Comparing Gun Laws and Gun-Related Deaths Across America
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Comparing Gun Laws and Gun-Related Deaths Across America

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Ranking of each U.S. state's gun law, from strictest to loosest

Comparing Gun Laws and Gun-Related Deaths Across America

In June 2022, the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to strike down concealed-gun legislation in New York sent shock waves through the country.

The decision brought renowned attention to the ongoing debate around America’s gun laws—one that Americans have grossly differing views on. This lack of consensus is apparent not just in public opinion, but in legislation, with U.S. firearm regulation varying greatly from state to state.

Which states have the strictest (and loosest) gun regulations around? This graphic by Elbie Bentley sets the ground for comparing gun laws across America before the impact of the Supreme Court’s ruling can be fully understood. It uses 2021 data from Giffords Law Center and contrasts against gun-related deaths in each state.

States With The Strictest Gun Laws

Since 2010, researchers at Giffords Law Center have been ranking state gun laws across America and seeing if there’s a correlation between stricter gun laws and lower gun-related deaths.

Here’s a look at the top 10 states with the strictest gun laws and their number of gun-related deaths in 2021:

RankStateGun-Related Deaths in 2021 (per 100,000 people)% Difference from National Average
1California8.5-37%
2New Jersey5-63%
3Connecticut6-56%
4Hawaii3.4-75%
5Massachusetts3.7-73%
6New York5.3-61%
7Mayland13.5-1%
8Illinois14.1+3%
9Rhode Island5.1-62%
10Washington10.9-20%

California has the strictest gun laws in the country. Some of the state’s most notable legislation is its proactive removal of firearms from people who are facing domestic violence charges, or from people that have domestic abuse protective orders filed against them.

In addition to having the strictest gun laws, California also has a relatively low rate of gun-related deaths, at 8.5 deaths per 100,000 people—37% below the national average.

Apart from Illinois, gun-related deaths in the 10 states with the strictest gun laws are all below the national average, with Hawaii ranking the lowest for gun-related deaths at 3.4 deaths per 100,000 people, or 75% below the national average.

States With The Loosest Gun Laws

On the opposite end of the spectrum, here’s a look at the 10 states with the loosest gun laws, and their number of gun-related deaths per 100,000 people:

RankStateGun-Related Deaths in 2021 (per 100,000 people)% Difference from National Average
41Alaska23.5+73%
42(T)Arizona16.7+22%
42(T)Kentucky20.1+48%
44South Dakota13.6-0.4%
45(T)Kansas16.9+24%
45(T)Mississippi28.6+110%
47Missouri23.9+75%
48Idaho17.6+29%
49Wyoming25.9+90%
50Arkansas22.6+66%

Apart from South Dakota, all states in the bottom 10 have an above-average rate of gun-related deaths. Mississippi has the highest death rate at 28.6 per 100,000, which is 110% above the national average.

In Mississippi, you don’t need a permit to carry a concealed gun—not even on university campuses. And a few years ago, the state passed a law allowing K-12 school employees to bring guns onto school grounds.

Polarizing Opinions and an Uncertain Future

The recent Supreme Court ruling came weeks after dozens were killed in a series of mass shootings across the country—including one in a grocery store in Buffalo, New York, and the other in an elementary school in Uvalde, Texas.

Notably, some states have already reacted to the ruling by altering their gun laws. New York passed new legislation banning guns from notable public places, requiring applicants to prove they can use a gun, and requiring applicants to have their social media accounts reviewed. On the other hand, Maryland loosened its gun laws, directing law enforcement to be less restrictive for concealed carry applicants.

As all of the changes are still happening in rapid session, time will tell what the next annual review of U.S. gun laws shows about the country’s gun regulation landscape.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Science

Visualizing the Relationship Between Cancer and Lifespan

New research links mutation rates and lifespan. We visualize the data supporting this new framework for understanding cancer.

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Cancer and lifespan

A Newfound Link Between Cancer and Aging?

A new study in 2022 reveals a thought-provoking relationship between how long animals live and how quickly their genetic codes mutate.

Cancer is a product of time and mutations, and so researchers investigated its onset and impact within 16 unique mammals. A new perspective on DNA mutation broadens our understanding of aging and cancer development—and how we might be able to control it.

Mutations, Aging, and Cancer: A Primer

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells. It is not a pathogen that infects the body, but a normal body process gone wrong.

Cells divide and multiply in our bodies all the time. Sometimes, during DNA replication, tiny mistakes (called mutations) appear randomly within the genetic code. Our bodies have mechanisms to correct these errors, and for much of our youth we remain strong and healthy as a result of these corrective measures.

However, these protections weaken as we age. Developing cancer becomes more likely as mutations slip past our defenses and continue to multiply. The longer we live, the more mutations we carry, and the likelihood of them manifesting into cancer increases.

A Biological Conundrum

Since mutations can occur randomly, biologists expect larger lifeforms (those with more cells) to have greater chances of developing cancer than smaller lifeforms.

Strangely, no association exists.

It is one of biology’s biggest mysteries as to why massive creatures like whales or elephants rarely seem to experience cancer. This is called Peto’s Paradox. Even stranger: some smaller creatures, like the naked mole rat, are completely resistant to cancer.

This phenomenon motivates researchers to look into the genetics of naked mole rats and whales. And while we’ve discovered that special genetic bonuses (like extra tumor-suppressing genes) benefit these creatures, a pattern for cancer rates across all other species is still poorly understood.

