Safe Spaces: Why Indoor Air Quality Has Never Mattered More
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Safe Spaces: Why Indoor Air Quality Has Never Mattered More

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The following content is sponsored by mCloud.

Why Indoor Air Quality Has Never Mattered More

Indoor air quality affects everyone, but many of us take it for granted.

From workplaces and retail spaces to restaurants and long-term care facilities, any air-conditioned or heated space needs good ventilation. Proper airflow in indoor spaces is also critical for curbing the spread of airborne viruses such as COVID-19, especially as more and more of these communal places open back up.

This visualization from mCloud looks at why indoor air quality matters, and unearths potential technical solutions that can help keep people safe and ensure businesses run smoothly.

Silent Threats: The Viral Potential of Airborne Viruses

Most respiratory diseases, including the flu virus and COVID-19 are transmitted through three typical methods.

  1. Contact Transmission
    Through direct contact
  2. Droplet Transmission
    Through close-proximity, large respiratory droplets
  3. Airborne Transmission
    Through small droplets suspended in air

It’s this last factor in particular to keep an eye out for. In a study, over half (53%) of flu patients produced aerosol particles of the virus while coughing—and viral droplets can travel more than 10 meters when exhaled by an infected person. In addition, pollutants and other small particles are 2-5x more concentrated indoors.

While most respiratory diseases are preventable, it’s clear that handwashing and social distancing are not enough. Alongside other measures, experts recommend improved ventilation to help prevent the spread of COVID-19 in indoor spaces.

Avoid Sick Building Syndrome with Good Indoor Air Quality

Prior to the pandemic, 157 million people in the U.S. workforce spent the majority of their waking hours in shared areas like offices, stores, and more. In fact, there are 5.9 million commercial buildings in the U.S. alone, totaling 97 billion ft².

Within these indoor spaces, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems help to keep the air fresh. But have you ever gone to work and realized that there’s a flu bug that everyone seems to be catching? Poor air flow could be the culprit behind what’s called “Sick Building Syndrome”.

ℹ️ Airflow: measured by cubic feet per minute (CFM), calculated per person.
Example: A movie theater with a 100-person capacity would require 500 cubic feet of air cycled per minute to maintain adequate fresh airflow.

Most buildings are designed to recirculate air to boost energy efficiency. However, this doesn’t always occur evenly—causing air to stagnate.

If what should be fresh air becomes stagnant air instead, this can result in the distribution of allergens and pathogens, including COVID-19 and the flu. Symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome include:

  • Itchy, watery eyes
  • Stuffy, runny nose
  • Lethargy
  • Cognitive issues
  • Headache
  • Dry throat
  • Skin irritation

Studies show that air-conditioned buildings exhibit a higher prevalence of workers with these symptoms compared to naturally ventilated buildings. Many different types of buildings are at risk—although air is replaced in operating rooms every 3-6 minutes, it is only replaced every few hours in office buildings.

Proven Solutions to Keep Spaces Safe

Indoor air quality has a significant impact on containing respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. In fact, proper air ventilation can have the same impact as vaccinating 50-60% of people in a building.

mCloud partners with businesses to help augment their technical needs, and help manage workplace challenges associated with indoor health risks.

Workplace ChallengesmCloud’s Strategies
Aerosol transmission is a main contributor to respiratory illnessesUse technical solutions that include constant monitoring
Improved airflow is critical to reopening infrastructure and ramping up operationsImprove humidity levels: spikes in respiratory infections occur when humidity drops below 40%
Solutions must be cost-efficient, but measuring and improving indoor air quality is extremely difficultImprove indoor air quality with ventilation and filtration technology

Semiconductor-grade cleanrooms—filtered, controlled environments—improve HVAC systems, allowing for remote monitoring, and temperature and humidity control.

How do mCloud’s solutions help improve indoor air quality?

