?

China tops the list, expanding its forest area by nearly 425,000 km2 (roughly the size of Sweden) between 2001–21. This is more than the next 19 countries combined. Relatively speaking, China’s forests increased by almost one-fourth.

RankCountryRegion2001–21 Change
(Km2)
% of Forest Growth
1🇨🇳 ChinaAsia424,96224%
2🇺🇸 U.S.North America57,4062%
3🇷🇺 RussiaEurope54,5641%
4🇮🇳 IndiaAsia46,4497%
5🇻🇳 VietnamAsia27,74523%
6🇨🇱 ChileSouth America24,25715%
7🇦🇺 AustraliaOceania24,1782%
8🇹🇷 TurkiyeMiddle East21,34511%
9🇫🇷 FranceEurope19,35313%
10🇪🇸 SpainEurope13,3748%
11🇮🇷 IranMiddle East13,03314%
12🇮🇹 ItalyEurope11,84814%
13🇨🇺 CubaCentral America7,57330%
14🇹🇭 ThailandAsia7,3154%
15🇺🇿 UzbekistanAsia7,15224%
16🇺🇾 UruguaySouth America6,46846%
17🇷🇴 RomaniaEurope5,4829%
18🇧🇬 BulgariaEurope4,94815%
19🇧🇾 BelarusEurope4,7346%
20🇵🇱 PolandEurope4,0905%
N/A🌍 World-957,658-2%

There are some other countries who have achieved similar relative levels of reforestation. Within Asia, Vietnam’s forests as a percentage of total land area have doubled since 1990. Since 2001, its forests have grown nearly 28,000 km², a 23% increase.

Uzbekistan similarly expanded its forested area by 24%, which amounts to about 7,000 km².

Meanwhile, Chile and Uruguay, are the only two South American countries that have managed to expand their forest cover in the last two decades—the latter by a staggering 46%. In contrast, the rest of South America is instead seeing significant deforestation.

It’s interesting to note that reforestation also comes with its own risks. Introducing non-native or monoculture tree species can reduce biodiversity and lead to soil erosion.

And despite global reforestation efforts, the world still lost close to a million square kilometers of forests since 2001.

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