Visualizing Global Demand for Lithium
Lithium is one of the most in-demand commodities in the world today.
With the ongoing shift to electric vehicles (EVs) and clean energy technologies, governments and EV manufacturers are rushing to secure their supply chains as demand for lithium soars.
But while China has a strong foothold in the lithium race, the U.S. is lagging behind. This infographic from our sponsor Scotch Creek Ventures highlights the rising demand for lithium and the need for a domestic supply chain in the United States.
What’s Driving the Demand for Lithium?
Global lithium production more than doubled in the last four years to 82,000 metric tons in 2020, up from 38,000 metric tons in 2016. Here are some of the factors driving the lithium rush:
- More EVs on the Road:
EV sales have been accelerating in recent years. Between 2016 and 2020, annual electric car sales increased by 297%, up from around 750,000 to nearly 2.9 million cars last year.
- Falling Battery Prices:
Declining lithium-ion battery prices are allowing EVs to compete more aggressively with gas-powered cars. Since 2013, battery costs have fallen 80% with a volume-weighted average of $137/kWh in 2020.
- Rise of the Battery Megafactories:
More battery manufacturing capacity means more demand for the critical minerals that go into batteries. As of March 2021, there were 200 battery megafactories in the pipeline to 2030, and 122 of those were already operational. According to Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, if all 200 battery megafactories were operating at full capacity, their annual demand for lithium would be 3 million tonnes. That’s almost 37 times the 82,000 tonnes produced in 2020.
Although the demand for lithium is rising globally, its supply chain from mines to batteries relies on a only few critical nations.
China’s Lithium Dominance
In 2020, Australia, Chile, and China collectively made up 88% of global lithium production. After mining, the lithium supply chain involves refining, processing, and packaging the lithium into batteries—and the majority of this occurs in China.
In 2019, China produced 80% of the world’s refined battery chemicals, in addition to 73% of lithium-ion battery cells. What’s more, of the 200 battery megafactories in the pipeline to 2030, 148 are in China. As a result, China is far ahead of other countries in the race for lithium and batteries.
On the other hand, the U.S. is heavily reliant on imports for its supply of lithium, with only one lithium-producing mine in the country. As demand increases, this lack of production could threaten U.S. energy independence in the future. To address this and gaps in the supply of other critical minerals, U.S. President Biden also signed an executive order aiming to build secure supply chains for strategic minerals.
But where is lithium in the United States?
Nevada: The Lithium State
Nevada is known as the Silver State for its rich history of silver mining. Today, it’s the only source of lithium production in the U.S.
Clayton Valley and Kings Valley, two of the country’s largest lithium deposits, are in Nevada. The country’s only producing mine, Albemarle’s Silver Peak Mine, produces around 5,000 tonnes of lithium every year in Clayton Valley. Furthermore, the region is among the world’s richest closed-basin brine deposits based on grade and tonnage.
In addition to a rich lithium deposit, mining companies in Clayton Valley can also reap the advantages of Nevada as a jurisdiction. These include access to infrastructure, a skilled mining workforce, and proximity to a battery manufacturing base with Tesla Gigafactory 1. But that’s not all—in 2020, the Fraser Institute gave Nevada the top spot for mining investment attractiveness globally.
Meeting Lithium Demand for Energy Independence
As countries work to expand EV adoption, critical battery metals like lithium are becoming geopolitically significant, and their supply could redefine energy independence going forward. For this reason, the U.S., EU, and Canada all have lithium on their list of minerals that are critical to national security.
The U.S. needs to build a domestic lithium supply chain from the ground up, and Nevada has the potential to support it with lithium in Clayton Valley. Scotch Creek Ventures is developing two lithium mining projects in Clayton Valley to supply lithium for the green future.
Retirement Spending: How Much Do Americans Plan to Spend Annually?
Retirement expenses can vary significantly from person to person. In this graphic, we show the range of expected retirement spending.
Americans’ Expected Annual Retirement Spending
Planning for retirement can be a daunting task. How much money will you need? What will your retirement spending look like?
It varies from person to person, based on factors like your health, outstanding expenses, and desired lifestyle. One helpful trick is to break it down into how much you estimate you’ll spend each year.
In this graphic from Personal Capital, we show the expected annual retirement spending of Americans. It’s the last in a three-part series that explores Americans’ spending and savings.
The Range of Retirement Spending
To determine how much people expect to spend, we used anonymized data from users of Personal Capital’s retirement planning tool. It’s worth noting that these users are proactive regarding financial planning. They also have a median net worth of $829,000 compared to the $122,000 median net worth of the U.S. population overall.
Here is the range of expected annual retirement spending.
|Expected Annual Retirement Spending||Percent of People|
Users are a mix of single individuals and people in a relationship. In all cases, expected retirement spending is what the household expects to spend annually.