  1. HVAC & Ventilation
    Full ventilation that maximizes influx of outside air
  2. Filtration & Purification
    Ionization and ultraviolet light can capture and kill up to 99.9% of viruses, including COVID-19
  3. Monitoring
    Real-time monitoring by an expert team, with 24/7 monitoring
  4. 24/7 Compliance
    Businesses ensure they meet local and federal safety guidelines

Combining connectivity with air purification can improve HVAC systems, allowing for remote monitoring, temperature and humidity control. This can result in a 95% reduction in airborne particles (compared to standard filtration in operating rooms), and could have a 95% pathogen kill rate within just three hours.

As a myriad of shared places from offices to retail stores reopen, physical safety and health is a top priority for employers. Businesses can partner with experts to create healthy, safe spaces that protect people, companies, and entire industries.

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Visualizing the Economic Impact of British Columbia’s Golden Triangle

British Columbia’s Golden Triangle generates massive revenue and investments for the province, but where did it all begin?

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BCRMA Golden Triangle

The Economic Impact of British Columbia’s Golden Triangle

At the heart of British Columbia’s mining industry lies the Golden Triangle. This region has helped transform the province’s mining industry into a significant source of revenue and investment.

In 2020, the Golden Triangle accounted for roughly 44% of the $422 million in mineral exploration expenditures in British Columbia. In 2019, the Red Chris and Brucejack mines contributed around $1 billion to the province’s estimated annual gross mining revenues.

This infographic is sponsored by the B.C. Regional Mining Alliance (BCRMA) which brings the best of this region to the world through a partnership between indigenous groups, industry, and provincial government representatives.

Here is how the Golden Triangle began.

The Golden Triangle’s Unique Geology

Between 220 and 175 million years ago, the Golden Triangle’s wealth was forming deep in the Earth for the world to discover. Most metal deposits form from superheated water that cycle over many kilometers, collecting metal atoms as they rise to the surface of the Earth’s crust and settle into deposits.

Industry, government, and university geologists have worked for over a century to understand the Golden Triangle’s unique geology to uncover its mineral wealth. This unique geology cradles the world-class deposits that define the legendary “Golden Triangle” of British Columbia.

A History of Discovery and Mining in the Golden Triangle

Historical gold rushes brought mining to the area, but the region’s vast copper deposits will deliver the key mineral for B.C.’s green future. More than 150 mines have operated in the area since prospectors first arrived at the end of the 19th century.

  • 1861: Alexander Choquette kicked off the Stikine Gold Rush after finding gold at the confluence of the Stikine and Anuk Rivers.
  • 1918 – 1952: The first big discovery in the Golden Triangle was at the Premier Gold Mine, which started operations in 1918. It produced 2 million ounces of gold and 45 million ounces of silver. Today, Ascot Resources is re-starting processing from this gold mine.
  • 1964: The Snip Mine was discovered by Cominco but the deposit stayed dormant until 1986. The mine produced approximately 1 million ounces of gold from 1991 until 1999. Today, Skeena Resources is advancing the Snip Project.
  • 1994: Eskay became Canada’s highest-grade gold mine and the world’s fifth largest silver producer, with production above 3 million ounces of gold and 160 million ounces of silver. Skeena Resources is also bringing the Eskay mining back into production.
  • 2009: The discovery of the Brucejack gold and silver deposit led to the development of an underground mine. The mine has produced 1,230,644 ounces of gold since it began operations in 2017.
  • 2013: The KSM Project is one of the largest undeveloped gold projects in the world. A Preliminary Feasibility Study estimates proven and probable reserves total 38.8 million ounces of gold and 10.2 billion pounds of copper.
  • 2015: The Red Chris shipped its first load of copper concentrate. In 2020 metals production was 88.3 million pounds copper and 73,787 ounces gold. Imperial Metals and Newcrest jointly operate the mine.

This long tradition of discovery and mining is laying the foundations for the next generation of investment.

Today’s Golden Age for Exploration and Development

Continued exploration is necessary for new discoveries and advancing projects to new mines. More importantly, the minerals discovered today will be needed in the low carbon economy and British Columbia—in particular, the Golden Triangle will play its part in delivering metals for renewable technology.

