How Hospital Bottlenecks Cause A Healthcare Gridlock
The healthcare industry is complex and interdependent. Much like a highway interchange, it relies on multiple players and processes to flow smoothly.
But just like in an interchange, a single roadblock can bring the system to a grinding halt—leading to serious consequences for all involved.
The Healthcare Silos
In healthcare, there are three primary players, each with their own priorities. However, they stay in their own lane and rely on independent software systems to achieve their goals.
|Healthcare player||Main priority||System used|
|Patients||Seek an engaged and personalized experience||Digital technologies
- Example: mobile health, wearables
- Provide constant monitoring and instantaneous updates
|Providers (Doctors, nurses, and more)||Provide the highest quality of care||Electronic health records
- A comprehensive record of a patient’s medical history
|Payers (Insurance companies)||Balance the cost and quality of care||Claims database
- Information on medical appointments, bills, and more (some claims can take 60 days to process)
This leads to frustrations for all parties, including poor communication and uncoordinated care.
A Not-So-Patient Journey
What factors lead to a less-than-desirable experience? Challenges arise from the moment a patient walks into a hospital
- Entering the Emergency Department (ED)
Overcrowded EDs are often the first point of contact for a patient. On average, 43.3 per 100 people visit the emergency department annually in the United States for everything from fevers to injuries. Of these, 6 out of 10 must wait longer than 15 minutes before they can be seen by a provider.
- Playing the Waiting Game
Patients are willing to endure up to 2 hours in the emergency department, but wait times often surpass that. The average wait time in 2017 was upwards of 352 minutes, or almost six hours. As a result, up to 9% of patients leave without being seen (LWBS).
There’s simple psychology behind why some people aren’t able to wait it out. According to former Harvard professor David Maister, unoccupied time that is compounded with anxiety makes a wait feel longer.
These long waits also affect a patient’s perception and satisfaction of the care they eventually do receive.
The True Cost
After they’re admitted, inconsistent processes and flows continue to plague patient experiences.
A typical hospital stay can rack up a single patient close to $12,000 across 4.6 days. With these costs climbing every year, uncoordinated care adds to these receipts by extending the stay.
Uncoordinated care also creates a dire strain on resources, including the humans behind all the work. The resulting physician burnout costs the U.S. health system $32 billion annually. While lost productivity causes over half ($18 billion) of this amount, another $8.5 billion is due to poor experiences, which impacts patient satisfaction which leads to falling margins for hospitals.
Severe bottlenecks compound these issues, forcing the healthcare system into a gridlock.
What’s Causing the Jam?
Disjointed communication and a lack of visibility across systems are the major reasons for these costly standstills. This is analogous to using a paper map to navigate:
- No updates based on the current situation
- Time-consuming to figure out specific route to a destination
- Show multiple routes, but not the fastest way to get there
What if there was a smart GPS to help the healthcare industry overcome roadblocks?
- Real-time, dynamic updates on the current situation
- Knows where you are, and where you need to go
- Filters only the appropriate and relevant information
The Leidos careC2 Command Center solves healthcare traffic jams.
The coordinated technology suite rapidly identifies and reduces bottlenecks and delays in the care process. This improves the operational flow of hospitals—so that patients, providers, and payers all reach their destinations safely and efficiently.
Visualizing Copper’s Global Supply Chain
Copper is a global industry, from the mines of South America to refineries in Asia. However copper’s supply chain has several inherent risks.
Copper is all around us: in our homes, electronic devices, and transportation.
But before copper ends up in these products and technologies, the industry must mine, refine and transport this copper all over the globe.
Copper’s Supply Chain
This infographic comes to us from Trilogy Metals and it outlines copper’s supply chain from the mine to the refinery.
Copper Deposits Around the World
Copper is a mineral that comes from the Earth’s crust. However, natural history did not evenly distribute it around the world. There are certain geological conditions that need to happen to make an economic deposit of copper.
There are two primary types of copper deposits:
- Porphyry Copper Deposits
These copper ore deposits form from hydrothermal fluids coming from magma chambers below the copper deposit. These are currently the largest source of copper in the world.
- Sediment-hosted Copper Deposits
These are copper deposits that occur in sedimentary rocks that are bound by layers. They are formed by the cooling of copper-bearing hydrothermal fluids.
Copper-containing rock or ore only has a small percentage of copper. Most of the rock is uneconomic material, known as gangue. There are two main copper ore types in mining: copper oxide ores and copper sulfide ores.
Both ore types can be economic, however, the most common source of copper ore is the sulfide ore mineral chalcopyrite, which accounts for ~50% of copper production.
Sulfide copper ores are the most profitable ores because they have high copper content, and refiners easily separate copper from the gangue. Sulfide ores are not as abundant as the oxide ores.
