Visualizing 100 of the World’s Biggest Islands
View the full-size version of the infographic by clicking here.
When you think of an island, the first thing that might come to mind is a small, sunny beach surrounded by warm waters. But did you know that 11% of the world’s population actually calls islands their home?
Today’s data visualization is designed by mapmaker David Garcia, and it ranks the hundred largest islands found around the world by size.
Islands in the Stream
The 100 biggest islands range from the likes of expansive Greenland to independent Guadalcanal, the largest of the Solomon Islands. But look a little closer, and you’ll see just how much the top contender outshines the rest. Greenland is almost three times the size of the second-biggest island of New Guinea, and you could fit over 408 Guadalcanal islands within it.
In the visualization, the islands are also tinted, depending on the climate they come from. Blue islands are from the polar regions, turquoise islands lie in the temperate zones, and green islands represent the lush tropics. Which of these regions hosts the most islands?
|Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland)||Denmark||Europe|
|New Guinea||Papua New Guinea, Indonesia||Oceania|
|Pulau Borneo (Kalimantan)||Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei||Asia|
|Qikiqtaaluk (Baffin Island, Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Kitlineq (Victoria Island)||Canada||North America|
|Great Britain||United Kingdom||Europe|
|Ellesmere (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Te Waipounamu (South Island)||New Zealand||Oceania|
|Te Ika-a-maui (North Island)||New Zealand||Oceania|
|Ireland||Ireland, United Kingdom||Europe|
|Hispaniola||Dominican Republic, Haiti||North America|
|Banks Island||Canada||North America|
|Sri Lanka||Sri Lanka||Asia|
|Tatlurutit (Devon Island, Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego||Panama||South America|
|Shugliaq (Southampton)||Canada||North America|
|Axel Heiberg (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|New Britain||Papua New Guinea||Oceania|
|Prince of Wales (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Kuganajuup Qikiqtanga (Somerset, Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Bathurst (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Prince Patrick||Canada||North America|
|King William (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Yos Sudarso||Papua New Guinea||Oceania|
|Ellef Ringnes (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Bylot (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Hawai'I (Big Island)||United States||North America|
|Cape Breton||Canada||North America|
|Prince Charles||Canada||North America|
|Kodiak (Alaska)||United States||North America|
|Cyprus||Cyprus, United Kingdom||Europe|
|Bougainville||Papua New Guinea||Oceania|
|Puerto Rico||United States||North America|
|Cornwallis (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Latangai (New Ireland)||Papua New Guinea||Oceania|
|Prince of Wales (Alaska)||United States||North America|
|Desolation (Kerguelen)||Antarctic Lands, France||Antarctic|
|Isla Soledad/ East Falkland||Argentina||South America|
|Novaya Sibir (New Siberian)||Russia||Eurasia|
|Coats (Nunavut)||Canada||North America|
|Prince Edward||Canada||North America|
|Chichagof (Alaska)||United States||North America|
It’s the Island Life for Many
North America dominates with 32 islands out of the top 100, but there’s a catch — twelve of them are uninhabitable, thanks to the frigid Arctic temperatures.
Throw the number of people into the mix and the regional overview gets even more interesting. Compared to the rest of the world, Asian islands are teeming with life.
- 28 Asian islands
Total population: 510.4 million
- 14 European islands
Total population: 83.8 million
- 32 North American islands
Total population: 40.7 million
- 12 Oceania islands
Total population: 18.3 million
Taking things a step further, we’ve remixed the visualization based on population density.
Click below to view the full-size version.
The most populated island in the world, Java is filled to the brim with 141 million people — that’s over a thousand people per square kilometer. This is in part thanks to the capital city Jakarta being located on the island, but experts warn those days may be short lived. By 2050, scientific models predict that 95% of the city may be underwater, and that Indonesia must scramble to find a new capital.
To finish, here is the 20 most dense islands on the list, in terms of population density.
|Rank by Density||Island||Countries||Population||Area (km²)||People per km²|
|#9||Puerto Rico||United States||3,195,000||9,104||350.9|
|#11||Sri Lanka||Sri Lanka||21,440,000||65,610||326.8|
|#12||Great Britain||United Kingdom||66,040,000||209,331||315.5|
|#13||Hispaniola||Dominican Republic, Haiti||21,396,000||76,192||280.8|
From Bean to Brew: The Coffee Supply Chain
How does coffee get from a faraway plant to your morning cup? See the great journey of beans through the coffee supply chain.
What Does The Coffee Supply Chain Look Like?
View a more detailed version of the above graphic by clicking here
There’s a good chance your day started with a cappuccino, or a cold brew, and you aren’t alone. In fact, coffee is one of the most consumed drinks on the planet, and it’s also one of the most traded commodities.
According to the National Coffee Association, more than 150 million people drink coffee on a daily basis in the U.S. alone. Globally, consumption is estimated at over 2.25 billion cups per day.
But before it gets to your morning cup, coffee beans travel through a complex global supply chain. Today’s illustration from Dan Zettwoch breaks down this journey into 10 distinct steps.
Coffee From Plant to Factory
There are two types of tropical plants that produce coffee, both preferring high altitudes and with production primarily based in South America, Asia, and Africa.
- Coffea arabica is the more plentiful bean, with a more complex flavor and less caffeine. It’s used in most specialty and “high quality” drinks as Arabica coffee.
- Coffea canephora, meanwhile, has stronger and more bitter flavors. It’s also easier to grow, and is most frequently used in espressos and instant blends as Robusta coffee.
