The world is moving to a renewable energy economy.
Solar use is growing at exponential rates, and countries like the U.K., France, and India are planning to ban gas-powered vehicles in the coming years. Even the world’s largest auto market in China is under duress from mounting pollution, and the country has ambitious plans to build up world-class renewable capacity while ditching gas-powered vehicles.
The Energy Storage Question
As the world shifts to renewables, one question remains up in the air: how will we store all this energy?
Today’s infographic comes to us from VanadiumCorp and it highlights vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) – which are a breakthrough that some experts say may be the future of grid-scale energy storage.
Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are fairly unique in the battery world.
They work by taking advantage of the natural properties of vanadium, a metal with four different oxidation states. But rather than using the metal in a solid state, vanadium electrolyte (a liquid solution) is used for both half-cells and the configuration is divided by a proton exchange membrane. Typically, massive tanks filled with vanadium electrolyte are connected, pumping the solution through at high volumes to charge or discharge.
The Benefits of VRFBs
This unique setup gives VRFBs a few interesting advantages for something like grid-scale energy storage:
- Extremely scalable
- Can rapidly release large amounts of energy
- Vanadium electrolyte is reusable, recyclable, and has a battery lifespan of 25+ years
- No cross-contamination of metals, since only one metal (vanadium) is used
- Cycle life is theoretically unlimited
- Can maintain ready state for long periods of time
- Can be charged and discharged at same time
As a result, VRFBs can be used in a variety of energy storage applications such as peak-shaving, load leveling, microgrids, wind and solar, off-grid power supplies, and uninterruptible power supplies.
VRFBs are getting more attention from utilities companies, and large battery projects have already been announced.
The most notable vanadium-flow battery is probably a 200 MW system being built on the Dalian peninsula in China, which will serve 7 million residents. Costing $500 million, it’ll be used to peak-shave approximately 8% of Dalian’s expected load by 2020. This battery system will be the world’s largest, and it will single-handedly triple China’s grid-connected battery storage capacity.
According to Chinese firm Azure International, the market projection for VRFB demand (by MW) in the top 10 countries is growing at an 80% CAGR from 2013 to 2020, ultimately culminating in more than 7,000 MW of vanadium-flow capacity needed in 2020.
This demand could be even more substantial than that if the price of vanadium electrolyte could be reduced – it makes up about 30-50% of the cost of each battery alone.
Prove Your Metal: Top 10 Strongest Metals on Earth
There are 91 elements that are defined as metals but not all are the same. Here is a breakdown of the top 10 strongest metals and their applications.
Prove Your Metal: Top 10 Strongest Metals on Earth
The use of metals and the advancement of human civilization have gone hand in hand — and throughout the ages, each metal has proved its worth based on its properties and applications.
Today’s visualization from Viking Steel Structures outlines the 10 strongest metals on Earth and their applications.
What are Metals?
Metals are solid materials that are typically hard, shiny, malleable, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity. But not all metal is equal, which makes their uses as varied as their individual properties and benefits.
The periodic table below presents a simple view of the relationship between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids, which you can easily identify by color.
While 91 of the 118 elements of the periodic table are considered to be metals, only a few of them stand out as the strongest.
What Makes a Metal Strong?
The strength of a metal depends on four properties:
- Tensile Strength: How well a metal resists being pulled apart
- Compressive Strength: How well a material resists being squashed together
- Yield Strength: How well a rod or beam of a particular metal resists bending and permanent damage
- Impact Strength: The ability to resist shattering upon impact with another object or surface
Here are the top 10 metals based on these properties.