The most commonly-cited expected spending amount is $60,000. Interestingly, this is roughly in line with what Americans spend annually on their credit cards. This suggests that people may be using their current bills to help gauge their future retirement spending.
Median spending, or the middle value when spending is ordered from lowest to highest, falls at $70,000. However, average spending is a fair amount higher at $100,000. This is because the average is calculated by adding up all the expected retirement spending amounts and dividing by the total number of users. Higher expected spending amounts, some in excess of $300,000 per year, skew the average calculation upwards.
Of course, given their higher net worth, it’s perhaps not surprising that many Personal Capital users expect to spend larger amounts in retirement. How does this compare to the general population? According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Americans age 65 and older spend about $48,000 per year on average.
Chances of Retirement Success
Once you’ve determined how much you’ll spend in retirement, your next step may be to wonder if your savings are on track. Based on an assessment of Personal Capital retirement planner users, here is the breakdown of people’s chance of success.
The good news: more than half of people have an 80% or better chance of meeting their retirement spending goals. This means they have sufficient financial assets and are contributing enough, regularly enough, to meet their expected spending amount. The not so good news: one in five people has a less than 50% chance of meeting their goals.
This problem is even more troublesome in the overall U.S. population. Only 50% of people have a retirement account, and the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College estimates half of today’s workers are unprepared for retirement.
Setting Your Own Retirement Spending Goals
While seeing the goals of others is a starting point, your annual retirement spending will be very specific to you. Not sure where to start?
Financial planners typically recommend that you should plan on needing 70-80% of your pre-retirement income in retirement. This is because people generally no longer have certain expenses, such as commuting or childcare costs, when they retire. However, keep in mind your expenses could be higher if you still have a mortgage, encounter unforeseen medical expenses, or want to splurge on things like travel when you retire.
It requires some upfront planning, but being realistic about your retirement spending can give you confidence in your financial future.
Navigating Market Volatility: Why ETFs Are Critical Tools
Historically, the trading volume of ETFs has spiked during market volatility. We explore why ETFs are preferred by institutional investors.
Download the ETF Snapshot for free.
Why ETFs Are Critical Tools During Market Volatility
Investors experienced record-breaking volatility in 2020. During COVID-19 market turbulence, the CBOE Volatility index surpassed the previous peak seen in 2008.
In this infographic from iShares, we explore how ETFs rose in popularity during this time—and the characteristics that make them particularly useful during market volatility. It’s the first in a five-part series covering key insights from the ETF Snapshot, a comprehensive report on how institutional investors manage volatility.
To assess how institutional investors navigated this volatility, Institutional Investor published a report in 2021 based on a survey of 766 decision makers. Respondents were from various types of organizations, firm sizes, and regions.
For instance, here is how responses broke down by location:
- 21% Asia Pacific
- 36% North America
- 29% Europe, Middle East and Africa
- 14% Latin America
Here’s what the survey found.
Rebalancing During Market Volatility
In total, 90% of institutional investors said they rebalanced their portfolios between the first and third quarter of 2020. How did they do it?
Among all financial tools, ETFs were the most popular vehicle for rebalancing. For instance, ETFs were used by 70% of investors globally, compared to the 51% who used mutual funds or derivatives.
The popularity of ETFs was evident in market activity. From January to March 2020, ETFs as a proportion of total equity trading volume increased.
|January 2020||February 2020||March 2020|
|ETF trading volume||$95B||$136B||$240B|
|ETF as % of equity volume||26%||27%||36%|
Based on an average of daily values. Reflects all listed U.S. ETFs across all asset classes.
This trend is true historically as well, as ETF trading volume has typically spiked during periods of volatility.
Want more institutional insights into ETFs?
Download The ETF Snapshot for free.
The Attributes Driving ETF Usage
Why are ETFs preferred by institutional investors? They offer three key characteristics:
- Liquidity: ETFs make it much simpler to buy and sell large portfolios instantly, instead of trading individual securities.
- Transparency: Among multi-asset managers, transparency of holdings is the top reason for using ETFs. A clear holdings breakdown helps these managers achieve exposures to particular asset classes, sectors, and styles.
- Efficiency: ETFs can be traded quickly. They typically also have lower transaction costs relative to the underlying basket of securities.
Based on these key benefits, ETFs were an invaluable tool during extreme market volatility.
ETFs are also poised to help institutional investors navigate the market going forward. Globally, 65% of institutional investors plan to increase their use of ETFs in the future.
In fact, this is already coming to fruition. As of September 2021, the average daily trading volume of ETFs was up more than 5% compared to 2020.
Evidently, ETFs play a critical part in helping institutional investors achieve their goals.
Download the ETF snapshot for free.
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