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Charted: The Number of North Korean Defectors (1998-2023)

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North Korean defectors charted over time

Why Are the Number of North Korean Defectors Decreasing?

North Korea, formally known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, is a totalitarian dictatorship with extremely limited freedoms and rights reported for its citizens.

Due to the country’s tight controls on borders and information, people that want to leave the country often have to physically escape and are known as defectors.

These visuals use data from the South Korea’s Ministry of Reunification to track the number of North Korean defectors who make it to South Korea each year, as well as international reporting to explain the dwindling numbers.

North Korean Defectors from 1998–2023

The table below shows the amount of successful North Korean defectors that arrived in South Korea from 1998 through to June of 2023. Note that there was no data available for 1999 and 2000.

YearNorth Korean
Defectors
1998947
1999N/A
2000N/A
20011,043
20021,142
20031,285
20041,898
20051,384
20062,028
20072,554
20082,803
20092,914
20102,402
20112,706
20121,502
20131,514
20141,397
20151,275
20161,418
20171,127
20181,137
20191,047
2020229
202163
202267
2023 (as of June)99

From the 1990s to 2010, we can see the amount of North Korean defectors steadily climbing to a peak of 2,914 people in 2009 alone.

More residents looked to escape the country after suffering through the North Korean Famine of 1994 to 1998—with death estimates ranging from 240,000 to 3,500,000—as well as the country’s increasingly bleak economic conditions following the collapse of the neighboring Soviet Union.

We can also see the immediate impact of Kim Jung Un’s rise to power since 2012, with successful defections immediately dropping by 1,204 year-over-year and declining consistently over the next decade. Stronger border controls were one factor, as were improved relations with China and agreements with Russia on sending escapees back to North Korea.

And North Korea has seen defections drop further, from thousands to low hundreds, since 2020. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the country shut down all borders, created new barriers, and significantly limited internal travel.

Mapping Escape Routes from North Korea

routes taken by North Korean defectors
Click here to see a larger version of the graphic above.

Since they can’t cross the heavily surveilled and militarized border to South Korea, the Korean Demilitarized Zone, North Korean defectors have to travel through Russia or China to get to friendly countries in order to seek asylum.

For most defectors, these include reaching Mongolia to the north or Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam to the south, which all work with the South Korean government on reunification.

There are also defectors that try to stay in Russia or China. In 2009, a global refugee survey found there were 11,000 North Korean refugees hiding in China close to the North Korea border alone, not accounting for the rest of the country.

Others are able to seek refuge in other countries and eventually attain citizenship. In 2022, the UNHCR registered 260 refugees and 127 asylees from North Korea, with Germany hosting the most at 96 and the U.S. second at 70.

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Maps

Mapped: The U.S. State that Each Country Trades With the Most

This map identifies the biggest U.S. export markets by state, showing the top partner of each country by value of goods imported.

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This map identifies the biggest export destinations for products from every U.S. state.

The U.S. State that Each Country Trades With the Most

The U.S. is the world’s second-largest exporter, just behind China. In 2022 alone, America exported some $2.1 trillion, accounting for 8.4% of global exports.

In this graphic by OnDeck, we show the U.S. state that each country receives the most exports from, using data from the U.S. International Trade Administration.

Texas is the Top Exporter

Texas is the leading U.S. exporter to major global economies. The state leads in 94 countries, including Canada, China, the U.K., and Germany. Texas is followed by California (25 countries) and Florida (24 countries).

State2023 Exports (Millions)
Texas$444,608
California$178,717
Louisiana$100,197
New York$97,828
Illinois$78,724
Unallocated$73,829
Florida$68,899
Michigan$64,904
Washington$61,209
Indiana$56,081
Ohio$55,764
Pennsylvania$52,876
Georgia$49,772
New Jersey$43,334
North Carolina$42,223
Kentucky$40,212
Tennessee$38,120
South Carolina$37,297
Massachusetts$35,221
Arizona$28,791
Wisconsin$28,021
Oregon$27,718
Alabama$27,447
Minnesota$24,920
Puerto Rico$22,493
Virginia$22,395
Iowa$18,439
Maryland$18,360
Missouri$17,858
Utah$17,388
Connecticut$15,825
Mississippi$14,305
Kansas$14,148
Colorado$10,378
Nevada$9,533
Nebraska$7,987
New Hampshire$7,638
North Dakota$7,520
Oklahoma$6,511
Arkansas$6,450
West Virginia$5,652
Alaska$5,244
New Mexico$4,940
Delaware$4,921
Idaho$4,011
Virgin Islands$3,403
Rhode Island$3,016
Maine$2,951
South Dakota$2,399
Montana$2,231
Wyoming$2,143
Vermont$1,991
District of Columbia$1,746
Hawaii$570

Exports from Texas to Mexico have an annual value of $144.29 billion—the highest value of exports from a U.S. state to any country. From this total, Texas exports $33.63 billion in Petroleum & Coal Products to Mexico yearly, the highest value of any single product category from a state to another country.

While oil-producing states like Texas, New Mexico, and North Dakota dominate America’s export market, other states have established unique trade relationships in some regions.

Michigan, for example, exports $15.37 billion in Transportation Equipment to Canada. These include passenger vehicles and trucks, as well as parts.

Australia imports $4.56 billion in goods from Illinois each year, more than from any other U.S. state.

New York State’s exports to Switzerland reached $23.56 billion in 2022. Over three-quarters of this trade is in the category of Primary Metal Manufactures, which includes upstream metal products such as closures, castings, pipes, tubes, wires, and springs.

Hong Kong also counts New York as the state from which it imports the most.

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