However, both types of beans undergo the same journey:
Plants take anywhere from 4-7 years to produce their first harvest, and grow fruit for around 25 years.
The fruit of the coffea plant is the coffee berry, containing two beans within. Ripened berries are harvested either by hand or machine.
Coffee berries are then processed either in a traditional “dry” method using the sun or “wet” method using water and machinery. This removes the outer fruit encasing the sought-after green beans.
The green coffee beans are hulled, cleaned, sorted, and (optionally) graded.
From Factory to Transport
Once the coffee berry is stripped down to green beans, it’s shipped from producing countries through a global supply network.
Green coffee beans are exported and shipped around the world. In 2018 alone, 7.2 million tonnes of green coffee beans were exported, valued at $19.2 billion.
Arriving primarily in the U.S. and Europe, the beans are now prepared for consumption:
Green beans are industrially roasted, becoming darker, oilier, and tasty. Different temperatures and heat duration impact the final color and flavor, with some preferring light roasts to dark roasts.
Any imperfect or somehow ruined beans are discarded, and the remaining roasted beans are packaged together by type.
Roasted beans are shipped both domestically and internationally. Bulk shipments go to retailers, coffee shops, and in some cases, direct to consumer.
Straight to Your Cup
Roasted coffee beans are almost ready for consumption, and by this stage the remaining steps can happen anywhere.
For example, many factories don’t ship roasted beans until they grind it themselves. Meanwhile, cafes will grind their own beans on-site before preparing drinks. The rapid growth of coffee chains made Starbucks the second-highest-earning U.S. fast food venue.
Regardless of where it happens, the final steps bring coffee straight to your cup:
Roasted beans are ground up in order to better extract their flavors, either by machine or by hand. The preferred fineness depends on the darkness of the roast and the brewing method.
Water is added to the coffee grounds in a variety of methods. Some involve water being passed or pressured through the grounds (espresso, drip) while others mix the water and grounds (French press, Turkish coffee).
Liquid coffee is ready to be enjoyed! One average cup takes 70 roasted beans to make.
The world’s choice of caffeine pick-me-up is made possible by this structured and complex supply chain. Coffee isn’t just a drink, after all, it’s a business.
The Biggest Ammonium Nitrate Explosions Since 2000
Ammonium nitrate is dangerous, and every few years, there’s a new explosion that causes widespread damage. These are some of the biggest ones.
The Biggest Ammonium Nitrate Explosions since 2000
This week, a massive explosion involving ammonium nitrate rocked the city of Beirut, sending shock waves through the media.
This recent tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it’s not the first time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage.
Today’s graphic outlines the biggest accidental ammonium nitrate explosions over the last 20 years.
A Brief Explanation of Ammonium Nitrate
Before getting into the details, first thing’s first—what is ammonium nitrate?
Ammonium nitrate is formed when ammonia gas is combined with liquid nitric acid. The chemical compound is widely used in agriculture as a fertilizer, but it’s also used in mining explosives. It’s highly combustible when combined with oils and other fuels, but not flammable on its own unless exposed to extremely high temperatures.
It’s actually relatively tough for a fire to cause an ammonium nitrate explosion—but that hasn’t stopped it from happening numerous times in the last few decades.
The Death Toll
Some explosions involving ammonium nitrate have been deadlier than others. Here’s a breakdown of the death toll from each blast:
*Note: death count in Beirut as of Aug 6, 2020. Casualty count expected to increase as more information comes available.
One of the deadliest explosions happened in Tianjin, China in 2015. A factory was storing flammable chemicals with ammonium nitrate, and because they weren’t being stored properly, one of the chemicals got too dry and caught fire. The blast killed 165 people and caused $1.1 billion dollars in damage.
In 2001, 14 years before the explosion in Tianjin, a factory exploded in Toulouse, France. The accident killed 30 people and injured 2,500. The power of the blast was equivalent to 20 to 40 tons of TNT, meaning that 40 to 80 tons of ammonium nitrate would have ignited.
In addition to factory explosions, there have been several transportation accidents involving ammonium nitrate. In 2007, a truck in Mexico blew up and killed over 57 people. Filled with explosives, the truck crashed into a pickup, caught fire, and detonated. The blast left a 60-foot long crater in its wake.
While there have been several ammonium nitrate accidents throughout history, the recent tragedy in Beirut is one of the largest accidental explosions ever recorded, with 157 deaths and 5,000 injuries and counting.
In terms of TNT equivalent, a measure used to gauge the impact of an explosion, it ranks in the top 10 of the largest accidental explosions in history:
Topping the list is yet another ammonium nitrate explosion, this time back in 1947.
Known to history as the Texas City Disaster, the port accident was one of the biggest non-nuclear explosions to occur in history. The explosion killed over 500 people and injured thousands. The impact from the blast was so intense, it created a 15-foot wave that crashed along the docks and caused flooding in the area.
A Resource With Trade-Offs
Despite being dangerous, ammonium nitrate is still a valuable resource. There’s been an increased demand for the chemical from North America’s agricultural sector, and because of this, ammonium nitrate’s market size is expected to see an increase of more than 3% by 2026.
Because of its increasing market size, it’s more important than ever for trade industries to enforce proper safety measures when storing and transporting ammonium nitrate. When safety regulations aren’t followed, accidents can happen—and as we saw this week, the aftermath can be devastating.
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