The Top 10 Strongest Metals
|Rank||Type of Metal||Example Use||Atomic Weight||Melting Point|
|#1||Tungsten||Making bullets and missiles||183.84 u||3422°C / 6192 °F|
|#2||Steel||Construction of railroads, roads, other infrastructure and appliances||n/a||1371°C / 2500°F|
|#3||Chromium||Manufacturing stainless steel||51.96 u||1907°C / 3465°F,|
|#4||Titanium||In the aerospace Industry, as a lightweight material with strength||47.87 u||1668°C / 3032°F|
|#5||Iron||Used to make bridges, electricity, pylons, bicycle chains, cutting tools and rifle barrels||55.85 u||1536°C / 2800°F|
|#6||Vanadium||80% of vanadium is alloyed with iron to make steel shock and corrosion resistance||50.942 u||1910°C / 3470°F|
|#7||Lutetium||Used as catalysts in petroleum production.||174.96 u||1663 °C / 3025°F|
|#8||Zirconium||Used in nuclear power stations.||91.22 u||1850°C / 3.362°F|
|#9||Osmium||Added to platinum or indium to make them harder.||190.2 u||3000°C / 5,400°F|
|#10||Tantalum||Used as an alloy due to its high melting point and anti-corrosion.||180.94 u||3,017°C / 5462°F|
Out of the Forge and into Tech: Metals for the Future
While these metals help to forge the modern world, there is a new class of metals that are set to create a new future.
Rare Earth elements (REEs) are a group of metals do not rely on their strength, but instead their importance in applications in new technologies, including those used for green energy.
|Neodymium||Magnets containing neodymium are used in green technologies such as the manufacture of wind turbines and hybrid cars.|
|Lanthanum||Used in catalytic converters in cars, enabling them to run at high temperatures|
|Cerium||This element is used in camera and telescope lenses.|
|Praseodymium||Used to create strong metals for use in aircraft engines.|
|Gadolinium||Used in X-ray and MRI scanning systems, and also in television screens.|
|Yttrium, terbium, europium||Making televisions and computer screens and other devices that have visual displays.|
If the world is going to move towards a more sustainable and efficient future, metals—both tough and smart—are going to be critical. Each one will serve a particular purpose to build the infrastructure and technology for the next generation.
Our ability to deploy technology with the right materials will test the world’s mettle to meet the challenges of tomorrow—so choose wisely.
20 Common Metal Alloys and What They’re Made Of
You can’t find stainless steel, brass, sterling silver, or white gold on the periodic table. Learn about 20 common metal alloys, and what they are made from.
Every day, you’re likely to encounter metals that cannot be found anywhere on the periodic table.
You may play a brass instrument while wearing a white gold necklace – or maybe you cook with a cast iron skillet and store your leftovers in a stainless steel refrigerator.
It’s likely that you know these common metal alloys by name, and you can probably even imagine what they look and feel like. But do you know what base metals these alloys are made of, exactly?
Common Metal Alloys
Today’s infographic comes to us from Alan’s Factory Outlet, and it breaks down metal and non-metal components that go into popular metal alloys.
In total, 20 alloys are highlighted, and they range from household names (i.e. bronze, sterling silver) to lesser-known metals that are crucial for industrial purposes (i.e. solder, gunmetal, magnox).
Humans make metal alloys for various reasons.
Some alloys have long-standing historical significance. For example, electrum is a naturally-occurring alloy of gold and silver (with trace amounts of copper) that was used to make the very first metal coins in ancient history.
However, most of the common metal alloys on the above list are actually human inventions that are used to achieve practical purposes. Some were innovated by brilliant metallurgists, while others were discovered by fluke, but they’ve all had an ongoing impact on our species over time.
Alloys with an Impact
The Bronze Age (3,000 BC – 1,200 BC) is an important historical period that is rightfully named after one game-changing development: the ability to use bronze. This alloy, made from copper and tin, was extremely useful to our ancestors because it is much stronger and harder than its component metals.
Steel is another great example of an alloy that has changed the world. It is one of the most important and widely-used metals today. Without steel, modern civilization (skyscrapers, bridges, etc.) simply wouldn’t be possible.
While nobody knows exactly who invented steel, the alloy has a widely-known cousin that was likely invented in somewhat accidental circumstances.
In 1912, English metallurgist Harry Brearley had been tasked with finding a more erosion-resistant steel for a small arms manufacturer, trying many variations of alloys with none seeming to be suitable. However, in his scrap metal heap – where almost all of the metals he tried were rusting – there was one gun barrel that remained astonishingly untouched.
The metal alloy – now known to the world as stainless steel – was a step forward in creating a corrosion-resistant steel that is now used in many applications ranging from medical uses to heavy industry.
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