Copper Trade Flows
While copper is a global business, there are clear leaders in the production and refinement of copper based on geology and demand. Chile is the major source for copper, exporting both mined and refined copper.
In a list of the 20 biggest copper mines, 11 reside in Chile and Peru accounting for 40% of mined copper. Meanwhile, China is a leading importer and exporter of refined copper, and it’s home to 9 of the 20 biggest copper smelters in the world.
However, this concentrated geography of supply creates risks for the the copper trade.
While Chile is one of the richest sources of copper in the world, the mining industry has exploited copper deposits to the point where the grade or quality of the copper ore is declining.
Codelco, the national copper miner of Chile and the world’s largest producer of copper, plans to spend $32B by 2027 to extend the life of its current mines and maintain its copper output.
In addition to declining grades, the geography of copper mining exposes the risk of supply disruption by natural forces.
The borders of Chile and Peru overlap the intersection of the Nazca and the South American Tectonic plates. Movement of these plates can produce powerful earthquakes.
According to one study, regions in Chile and Peru face a greater than 85% chance of a serious earthquake in the next 50 years, potentially disrupting copper mining operations. And according to Wood Mackenzie, a 15-day closure of copper mines in Chile and Peru could wipe out 1.5% of global annual production, or 300,000 tons of copper.
Falling grades and tectonic risk suggest that mining costs are likely to increase, making copper production more expensive and new discoveries more valuable.
Copper for the Future: New Discoveries
As economies grow and infrastructure needs increase, the demand for copper will grow. However, without new discoveries and sources of production, the world could face a shortage of the red metal.
According to data from S&P and the London Metals Exchange, the discovery of copper has not kept up with investment in copper exploration. If this trend persists, there will not be enough copper to replace current resources. On top of this, production from already producing copper mines face resource exhaustion and declining grades.
In order to maintain copper’s supply chain, the world needs new copper discoveries to ensure everyone has access to the materials and products that make modern life.
The Evolution of Higher Education: 5 Global Trends To Watch
Higher education is facing a new wave of change during the pandemic. What are the new priorities of 2,200 students and staff worldwide?
Higher education has gone through tremendous change during the COVID-19 pandemic.
In the face of uncertainty, it’s become evident that institutions with prior investment in digital technologies are emerging more agile and resilient. For example, online communities have helped 30% of students feel more connected with other students during this time.
Below we look at key data from the Global Higher Education Research Snapshot from Salesforce.org—in partnership with market research firm Ipsos—which reflects the new attitudes and priorities of 2,200 students and higher education staff worldwide.
To understand the shifting landscape across higher education, the survey explores five key trends: connection, trust, wellbeing, flexibility, and career.
1. Communications Help Students Feel Connected
In a typically isolating time, 75% of students wanted to receive weekly (or even more frequent) pandemic-related updates.
Why? These consistent communications from institutions actually help students feel more close and connected than in previous years.
This valuable sense of belonging is increasingly happening through online communities and other digital channels, but institutions have significant room left to grow in this area.
2. Has The Pandemic Fractured Trust?
The pandemic has worsened existing trust gaps that exist between university leadership, students, and staff. Part of this may be due to a lack of resources provided during imposed COVID-19 restrictions.
From personal protective equipment such as masks/hand sanitizer to transparent COVID-19 response plans, students also expect a myriad of resources from their universities to help put them at ease.
3. Juggling Wellbeing Concerns
Months of lockdowns and persistent social distancing have understandably shaken up students’ university experiences.
This is further compounded by various well-being challenges, from financial anxieties to juggling familial responsibilities.
On the bright side, such demand creates an opportunity for institutions to provide more tailored well-being support through digital-first channels.
4. Students Are Drawn to Online Learning
As the pandemic seemingly creates new challenges by the day, many students are seeking more flexible options for when and how they learn.
The good news? There’s already evidence of this shift. Over half (57%) of staff say their institutions are investing in new modalities or revenue streams to attract new students, including more flexible learning options.
5. Uncertainties Remain Around Future Plans
Economic changes are causing over half (51%) of students to reconsider their education plans. In addition, of the staff that expect to see an increase in adult learners’ enrollment, a majority believe it will come from pandemic-influenced needs to reskill or upskill in this climate.
This uncertainty also affects students’ future plans—60% are concerned about finding employment after graduation. They want to be set up for career success in all areas, yet only a handful of them have the appropriate resources available.
How The Trends Intersect
These above trends aren’t disparate to the student and staff experience. Rather, they are intricately linked with one another, as the following question illustrates.
The pandemic has reshaped expectations of higher education—but it’s also created an opportunity for institutions to accelerate their digital transformation.
By providing more wellbeing resources, career support, and flexibility, universities can drive trust and support their students’ needs in the new normal.
Want more details?
Visit Salesforce.org’s Global Higher Education Research Snapshot to learn more.
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