Cancer May Be Closely Associated with Lifespan

Researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute report the first study to look at how mutation rates compare with animal lifespans.

Mutation rates are simply the speed at which species beget mutations. Mammals with shorter lifespans have average mutation rates that are very fast. A mouse undergoes nearly 800 mutations in each of its four short years on Earth. Mammals with longer lifespans have average mutation rates that are much slower. In humans (average lifespan of roughly 84 years), it comes to fewer than 50 mutations per year.

The study also compares the number of mutations at time of death with other traits, like body mass and lifespan. For example, a giraffe has roughly 40,000 times more cells than a mouse. Or a human lives 90 times longer than a mouse. What surprised researchers was that the number of mutations at time of death differed only by a factor of three.

Such small differentiation suggests there may be a total number of mutations a species can collect before it dies. Since the mammals reached this number at different speeds, finding ways to control the rate of mutations may help stall cancer development, set back aging, and prolong life.

The Future of Cancer Research

The findings in this study ignite new questions for understanding cancer.

Confirming that mutation rate and lifespan are strongly correlated needs comparison to lifeforms beyond mammals, like fishes, birds, and even plants.

It will also be necessary to understand what factors control mutation rates. The answer to this likely lies within the complexities of DNA. Geneticists and oncologists are continuing to investigate genetic curiosities like tumor-suppressing genes and how they might impact mutation rates.

Aging is likely to be a confluence of many issues, like epigenetic changes or telomere shortening, but if mutations are involved then there may be hopes of slowing genetic damage—or even reversing it.

While just a first step, linking mutation rates to lifespan is a reframing of our understanding of cancer development, and it may open doors to new strategies and therapies for treating cancer or taming the number of health-related concerns that come with aging.

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Misc

Visualizing Which Countries Drink the Most Beer

Which countries drink the most beer? China ranks number one due to its sheer size, and the Czech Republic comes out on top, per capita.

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Visualizing Which Countries Drink the Most Beer

Humans have been drinking beer for thousands of years—and since it’s still one of the most popular beverages worldwide, it seems we haven’t gotten sick of it yet. The latest available data shows that beer consumption exceeded 177 million kiloliters around the world in 2020.

Beer consumption occurs all over the world, but the amount varies greatly depending on the location. So, which countries drink the most beer?

This graphic uses data from Kirin Holdings to compare global beer consumption by country. Kirin is a Japanese company that has been tracking beer consumption around the world since 1975.

Which Countries Drink the Most Beer?

When it comes to total beer consumption, China ranks number one.

In 2020, the country’s consumption reached 36 million kiloliters—that’s enough beer to fill more than 14,000 Olympic-sized pools. The country accounts for a whopping one-fifth of total beer consumption worldwide. Archaeological evidence also suggests that China has a beer producing history that goes back thousands of years.

Here’s a look at the top 25 countries for beer consumption, and their global market share:

Ranking 2020CountryTotal Consumption
(thousand kl)
Global Market
Share
1🇨🇳​ China36,08820.30%
2🇺🇸​ United States of America24,10513.60%
3🇧🇷​ Brazil13,8477.80%
4🇷🇺​ Russia8,6464.90%
5🇲🇽​ Mexico8,2874.70%
6🇩🇪​ Germany7,7464.40%
7🇯🇵 Japan4,4162.50%
8​🇬🇧​ United Kingdom4,0882.30%
9🇻🇳​ Vietnam3,8452.20%
10🇪🇸 Spain3,8152.10%
11​🇵🇱 Poland3,6332.00%
12​🇿🇦​ South Africa3,2841.90%
13🇨🇴​ Colombia2,2461.30%
14🇫🇷 France1,9841.10%
15​🇨🇦​ Canada1,9791.10%
16🇨🇿 Czech Republic1,9461.10%
17​🇰🇷 South Korea1,9361.10%
18​🇮🇹​ Italy1,8861.10%
19🇺🇦​ Ukraine1,8811.10%
20🇷🇴​ Romania1,8281.00%
21🇦🇺 Australia1,8251.00%
22🇦🇷​ Argentina1,7971.00%
23​🇮🇳 India1,6860.90%
24🇹🇭 Thailand1,6800.90%
25​​🇵🇭​ Philippines1,4620.80%
Rest of the World31,56317.78%

China is the most populous country in the world, accounting for about 18% of the global population. Of course, a large population doesn’t necessarily translate to high beer consumption at the individual level. For instance, India, which has the second highest population in the world, ranks 23rd on the list for beer consumption, and only accounts for 1% of what foamy liquid gets guzzled down each year.

The U.S. comes second on the list, with more than 24 million kiloliters of beer consumed throughout the country in 2020. Americans don’t just drink a lot of beer—they brew a lot of beer, too. The U.S. is the second-largest beer producer worldwide (after China).

Beer Consumption Per Capita

Things look a bit different when you look at beer consumption per capita, rather than total beer consumption. The Czech Republic comes in first when it comes to beer consumption per capita.

In 2020, the average Czech drank more than 181 liters of beer.

chart showing beer consumption per capita by country in 2022

The Czech Republic is well-known for inexpensive beer. Some travel sites even claim that, in certain parts of the country, beer can be cheaper than bottled water.

International Beer Day

While consumption levels vary across the world, beer is an integral part of many countries’ cultures. In fact, the beverage is so popular, that it’s been given its own day. International Beer Day is celebrated on the first Friday of every August in over 200 cities across the globe.

Cheers, and happy sipping!

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