 British ColumbiaNorthwest Mining RegionThe Golden Triangle
2020 Projects2596726
Total Expenditures$422M$255M$184M
Drilling (meters)991,319470,058352,247
Average Expenditure Per Project$1.6M$3.4M$7.09M

Source: Based on data collected for the EY LLP, 2020 British Columbia Mineral and Coal Exploration Survey

Gold and copper account for most of the exploration in the Golden Triangle, but other commodities for the low-carbon economy such as silver, nickel, and zinc also attract interest. A strong exploration industry is the beginning for future investment, new jobs, and community development.

A Bright Future: Investing in Community

The Golden Triangle continues to attract exploration activity as infrastructure and community development lays the success for future generations and industries.

Community:

  • Agreements with First Nations (Tahltan and Nisga’a Nations)
  • 38% of expenditures stays in the region
  • 97% stays in British Columbia
  • 150+ communities benefit

Infrastructure:

  • The paving of the Stewart-Cassiar highway
  • The opening of ocean port facilities for concentrate export at Stewart
  • The completion of a $700-million high-voltage transmission line bringing power into the region

This is a new beginning for the continued economic impact of British Columbia’s Golden Triangle.

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A Geographic Breakdown of the MSCI ACWI IMI

The MSCI ACWI Investable Market Index (IMI) covers 99% of the investable global equity market. Here, we show its region and market breakdown.

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MSCI ACWI

A Geographic Breakdown of the MSCI ACWI IMI Index

How can investors track stock markets around the world?

Using the MSCI All Countries World Index Investable Market Index (MSCI ACWI IMI), investors can benchmark their portfolios to a comprehensive group of developed and emerging markets. With over $4.2 trillion in assets benchmarked to the ACWI—about 4% of all managed assets globally—the index is widely quoted.

In this graphic from MSCI, we explore a geographic breakdown of the MSCI ACWI IMI index, and how it has changed over time.

What is the MSCI ACWI IMI?

The MSCI ACWI IMI is a leading global equity index. It tracks the performance of a basket of securities that are intended to represent the entire global stock market. Altogether, it covers:

  • 9,200 securities
  • 23 developed markets
  • 27 emerging markets
  • 99% of the investable global equity market

Using a standardized approach, the index includes businesses of all sizes from small to large market capitalization.

Market Weights

The MSCI ACWI IMI Index is broken down into broad regions and specific markets, such as North America and the U.S. respectively. Below, we show the specific market weights of the index as of July 31, 2011 and July 31, 2021. We also show how much these weights have increased or decreased over the last 10 years.

MarketRegion2011 Weight2021 WeightPercentage Point Change
CanadaNorth America4.74%2.91%-1.8 p.p.
U.S.North America43.34%58.61%15.3 p.p.
AustriaEMEA0.16%0.08%-0.1 p.p.
BelgiumEMEA0.39%0.27%-0.1 p.p.
DenmarkEMEA0.42%0.68%0.3 p.p.
FinlandEMEA0.37%0.33%0.0 p.p.
FranceEMEA3.50%2.73%-0.8 p.p.
GermanyEMEA3.24%2.31%-0.9 p.p.
IrelandEMEA0.13%0.18%0.1 p.p.
IsraelEMEA0.29%0.26%0.0 p.p.
ItalyEMEA0.99%0.67%-0.3 p.p.
NetherlandsEMEA0.92%1.11%0.2 p.p.
NorwayEMEA0.42%0.24%-0.2 p.p.
PortugalEMEA0.10%0.05%-0.1 p.p.
SpainEMEA1.21%0.61%-0.6 p.p.
SwedenEMEA1.20%1.20%0.0 p.p.
SwitzerlandEMEA3.09%2.47%-0.6 p.p.
United KingdomEMEA8.28%3.99%-4.3 p.p.
ArgentinaEM0.00%0.02%0.0 p.p.
BrazilEM1.86%0.65%-1.2 p.p.
ChileEM0.21%0.06%-0.2 p.p.
ChinaEM2.32%3.76%1.4 p.p.
ColombiaEM0.10%0.02%-0.1 p.p.
Czech RepublicEM0.05%0.01%0.0 p.p.
EgyptEM0.05%0.01%0.0 p.p.
GreeceEM0.10%0.03%-0.1 p.p.
HungaryEM0.05%0.03%0.0 p.p.
IndiaEM1.01%1.40%0.4 p.p.
IndonesiaEM0.39%0.14%-0.2 p.p.
KoreaEM2.07%1.67%-0.4 p.p.
KuwaitEM0.00%0.07%0.1 p.p.
MalaysiaEM0.44%0.18%-0.3 p.p.
MexicoEM0.55%0.23%-0.3 p.p.
PakistanEM0.00%0.01%0.0 p.p.
PeruEM0.06%0.02%0.0 p.p.
PhilippinesEM0.09%0.07%0.0 p.p.
PolandEM0.23%0.10%-0.1 p.p.
QatarEM0.00%0.08%0.1 p.p.
RussiaEM0.85%0.38%-0.5 p.p.
Saudi ArabiaEM0.00%0.36%0.4 p.p.
South AfricaEM1.00%0.44%-0.6 p.p.
TaiwanEM1.63%1.85%0.2 p.p.
ThailandEM0.28%0.22%-0.1 p.p.
TurkeyEM0.20%0.05%-0.1 p.p.
United Arab EmiratesEM0.00%0.09%0.1 p.p.
AustraliaAsia Pacific3.34%1.94%-1.4 p.p.
Hong KongAsia Pacific1.11%0.79%-0.3 p.p.
JapanAsia Pacific8.37%6.22%-2.2 p.p.
New ZealandAsia Pacific0.07%0.09%0.0 p.p.
SingaporeAsia Pacific0.74%0.32%-0.4 p.p.

Note: numbers may not sum to 100 due to rounding. EM stands for Emerging Markets, and EMEA stands for Europe, Middle East, and Africa.

Over the last decade, the UK’s index weighting has halved. Brexit uncertainty caused British stocks to underperform relative to other markets. In addition, the UK’s public equity marketing has been shrinking, with the number of listed companies falling by 21% in just eight years.

Japan saw its weighting decline by more than two percentage points. The country has faced a very slow recovery since the asset price bubble in 1989, and the stock market has yet to surpass its previous peak.

On the other hand, China’s weighting in the MSCI ACWI IMI has increased over the last 10 years. This is primarily due to two factors:

  • China A shares, shares of mainland China based companies that are quoted in the local renminbi currency, were previously only available to domestic investors. China’s market reforms made them more widely accessible to international investors.
  • As accessibility and growth increased in the region, foreign investors expressed increased interest in the Chinese market. This drove up demand for the country’s stocks.

Perhaps the biggest takeaway from this data is the increasing dominance of the U.S. stock market, which now makes up almost 60% of the index. What implications does this have on the MSCI ACWI IMI index’s diversification?

Revenue Exposure of the MSCI ACWI IMI

As it turns out, the index is more diversified than it may seem at first glance. American companies have international operations, and earn revenue from many different markets. This makes the revenue exposure of the index much more spread out across each region.

Region% of Revenue Exposure
EM36.4%
North America31.9%
EMEA16.7%
Asia Pacific12.0%
Other3.1%

Note: numbers may not sum to 100 due to rounding. Countries included in Other are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Bulgaria, Bahrain, Benin, Botswana, Cote D’Ivoire, Estonia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Croatia, Iceland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Lithuania, Morocco, Mali, Mauritius, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Palestine, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, Vietnam and Zimbabwe.

On a revenue exposure basis, North America—where the U.S. is by far the largest market—has a weighting of just over 30%. Emerging markets take the top spot, making up over a third of the index’s revenue exposure. This presents an opportunity for investors, as these markets are projected to have higher GDP growth compared to North America.

Broad Exposure

For investors looking to capture the world’s stock market performance, the MSCI ACWI IMI can be a good benchmark. The index offers comprehensive and diversified exposure to various markets. Through regular reviews and rebalancing, it also adjusts to market movements. This ensures it continues to accurately reflect the composition of the global stock market over time.

While investors can’t invest in the index itself, they can invest in a product that tracks the index—and be poised to take advantage of opportunities around the globe.

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